Displaying publications 81 - 100 of 178 in total

  1. Lam SS, Foong SY, Lee BHK, Low F, Alstrup AKO, Ok YS, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2021 Jul 01;776:146003.
    PMID: 33647650 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146003
    Global warming is reducing the Arctic sea-ice and causing energetic stress to marine key predatory species such as polar bears and narwhals contributing to the ongoing pollution already threatening the biodiversity and indigenous people of the vulnerable region. Now, the opening of the Arctic gateway and in particular the increase in shipping activities causes further stress to marine mammals in the region. These shipping activities are foreseen to happen in the Northwest and Northeast Passage, Northern Sea Route and Transpolar Sea Route in the Arctic Ocean, which could be yet another step towards a crucial tipping point destabilizing global climate, including weathering systems and sea-level rise. This calls for international governance through the establishment of Arctic International National Parks and more Marine Protected Areas through the Arctic Council and UN's Law of the Sea to ensure sustainable use of the Arctic Ocean and adjacent waters.
  2. Ali SM, Malik F, Anjum MS, Siddiqui GF, Anwar MN, Lam SS, et al.
    Environ Res, 2021 02;193:110421.
    PMID: 33160973 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.110421
    A pneumonia-like disease of unknown origin caused a catastrophe in Wuhan city, China. This disease spread to 215 countries affecting a wide range of people. World health organization (WHO) called it a pandemic and it was officially named as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona virus 2 (SARS CoV-2), also known as Corona virus disease (COVID-19). This pandemic compelled countries to enforce a socio-economic lockdown to prevent its widespread. This paper focuses on how the particulate matter pollution was reduced during the lockdown period (23 March to April 15, 2020) as compared to before lockdown. Both ground-based and satellite observations were used to identify the improvement in air quality of Pakistan with primary focus on four major cities of Lahore, Islamabad, Karachi and Peshawar. Both datasets have shown a substantial reduction in PM2.5 pollution levels (ranging from 13% to 33% in case of satellite observations, while 23%-58% in ground-based observations) across Pakistan. Result shows a higher rate of COVID-19 spread in major cities of Pakistan with poor air quality conditions. Yet more research is needed in order to establish linkage between COVID-19 spread and air pollution. However, it can be partially attributed to both higher rate of population density and frequent exposure of population to enhanced levels of PM2.5 concentrations before lockdown period.
  3. Sheng Y, Lam SS, Wu Y, Ge S, Wu J, Cai L, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2021 Mar;324:124631.
    PMID: 33454445 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2020.124631
    The demands of energy sustainability drive efforts to bio-chemical conversion of biomass into biofuels through pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. Pretreatment leads to significant structural changes of the complex lignin polymer that affect yield and productivity of the enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass. Structural changes of lignin after pretreatment include functional groups, inter unit linkages and compositions. These changes influence non-productive adsorption of enzyme on lignin through hydrophobic interaction and electrostatic interaction as well as hydrogen bonding. This paper reviews the relationships between structural changes of lignin and enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass. The formation of pseudo-lignin during dilute acid pretreatment is revealed, and their negative effect on enzymatic hydrolysis is discussed.
  4. Chen CY, Kuo EW, Nagarajan D, Dong CD, Lee DJ, Varjani S, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2021 Jan 28;326:124773.
    PMID: 33548816 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2021.124773
    In this study, process optimization for the microalgae-based piggery wastewater treatment was carried out by growing Chlorella sorokiniana AK-1 on untreated piggery wastewater with efficient COD/BOD/TN/TP removal and high biomass/protein productivities. Integration of the immobilization carriers (sponge, activated carbon) and semi-batch cultivation resulted in the effective treatment of raw untreated piggery wastewater. With 100% wastewater, 0.2% sponge and 2% activated carbon, the semi-batch cultivation (90% media replacement every 6 days) exhibited a COD, BOD, TN and TP removal efficiency of 95.7%, 99.0%, 94.1% and 96.9%, respectively. The maximal protein content, protein productivity, lutein content, and lutein productivity of the obtained microalgal biomass was 61.1%, 0.48 g/L/d, 4.56 mg/g, and 3.56 mg/L/d, respectively. The characteristics of the treated effluent satisfied Taiwan Piggery Wastewater Discharge Standards (COD 
  5. Yang Y, Liew RK, Tamothran AM, Foong SY, Yek PNY, Chia PW, et al.
    Environ Chem Lett, 2021 Jan 13.
