BACKGROUND: The prevalence of teenage smoking has decreased over the past decade following the implementation of the national tobacco control programme. However, the effect of the programme on smoking cessation in teenagers has not been determined.
METHODS: Twenty-eight participants (12 teenagers, 8 teachers, and 8 doctors) were interviewed using 5 in-depth interviews and 3 group discussions. Social cognitive theory (SCT) was applied as the theoretical framework. Semi-structured interview protocols were used, and thematic analysis and analytic generalisation utilising SCT were performed.
RESULTS: The current national tobacco control programme was found to be ineffective in promoting smoking cessation among teenagers. The participants attributed the ineffective campaign to the followings: inadequacy of message content, lack of exposure to the programme, and poor presentation and execution. In addition, the participants perceived the developed tobacco control policies to be a failure based on poor law enforcement, failure of retailers to comply with the law, social availability of cigarettes to teenagers, and easy availability of cheap, smuggled cigarettes. This study highlighted that the programme-related problems (environmental factors) were not the only factors contributing to its perceived ineffectiveness. The cunning behaviour of the teenagers (personal factor) and poor self-efficacy to overcome nicotine addiction (behavioural factor) were also found to hinder cessation.
CONCLUSION: Tobacco control programmes should include strategies beyond educating teenagers about smoking and restricting their access to cigarettes. Strategies to manage the cunning behaviour of teenagers and strategies to improve their self-efficacy should also be implemented. These comprehensive programmes should have a foundation in SCT, as this theory demonstrates the complex interactions among the environmental, personal, and behavioural factors that influence teenage smoking.
KEYWORDS: adolescent; health campaigns; qualitative research; tobacco cessation; tobacco smoking
Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and the pattern of hypodontia among orthodontic patients in Klinik Pergigian Jalan Sultan Mahmud, Kuala Terengganu.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective of 351 orthodontic patients record review study was conducted; comprised of 104 males and 247 females. The records were reviewed by trained dental officer between October 2016 and June 2017. The Chi-square and Fisher's Exact Tests were carried out for statistical analysis.
Results: The prevalence of hypodontia was 10.8%. Thirty-eight patients were found to have at least single missing tooth. A significant difference was found between males and females of having hypodontia (p = 0.048). No significant difference was found for hypodontia patients by races (p = 0.829). The maxillary lateral incisor was the most frequently missing tooth followed by mandibular second premolars and mandibular lateral incisors. Hypodontia cases observed tended to be more likely occurred in the upper left arch compared to the lower arch. The majority of hypodontia patients had single missing tooth, but rarely more than 3 missing teeth. Hypodontia patients had mainly Class III malocclusion, however no statistically significant was found (p= 0.081).
Conclusion(s): The prevalence of hypodontia of this study was within the range of what is being reported in the literature and showed gender significant. Hypodontia was mainly involved maxillary lateral incisors; more prevalent in the upper arch; and mostly observed in patients with Class III malocclusion in the study sample. Early detection and accurate diagnosis are essential. Therefore, alternative treatment modalities can be well planned under multidisciplinary team approach in restoring the aesthetic and function.
KEYWORDS: hypodontia, orthodontics, prevalence, retrospective
Non-syndromic tooth agenesis defined as developmental absence of more than one
tooth that appears as independent congenital oral trait. Its prevalence, pattern and distribution
rates vary by populations. The aim of this study was to identify the pattern and distribution of
tooth agenesis in permanent dentition among IIUM dental polyclinic patients. (Copied from article).
Adequate space is required in the interforaminal region for anterior mandibular
surgery, where the anterior loop is located within this region. The aim of this study is to evaluate
the prevalence of the anterior loop (AL) of the inferior alveolar nerve, and to measure its length
and position in patients attending Kulliyyah of Dentistry using cone beam computed tomography
(CBCT). (Copied from article).