    PMID: 33462541 DOI: 10.1007/s10311-020-01177-5
    Dwindling fossil fuels and improper waste management are major challenges in the context of increasing population and industrialization, calling for new waste-to-energy sources. For instance, refuse-derived fuels can be produced from transformation of municipal solid waste, which is forecasted to reach 2.6 billion metric tonnes in 2030. Gasification is a thermal-induced chemical reaction that produces gaseous fuel such as hydrogen and syngas. Here, we review refuse-derived fuel gasification with focus on practices in various countries, recent progress in gasification, gasification modelling and economic analysis. We found that some countries that replace coal by refuse-derived fuel reduce CO2 emission by 40%, and decrease the amount municipal solid waste being sent to landfill by more than 50%. The production cost of energy via refuse-derived fuel gasification is estimated at 0.05 USD/kWh. Co-gasification by using two feedstocks appears more beneficial over conventional gasification in terms of minimum tar formation and improved process efficiency.
  6. Yan L, Le QV, Sonne C, Yang Y, Yang H, Gu H, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2021 04 05;407:124771.
    PMID: 33388721 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124771
    Soil and water contaminated with radionuclides threaten the environment and public health during leaks from nuclear power plants. Remediation of radionuclides at the contaminated sites uses mainly physical and chemical methods such as vitrification, chemical immobilization, electro-kinetic remediation and soil excavation, capping and washing being among the preferred methods. These traditional technologies are however costly and less suitable for dealing with large-area pollution. In contrast to this, cost-effective and environment-friendly alternatives such as phytoremediation using plants to remove radionuclides from polluted sites in situ represent promising alternatives for environmental cleanup. Understanding the physiology and molecular mechanisms of radionuclides accumulation in plants is essential to optimize and improve this new remediation technology. Here, we give an overview of radionuclide contamination in the environment and biochemical characteristics for uptake, transport, and compartmentation of radionuclides in plants that characterize phytoextraction and its efficiency. Phytoextraction is an eco-friendly and efficient method for environmental removal of radionuclides at contaminated sites such as mine tailings. Selecting the most proper plant for the specific purpose, however, is important to obtain the best result together with, for example, applying soil amendments such as citric acid. In addition, using genetic engineering and optimizing agronomic management practices including regulation of atmospheric CO2 concentration, reasonable measures of fertilization and rational water management are important as well. For future application, the technique needs commercialization in order to fully exploit the technique at mining activities and nuclear industries.
  7. Sarlaki E, Kermani AM, Kianmehr MH, Asefpour Vakilian K, Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha H, Ma NL, et al.
    Environ Pollut, 2021 Sep 15;285:117412.