Introduction: Water pipe use is becoming increasingly common among Iranian adolescents. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of water pipe use among public high schoolchildren aged 14-17 in Iran.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1st, 2nd and 3rd grade public high schoolchildren in Sanadaj City, capital of Kurdistan province of Iran during the academic year 2012-2013. Cluster sampling was used to select a sample from 8 public high schools. The data were collected using validated self-administrated questionnaire that included questions on water pipe use, socio-demographic characteristics, smoking-related knowledge, attitude toward smoking, normative believes regards perceived prevalence water pipe use among peer and adults, perception of harm, self-esteem and refusal skill. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess predictors of water pipe use.
Results: A total of 1837 students participated in this study. Students’ ages ranged from 14 to 17 years (mean age±15.09; SD±0.82 years). The overall prevalence of ever water pipe use was 36.2% (43.1% in male and 29.2% in female, (p<0.001). Age, gender, living arrangement, pocket money, academic grade, parental history of smoking, attitude, and normative believes regards perceived prevalence water pipe use among peer and adults were predictors of water pipe use among study participants.
Conclusions: The overall prevalence of water pipe is high among high school children in Sanandaj. Age, gender, pocket money, academic grade, parents smoking, attitude toward smoking and normative believes were identified as the most important predictors increasing the risk of water pipe use in the studied students.
Keywords: Water pipe use, Prevalence, Predictors of Water Pipe, High school children
A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in HIV-infected and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated individuals was significantly higher than respective controls. Evidence regarding bone loss within first year of HIV infection or ART initiation was preliminary.
Traditional medicine which includes Islamic faith healing centre is still an important place to seek treatment whether for psychiatric reasons or others. This study aims to determine the prevalence of psychiatric illness among attenders of an Islamic spiritual healing centre and to understand patients’ illness attribution and their religiosity.
Since 1994 to 2009, ascribed by the good coverage of immunization, the incidence of pertussis has been less than 1 in 100,000 populations . Nevertheless, the incidence and prevalence increased tremendously for the past 2 years, i.e. 2014 and 2015.(Copied from article)
Workplace accident is still prevalent in the Malaysian industry sector. Although statistics indicates that the number of
accidents in the workplace is showing signs of decrease over the last five years, there is still room for improvements. According to
report, a majority of the workplace accidents in Malaysia happened in Small and Medium Enterprise (SME). This shows that SME is
still lagging behind in ensuring the safety of their workplace. This can disrupt their business activities as workplace accidents bring
several negative effects. Therefore, this study explores the use of safety training to foster safety behaviour among employees. Surveys
were distributed to employees working in SME, Northern Corridor of Economic Region (NCER). The data was analysed and results
were presented. Suggestions to management in SME are made at the end of the paper.
This study is carried out to establish the prevalence of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD) among
the Malaysian workforce population in order to propose some measures to benefit the people at large. Secondary data
from three studies among drivers, clerical workers using visual display terminals (VDT) and fabrication workers were
used to report the prevalence of MSDs and the associated risk factors. The study identified high prevalence of MSDs in
multiple body regions. The MSD occurrence was also significantly associated with psychosocial factors. There is need
for organisations to consider such factors in work design, which will reduce the high prevalence and high financial
implications associated with MSDs among workers.
Analysis of the nutritional status and its related factors of three different geographic areas was conducted. The areas were Kampong Sungai Gulang-Gulang, a traditional village in Kuala Selangor, vegetable farming area in Kuala Terla, Cameron Highland and housing flats in Kuala Lumpur. Assessment of nutritional status was done using anthropometric, clinical, biochemical, dietary and stool examination. The results show that 13% of the children in traditional village were stunted, 8% were wasted and 17% were underweight. In vegetable farming area the prevalence were 16.5%, 10.2% and 20.2% respectively. The prevalence of anaemia among toddler was 81.0% in traditional village, 77.2% in vegetable farming area and 55.3% in urban flats. Anaemia in the three areas was strongly associated with inadequate intake of iron.