    PMID: 34051566 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117412
    The use of agro-biowaste compost fertilizers in agriculture is beneficial from technical, financial, and environmental perspectives. Nevertheless, the physical, mechanical, and agronomical attributes of agro-biowaste compost fertilizers should be engineered to reduce their storage, handling, and utilization costs and environmental impacts. Pelletizing and drying are promising techniques to achieve these goals. In the present work, the effects of process parameters, including compost particle size/moisture content, pelletizing compression ratio, and drying air temperature/velocity, were investigated on the density, specific crushing energy, and moisture diffusion of agro-biowaste compost pellet. The Taguchi technique was applied to understand the effects of independent parameters on the output responses, while the optimal pellet properties were found using the iterative thresholding method. The soil and plant (sweet basil) response to the optimal biocompost pellet was experimentally evaluated. The farm application of the optimal pellet was also compared with the untreated agro-biowaste compost using the life cycle assessment approach to investigate the potential environmental impact mitigation of the pelletizing and drying processes. Generally, the compost moisture content was the most influential factor on the density and specific crushing energy of the dried pellet, while the moisture diffusion of the wet pellet during the drying process was significantly influenced by the pelletizing compression ratio. The density, specific crushing energy, and moisture diffusion of agro-biowaste compost pellet at the optimal conditions were 1242.49 kg/m3, 0.5054 MJ/t, and 8.2 × 10-8 m2/s, respectively. The optimal biocompost pellet could release 80% of its nitrogen content evenly over 98 days, while this value was 28 days for the chemical urea fertilizer. Besides, the optimal pellet could significantly improve the agronomical attributes of the sweet basil plant compared with the untreated biocompost. The applied strategy could collectively mitigate the weighted environmental impact of farm application of the agro-biowaste compost by more than 63%. This reduction could be attributed to the fact that the pelletizing-drying processes could avoid methane emissions from the untreated agro-biowaste compost during the farm application. Overall, pelletizing-drying of the agro-biowaste compost could be regarded as a promising strategy to improve the environmental and agronomical performance of farm application of organic biofertilizers.
  8. Lim LS, Tan KS, Fu MY, Au HL, Ebi I, Mohamad Lal MT, et al.
    Environ Res, 2021 07;198:110472.
    PMID: 33189743 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.110472
    The Bokashi leachate (BL) is a by-product from the anaerobic digestion of food waste, following the Bokashi composting method. Bokashi leachate is acidic and it contains effective microorganisms hence it has potential to be a functional feed additive to the plant proteins based diets for fish farming. This study evaluated the growth performance and feed utilization of the red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) fingerlings fed with the BL supplemented soybean meal (SBM) based diets. After an 8-week feeding trial, fish fed with the 5% BL supplemented SBM diet attained the highest weight gain. This result was significantly higher (p  0.05) to those fed with the control full fish meal (FM) diet. Generally, dietary inclusion of BL enhanced the fish feed intake on the SBM diet but it did not show clear sign of improvement in their feed utilization. In addition, no significant difference was found across the hepatosomatic index and viscerosomatic index from all dietary treatments. These outcomes concluded that dietary inclusion of BL can enhance the feed intake and growth performance of the red tilapia fingerlings fed with the SBM based diet without compromising their health, and the optimum BL inclusion level was 5%. Nevertheless, further study on the properties and substances content of the BL produced from different types and ratios of food waste is strongly recommended. In this study, BL was also discovered to be capable of reducing the crude fiber content in the SBM diets. Such observation deserves a further exploitation on the application of BL to manipulate the crude fiber content in the plant proteins based diets in fish farming.
  9. Gao M, Lin Y, Wang P, Jin Y, Wang Q, Ma H, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2021 Sep 05;417:126037.
    PMID: 33992013 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126037
    Chinese liquor distillers' grain (CLDG) is an abundant industrial organic waste showing high potential as feedstock for biofuel conversion. In this study, CLDG was used as substrate by microbial community in pit mud to produce medium-chain fatty acids (especially caproate). Simulated and real fermentation were used to evaluate the effect of ethanol and lactic acid being the electronic donors (EDs) during the anaerobic chain elongation (CE). The caproate concentration was achieved at 449 mg COD/g VS, with the corresponding high carbon selectivity at 37.1%. Microbial analysis revealed that the domestication of pit mud increased the abundance of Caproiciproducens (converting lactic acid into caproate) and Lactobacillus (producing lactic acid), leading to enhanced caproate production. The lactic acid conversion facilitated in full utilization of ethanol through CE consumption. The coexistence of EDs benefited the CE system and that this green energy production can be a promising high-performance biofuel donor for sustainable industrial production development.
  10. Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha H, Nazemi F, Khounani Z, Ghanavati H, Shafiei M, Karimi K, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2021 Aug 21;802:149842.
    PMID: 34455274 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149842
    Global environmental awareness has encouraged further research towards biofuel production and consumption. Despite the favorable properties of biofuels, the sustainability of their conventional production pathways from agricultural feedstocks has been questioned. Therefore, the use of non-food feedstocks as a promising approach to ensure sustainable biofuel production is encouraged. However, the use of synthetic solvents/chemicals and energy carriers during biofuel production and the consequent adverse environmental effects are still challenging. On the other hand, biofuel production is also associated with generating large volumes of waste and wastewater. Accordingly, the circular bioeconomy as an innovative approach to ensure complete valorization of feedstocks and generated waste streams under the biorefinery scheme is proposed. In line with that, the current study aims to assess the environmental sustainability of bioethanol production in a safflower-based biorefinery using the life cycle assessment framework. Based on the obtained results, safflower production and its processing into 1 MJ bioethanol under the safflower-based biorefinery led to damage of 2.23E-07 disability-adjusted life years (DALY), 2.35E-02 potentially disappeared fraction (PDF)*m2*yr, 4.76E-01 kg CO2 eq., and 3.82 MJ primary on the human health, ecosystem quality, climate change, and resources, respectively. Moreover, it was revealed that despite adverse environmental effects associated with safflower production and processing, the substitution of conventional products, i.e., products that are the typical products in the market without having environmental criteria, with their bio-counterparts, i.e., products produced in the biorefinery based on environmental criteria could overshadow the unfavorable effects and substantially enhance the overall sustainability of the biorefinery system. The developed safflower-based biorefinery led to seven- and two-time reduction in damage to the ecosystem quality and resources damage categories, respectively. The reductions in damage to human health and climate change were also found to be 52% and 24%, respectively. The weighted environmental impacts of the safflower-based biorefinery decreased by 64% due to the production of bioproducts, mainly biodiesel and biogas, replacing their fossil-based counterparts, i.e., diesel and natural gas, respectively. Finally, although the main focus of the developed safflower-based biorefinery was biofuel production, waste valorization and mainly animal feed played a significant role in improving the associated environmental impacts.
  11. Yan S, Ren T, Wan Mahari WA, Feng H, Xu C, Yun F, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2021 Aug 24;802:149835.
    PMID: 34461468 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149835
    Soil carbon supplementation is known to stimulate plant growth by improving soil fertility and plant nutrient uptake. However, the underlying process and chemical mechanism that could explain the interrelationship between soil carbon supplementation, soil micro-ecology, and the growth and quality of plant remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the influence and mechanism of soil carbon supplementation on the bacterial community, chemical cycling, mineral nutrition absorption, growth and properties of tobacco leaves. The soil carbon supplementation increased amino acid, carbohydrates, chemical energy metabolism, and bacterial richness in the soil. This led to increased content of sugar (23.75%), starch (13.25%), and chlorophyll (10.56%) in tobacco leaves. Linear discriminant analysis revealed 49 key phylotypes and significant increment of some of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) genera (Bacillus, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas) in the rhizosphere, which can influence the tobacco growth. Partial Least Squares Path Modeling (PLS-PM) showed that soil carbon supplementation positively affected the sugar and starch contents in tobacco leaves by possibly altering the photosynthesis pathway towards increasing the aroma of the leaves, thus contributing to enhanced tobacco flavor. These findings are useful for understanding the influence of soil carbon supplementation on bacterial community for improving the yields and quality of tobacco in industrial plantation.
  12. Amid S, Aghbashlo M, Peng W, Hajiahmad A, Najafi B, Ghaziaskar HS, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2021 Oct 20;792:148435.