This paper reviews the literature on blood pressure profile and hypertension studies carried out in Peninsular Malaysia from 1952 to 1988. From these studies, the following key information is summarised: 1. Blood pressure profiles of Malaysians, irrespective of sex and the three major ethnic groups viz., Malay, Chinese and Indian followed a similar rising trend with age. 2. The mean systolic and diastolic pressures were 134 mmHg and 84 mmHg respectively across the major ethnic groups. 3. The prevalence of hypertension for Malaysians was 16.0%, 4.2% and 3.4% when 140/90 mmHg, 150/90 mmHg or a diastolic pressure of 100 mmHg or greater were taken as cut-off values respectively. Males generally showed a higher prevalence of hypertension than females. 4. Orang Asli living in the deep jungle had relatively low blood pressures (Mean: 109/70 mmHg) and their blood pressure did not rise with increasing age. 5. There was generally no difference in the prevalence of hypertension amongst the major ethnic groups. However, there was a tendency for the Malays to have a higher prevalence of hypertension than the Chinese or the Indians. 6. There was an increased prevalence of hypertension among subjects who smoked heavily or who did very little or no physical exercise. Differences in prevalence of hypertension among subjects living in changing environment and lifestyle, such as urban versus rural, alcohol versus non-alcohol consumers and low income versus moderate income groups were not evident in the studies reviewed. 7. Percent unawareness of hypertension in hypertension subjects was generally high i.e. 57 % - 69% except in one sample which recorded a moderately value (33%).
The serology result of parasitic infections of 260 foreign workers who were seen at the University of Malaya Medical Center, during 7 months period is reported here. The 260 foreign workers comprised 114 Indonesians, 142 Bangladeshis, 2 Myanmarese and 2 Pakistanis.
BACKGROUND: Data on the prevalence of adverse drug event (ADE)-related emergency department (ED) visits in developing countries are limited. Malaysia is located in South-East Asia, and, to our knowledge, no information exists on ADE-related ED visits.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, preventability, severity, and outcome of drug-related ED visits.
METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted in consenting patients who visited the ED of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia over a 6-week period. The ED physician on duty determined whether or not the visit was drug related according to set criteria. Other relevant information was extracted from the patient's medical folder by a clinical pharmacist.
RESULTS: Of the 434 consenting patients, 133 (30.6 %; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 26-35 %) visits were determined to be ADE related; 55.5 % were considered preventable, 11.3 % possibly preventable, and 33.1 % not preventable. Severity was classed as mild in 1.5 %, moderate in 67.7 %, and severe in 30.8 %. The most common ADEs reported were drug therapeutic failure (55.6 %) and adverse drug reactions (32.3 %). The most frequently implicated drugs were antidiabetics (n = 31; 23.3 %), antihypertensives (n = 28; 21.1 %), antibiotics (n = 13; 9.8 %), and anti-asthmatics (n = 11; 8.3 %). A total of 93 patients (69.9 %) were admitted to the ED for observation, 25 (18.8 %) were discharged immediately after consultation, and 15 (11.3 %) were admitted to the ward through the ED.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of ADE-related ED visits was high; more than one-half of the events were considered preventable and one-third was classed as severe. As such, preventive measures will minimize future occurrences and increase patient safety.
revalence of depression among diabetic patients visiting the
outpatient clinic in Hospital Sik. Sik is one of the many rural
districts in Malaysia and the majority of the residents are Malays.
They mostly work as farmers or rubber tappers. Diabetic patients
with depression were found to be associated with poorer glycemic
control and higher mortality. (Sahota et al., 2008; Bogner et al.,
2007) Thus, screening of diabetic patients for depression is
essential as the prevalence of depression is high.
This is a cross-sectional study with convenient sampling. Beck
depression inventory II (BDI-II) in Malay version was used as a
diagnostic tool for depression and for rating the severity of
depression (Quek et al., 2001; Wan Mahmud et al., 2004). The
study included patients with only diabetes and no other comorbidities. The data collection was carried out from 1 February
2008 till 1 August 2008.