    PMID: 34147796 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148435
    A diesel engine running on diesel/biodiesel mixtures containing ethylene glycol diacetate (EGDA) was investigated from the exergoeconomic and exergoenvironmental viewpoints. Biodiesel was mixed with petrodiesel at 5% and 20% volume ratios, and the resultant mixtures were then doped with EGDA at 1-3% volume ratios. The exergetic sustainability indicators of the engine operating on the prepared fuel formulations were determined at varying engine loads. The indicators were selected to support decision-making on fuel composition and engine load following thermodynamic, economic, and environmental considerations. The engine load markedly affected all the studied exergetic parameters. The highest engine exergetic efficiency (39.5%) was obtained for petrodiesel doped with 1 v/v% EGDA at the engine load of 50%. The minimum value of the unit cost of brake power exergy (49.6 US$/GJ) was found for straight petrodiesel at full-load conditions, while the minimum value of the unit environmental impact of brake power exergy (29.9 mPts/GJ) was observed for petrodiesel mixed with 5 v/v% biodiesel at the engine load of 75%. Overall, adding EGDA to fuel mixtures did not favorably influence the outcomes of both exergetic methods due to its energy-intensive and cost-prohibitive production process. In conclusion, although petrodiesel fuel improvers such EGDA used in the present study could properly mitigate pollutant emissions, the adverse effects of such additives on thermodynamic parameters of diesel engines, particularly on exergoeconomic and exergoenvironmental indices, need to be taken into account, and necessary optimizations should be made before their real-world application.
  13. Lam SS, Wan Mahari WA, Ma NL, Azwar E, Kwon EE, Peng W, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2019 Sep;230:294-302.
    PMID: 31108440 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.05.054
    Used baby diaper consists of a combination of decomposable cellulose, non-biodegradable plastic materials (e.g. polyolefins) and super-absorbent polymer materials, thus making it difficult to be sorted and separated for recycling. Microwave pyrolysis was examined for its potential as an approach to transform used baby diapers into value-added products. Influence of the key operating parameters comprising process temperature and microwave power were investigated. The pyrolysis showed a rapid heating process (up to 43 °C/min of heating rate) and quick reaction time (20-40 min) in valorizing the used diapers to generate pyrolysis products comprising up to 43 wt% production of liquid oil, 29 wt% gases and 28 wt% char product. Microwave power and operating temperature were observed to have impacts on the heating rate, process time, production and characteristics of the liquid oil and solid char. The liquid oil contained alkanes, alkenes and esters that can potentially be used as chemical additives, cosmetic products and fuel. The solid char contained high carbon, low nitrogen and free of sulphur, thus showing potential for use as adsorbents and soil additives. These observations demonstrate that microwave pyrolysis has great prospect in transforming used baby diaper into liquid oil and char products that can be utilised in several applications.
  14. Lee HW, Farooq A, Jang SH, Kwon EE, Jae J, Lam SS, et al.
    Environ Res, 2020 May;184:109311.
    PMID: 32145550 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109311
    Catalytic co-pyrolysis (CCP) of spent coffee ground (SCG) and cellulose over HZSM-5 and HY was characterized thermogravimetrically, and a catalytic pyrolysis of two samples was conducted using a tandem micro reactor that directly connected with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. To access the more fundamental investigations on CCP, the effects of the zeolite pore structure, reaction temperature, in-situ/ex-situ reaction mode, catalyst to feedstock ratio, and the SCG and cellulose mixing ratio were experimentally evaluated. The temperature showing the highest thermal degradation rate of cellulose with SCG slightly delayed due to the interactions during the thermolysis of two samples. HZSM-5 in reference to HY produced more aromatic hydrocarbons from CCP. With respect to the reaction temperature, the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons increased with the pyrolytic temperature. Moreover, the in-situ/ex-situ reaction mode, catalyst/feedstock, and cellulose/SCG ratio were optimized to improve the aromatic hydrocarbon yield.
  15. Yek PNY, Liew RK, Osman MS, Lee CL, Chuah JH, Park YK, et al.
    J Environ Manage, 2019 Apr 15;236:245-253.
    PMID: 30735943 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.01.010
    Microwave-steam activation (MSA), an innovative pyrolysis approach combining the use of microwave heating and steam activation, was investigated for its potential production of high grade activated carbon (AC) from waste palm shell (WPS) for methylene blue removal. MSA was performed via pyrolytic carbonization of WPS to produce biochar as the first step followed by steam activation of the biochar using microwave heating to form AC. Optimum yield and adsorption efficiency of methylene blue were obtained using response surface methodology involving several key process parameters. The resulting AC was characterized for its porous characteristics, surface morphology, proximate analysis and elemental compositions. MSA provided a high activation temperature above 500 °C with short process time of 15 min and rapid heating rate (≤150 °C/min). The results from optimization showed that one gram of AC produced from steam activation under 10 min of microwave heating at 550 °C can remove up to 38.5 mg of methylene blue. The AC showed a high and uniform surface porosity consisting high fixed carbon (73 wt%), micropore and BET surface area of 763.1 and 570.8 m2/g respectively, hence suggesting the great potential of MSA as a promising approach to produce high grade adsorbent for dye removal.
  16. Mohd Ali MA, Gimbun J, Lau KL, Cheng CK, Vo DN, Lam SS, et al.
    Environ Res, 2020 06;185:109452.
    PMID: 32259725 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109452
    A synergistic effect of the activated limestone-based catalyst (LBC) and microwave irradiation on the transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO) was screened using a two-level factorial design and response surface methodology. The catalyst was prepared using a wet-impregnation method and was characterised for its surface element, surface morphology, surface area and porosity. The reaction was performed in a purpose-built continuous microwave assisted reactor (CMAR), while the conversion and yield of biodiesel were measured using a gas chromatography. The results showed that the catalyst loading, methanol to oil molar ratio and the reaction time significantly affect the WCO conversion. The optimum conversion of oil to biodiesel up to 96.65% was achieved at catalyst loading of 5.47 wt%, methanol to oil molar ratio of 12.21:1 and the reaction time of 55.26 min. The application of CMAR in this work reduced the transesterification time by about 77% compared to the reaction time needed for a conventional reactor. The biodiesel produced in this work met the specification of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751). Engine test results shows the biodiesel has a lower NOx and particulate matters emissions compared to petrodiesel.
  17. Foong SY, Liew RK, Lee CL, Tan WP, Peng W, Sonne C, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2022 01 05;421:126774.
    PMID: 34364214 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126774
    Waste furniture boards (WFBs) contain hazardous formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds when left unmanaged or improperly disposed through landfilling and open burning. In this study, pyrolysis was examined as a disposal and recovery approach to convert three types of WFBs (i.e., particleboard, plywood, and fiberboard) into value-added chemicals using thermogravimetric analysis coupled with Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (TG-FTIR) and pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). TG-FTIR analysis shows that pyrolysis performed at an optimum temperature of 250-550 °C produced volatile products mainly consisting of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and light hydrocarbons, such as methane. Py-GC/MS shows that pyrolysis at different final temperatures and heating rates recovered mainly phenols (25.9-54.7%) for potential use as additives in gasoline, colorants, and food. The calorific value of WFBs ranged from 16 to 18 MJ/kg but the WFBs showed high H/C (1.7-1.8) and O/C (0.8-1.0) ratios that provide low chemical energy during combustion. This result indicates that WFBs are not recommended to be burned directly as fuel, however, they can be pyrolyzed and converted into solid pyrolytic products such as biochar with improved properties for fuel application. Hazardous components, such as cyclopropylmethanol, were removed and converted into value-added compounds, such as 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-d-glucopyranose, for use in pharmaceuticals. These results show that the pyrolysis of WFBs at high temperature and low heating rate is a promising feature to produce value-added chemicals and reduce the formation of harmful chemical species. Thus, the release of hazardous formaldehyde and greenhouse gases into the environment is redirected.
  18. Tramice A, Trifuoggi M, Ahmad MF, Lam SS, Iodice C, Velotto G, et al.
    Foods, 2021 Oct 14;10(10).