Among 110 subjects who were successfully recruited into the
study, 40% (n = 44) of the participants were male and 60% (n = 66)
were female. The majority of them were more than 40 years old
(88%, n = 97), Malays (96%, n = 106), received higher than primary
education level (89%, n = 98), had been diabetic for 3 years or less
(74%, n = 82), had at least one history of admission due to
uncontrolled diabetes (80%, n = 88) and were on more than one
type of oral hypoglycemic drugs (73%, n = 80). In addition, 47%
(n = 52) of the patients had history of non-adherence to the
diabetic treatment. Prevalence of depression in the study was
22% (n = 24) which means almost one in every 5 patients with
diabetes had depression, with 11% (n = 12) having mild, 7% (n = 8)
having moderate and 4% (n = 4) having severe depression. The
prevalence that was found in this study was almost double the
overall prevalence of psychiatric morbidity (11.2%) in Malaysia
(The Third National Health and Morbidity Survey, NHMS III,
2006) and the overall prevalence of depression among general
population (9.50%) (Riolo et al., 2005). The prevalence was
consistent with the finding from a meta-analysis (20.5% in 20
controlled studies, 29.5% in 22 uncontrolled studies) that was
done by Anderson et al (Anderson et al., 2001). The study by
Gonzalez et al. (2007) showed that depressive diabetic patients
were 2.3 times more likely to miss diabetic medications, but my
study could not duplicate this finding. The usage of subcutaneous
insulin, history of admission to hospital and the time-length on
diabetic treatment did not have significant correlation with the
BDI-II score; it could be due to the small sample of the study.
Despite the small sample, patients who were uneducated or
had an income of less than RM 500 significantly scored higher
mean in BDI-II. (14.17 9.10, p = 0.009; 10.44 8.86, p = 0.008)
I concluded that this finding is consistent with the findings of
other large studies. I would like to suggest that all diabetic patients
are screened for depression.
Study site: diabetic patients visiting the
outpatient clinic in Hospital Sik
BACKGROUND: There is sufficient evidence to conclude that tobacco smoking is strongly linked to tuberculosis (TB) and a large proportion of TB patients may be active smokers. In addition, a previous analysis has suggested that a considerable proportion of the global burden of TB may be attributable to smoking. However, there is paucity of information on the prevalence of tobacco smoking among TB patients in Malaysia. Moreover, the tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of TB patients who are smokers have not been previously explored. This study aimed to document the prevalence of smoking among newly diagnosed TB patients and to learn about the tobacco use knowledge and attitudes of those who are smokers among this population.
METHODS: Data were generated on prevalence rates of smoking among newly diagnosed TB patients in the State of Penang from January 2008 to December 2008. The data were obtained based on a review of routinely collated data from the quarterly report on TB case registration. The study setting comprised of five healthcare facilities (TB clinics) located within Penang and Wilayah Persekutuan, Kuala Lumpur health districts in Malaysia, which were involved in a larger project, known as SCIDOTS Project. A 58-item questionnaire was used to assess the tobacco use knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of those TB patients who were smokers.
RESULTS: Smoking status was determinant in 817 of 943 new cases of TB from January to December 2008. Of this, it was estimated that the prevalence rates of current- and ex-smoking among the TB patients were 40.27% (329/817) and 13.95% (114/817), respectively. The prevalence of ever-smoking among patients with TB was estimated to be 54,220 per 100,000 population. Of 120 eligible participants for the SCIDOTS Project, 88 responded to the survey (73.3% response rate) and 80 surveys were analyzed (66.7% usable rate). The mean (+/- SD) total score of tobacco use knowledge items was 4.23 +/- 2.66 (maximum possible score=11). More than half of the participants (51.3%) were moderately dependent to nicotine. A moderately large proportion of the respondents (41.2%) reported that they have ever attempted to quit smoking, while more than half (56.3%) have not. Less than half (47.5%) of the study participants had knowledge about the body system on which cigarette smoking has the greatest negative effect. The majority wrongly believed that smokeless tobacco can increase athletic performance (60%) and that it is a safe and harmless product (46.2%). An overwhelming proportion (>80%) of the patients believed that: smoking is a waste of money, tobacco use is very dangerous to health, and that smokers are more likely to die from heart disease when compared with non-smokers. The use of smokeless tobacco was moderately prevalent among the participants with 28.8% reporting ever snuffed, but the use of cigar and pipe was uncommon.
CONCLUSION: Smoking prevalence rate is high among patients with TB in Malaysia. These patients generally had deficiencies in knowledge of tobacco use and its health dangers, but had positive attitudes against tobacco use. Efforts should be geared towards reducing tobacco use among this population due to its negative impact on TB treatment outcomes.