    PMID: 34681503 DOI: 10.3390/foods10102456
    The aim of this study was to compare the relative nutritional benefit of edible Malaysian fishes from the coast of Terengganu in Malaysia, as well as to perform a taxonomical characterization and metal assessment. Discrimination between species was carried out by a morphological and molecular approach by evaluating the total concentrations of metals by ICP-MS analyses and the fatty acids (FA) composition using the GC-MS approach on the fish fillet tissues. The taxonomical studies detected fishes of 11 families and 13 species. The heavy metal assessment showed that all detected elements did not exceed the regulatory limit stated by Malaysian Food Regulations. The proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA) ranged from 33 to 58.34%, followed by the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) values from 24 to 51.8%, and the lowest proportion was of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), ranging from 12.7 to 35.9%. The ω-3/ω-6 PUFA and PUFA/SFA ratios were determined in the range 1.1 to 7.4 and 0.35 to 1.6, respectively. The C20:5 ω-3 and C22:6 ω-3 acids were detected at levels comparable to those found in the corresponding species from similar tropical marine ecosystems. The high FA values can be useful biochemical tools for comparing the relative nutritional benefits of these biodiverse and non-toxic edible Malaysian fishes.
  19. Wan Mahari WA, Awang S, Zahariman NAZ, Peng W, Man M, Park YK, et al.
    J Hazard Mater, 2022 Feb 05;423(Pt A):127096.
    PMID: 34523477 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127096
    Microwave co-pyrolysis was examined as an approach for simultaneous reduction and treatment of environmentally hazardous hospital plastic waste (HPW), lignocellulosic (palm kernel shell, PKS) and triglycerides (waste vegetable oil, WVO) biowaste as co-feedstock. The co-pyrolysis demonstrated faster heating rate (16-43 °C/min) compared to microwave pyrolysis of single feedstock (9-17 °C/min). Microwave co-pyrolysis of HPW/WVO performed at 1:1 ratio produced a higher yield (80.5 wt%) of hydrocarbon liquid fuel compared to HPW/PKS (78.2 wt%). The liquid oil possessed a low nitrogen content (< 4 wt%) and free of sulfur that could reduce the release of hazardous pollutants during its use as fuel in combustion. In particular, the liquid oil obtained from co-pyrolysis of HPW/WVO has low oxygenated compounds (< 16%) leading to reduction in generation of potentially hazardous sludge or problematic acidic tar during oil storage. Insignificant amount of benzene derivatives (< 1%) was also found in the liquid oil, indicating the desirable feature of this pyrolysis approach to suppress the formation of toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Microwave co-pyrolysis of HPW/WVO improved the yield and properties of liquid oil for potential use as a cleaner fuel, whereas the liquid oil from co-pyrolysis of HPW/PKS is applicable in the synthesis of phenolic resin.
  20. Wu Y, Liang Y, Mei C, Cai L, Nadda A, Le QV, et al.
    Chemosphere, 2022 Jan;286(Pt 3):131891.
    PMID: 34416587 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131891
    Nanocellulose based gas barrier materials have become an increasingly important subject, since it is a widespread environmentally friendly natural polymer. Previous studies have shown that super-high gas barrier can be achieved with pure and hierarchical nanocellulose films fabricated through simple suspension or layer-by-layer technique either by itself or incorporating with other polymers or nanoparticles. Improved gas barrier properties were observed for nanocellulose-reinforced composites, where nanocellulose partially impermeable nanoparticles decreased gas permeability effectively. However, for nanocellulose-based materials, the higher gas barrier performance is jeopardized by water absorption and shape deformation under high humidity conditions which is a challenge for maintaining properties in material applications. Thus, numerous investigations have been done to solve the problem of water absorption in nanocellulose-based materials. In this literature review, gas barrier properties of pure, layer-by-layer and composite nanocellulose films are investigated. The possible theoretical gas barrier mechanisms are described, and the prospects for nanocellulose-based materials are discussed.
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