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  1. Avicor SW, Wajidi M FF, Jaal Z
    Trop Biomed, 2015 Jun;32(2):386-9.
    PMID: 26691267 MyJurnal
    Residents in irrigated urban agricultural sites face numerous mosquito problems such as increased mosquito populations and reduced insecticides susceptibility due to the creation of mosquito breeding sites and agricultural use of insecticides and hence require effective protective products against them. In this study, the protection effectiveness of three pyrethroid formulated mosquito coils of Malaysian origin against Anopheles gambiae sensu lato from an irrigated urban agricultural site in Ghana were evaluated for their potential use. Sucrose fed An. gambiae s.l. were exposed to insecticide-containing coils in a 70 cm x 70 cm x 70 cm glass chamber to assess the insecticidal effect of the coils. The 0.005% metofluthrin coil caused the most rapid knockdown of 50% of the test mosquitoes. The mean lethal effect of the coils on An. gambiae s.l. were as follows; 0.005% metofluthrin (86%), 0.3% d-allethrin (74.33%), 0.15% d-trans allethrin (72%) and the 0.25% d-allethrin reference coil (69%). The 0.005% metofluthrin coil achieved the highest insecticidal effect on An. gambiae s.l. compared to the other coils and hence performed better than the others as an anti-mosquito product. All the three test coils were effective against An. gambaie s.l. from the irrigated agricultural site compared to the reference coil.
  2. El-Garj FMA, Wajidi MFF, Avicor SW
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2016 10;9(10):973-978.
    PMID: 27794391 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.07.024
    OBJECTIVE: To clone cytochrome P450 from Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and determine the characteristics using bioinformatics tools.

    METHODS: Cytochrome P450 of Ae. aegypti was amplified using polymerase chain reaction, cloned and sequenced. Evolutionary relationship of the sequence was inferred and bioinformatics tools were used to predict subcellular localisation, signal peptide, transmembrane helix, phosphorylation, O-glycosylation, secondary and tertiary structures of the deduced protein.

    RESULTS: Polymerase chain reaction rather amplified a cytochrome P450 pseudogene which was named CYP4H44P (GenBank accession number KF779932). The pseudogene has 1537 nucleotides and an open reading frame of 335 amino acids containing cytochrome P450 motifs except the WxxxR motif. It is highly homologous to CYP4H28 and CYP4H28v2. Phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary divergence showed strong clustering with CYP4H28 alleles and least divergence from the alleles respectively. The deduced protein was predicted to be found in the cytoplasm and likely to be phosphorylated but devoid of signal peptide, transmembrane helix and O-glycosylated sites. The secondary and tertiary structures were also generated.

    CONCLUSIONS: A cytochrome P450 pseudogene, CYP4H44P was cloned from Ae. aegypti. The pseudogene is homologous with CYP4H28 alleles and seems to have recently diverged from this group. Isolating this pseudogene is an important step for evaluating its biological role in the mosquito and for the evolutionary analysis of Ae. aegypti CYPs.

  3. Avicor SW, Wajidi MFF, Owusu EO
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2017 Sep;24(26):21138-21145.
    PMID: 28730366 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-9737-3
    Although evidence of mosquito coils' impact on disease epidemiology is limited, they are popularized as mosquito-borne disease prevention devices. Their usage affects the environment, human and mosquito health. This study investigated the perception, usage pattern and efficacy of coils in a predominantly poor malaria-endemic Ghanaian peri-urban area. Information on protection methods, perception and usage pattern was garnered using questionnaires. The efficacy of commonly used coils in the area was then assessed on the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, in a glass chamber. Sole or co-application of mosquito control methods and risky usage practices were reported. Coils were deemed harmful to humans and mosquitoes, and their perceived effectiveness varied, with several factors influencing their purchase. High d-allethrin concentration coils induced quicker mosquito knockdown; however, mortality was less than 85%. The coil usage pattern compromises users' health and can enhance mosquito tolerance to d-allethrin. The coils were ineffective against the vector, outlining a dichotomy between the users' perception of efficacy and the observed efficacy. Hence, the usage of other safer and more effective vector control methods should be encouraged to protect households.
  4. Avicor SW, Wajidi MF, Jaal Z, Yahaya ZS
    Acta Biochim. Pol., 2016;63(2):243-6.
    PMID: 27059016 DOI: 10.18388/abp.2014_909
    Septins belong to GTPases that are involved in vital cellular activities, including cytokinesis. Although present in many organisms, they are yet to be isolated from Aedes albopictus. This study reports for the first time on a serendipitous isolation of a partial septin sequence from Ae. albopictus and its developmental expression profile. The Ae. albopictus partial septin sequence contains 591 nucleotides encoding 197 amino acids. It shares homology with several insect septin genes and has a close phylogenetic relationship with Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus septins. The Ae. albopictus septin fragment was differentially expressed in the mosquito's developmental stages, with an increased expression in the adults.
  5. Asekunowo PO, Haque RA, Razali MR, Avicor SW, Wajidi MFF
    Eur J Med Chem, 2018 Apr 25;150:601-615.
    PMID: 29550733 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2018.03.029
    A series of four benzimidazolium based nitrile-functionalized mononuclear-Ag(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene and binuclear-Ag(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene (Ag(I)-NHC) hexafluorophosphate complexes (5b-8b) were synthesized by reacting the corresponding hexafluorophosphate salts (1b-4b) with Ag2O in acetonitrile, respectively. These compounds were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, UV-visible spectroscopic techniques, elemental analyses and molar conductivity. Additionally, 8b was structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Preliminary in vitro antibacterial evaluation was conducted for all the compounds against two standard bacteria; gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains. Most of the Ag(I)-NHC complexes (5b-8b) showed moderate to good antibacterial activity with MIC values in the range of 12.5-100 μg/mL. Especially, compound 8b exhibited promising anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity with a low MIC value (12.5 μg/mL). However, all the hexafluorophosphate salts (1b-4b) were inactive against the bacteria strains. The preliminary interactive investigation revealed that the most active compound, 8b, could effectively intercalate into DNA to form 8b-DNA complex which shows a better binding ability for DNA (Kb = 3.627 × 106) than the complexes 5b-7b (2.177 × 106, 8.672 × 105 and 6.665 × 105, respectively). Nuclease activity of the complexes on plasmid DNA and Aedes albopictus genomic DNA was time-dependent, although minimal. The complexes were larvicidal to the mosquito, with 5b, 6b and 8b being highly active. Developmental progression from the larval to the adult stage was affected by the complexes, progressively being toxic to the insect's development with increasing concentration. These indicate the potential use of these complexes as control agents against bacteria and the dengue mosquito Ae. albopictus.
  6. Selvarajoo PD, Haque RA, Haziz UFM, Avicor SW, Wajidi MFF, Razali MR
    J. Inorg. Biochem., 2017 10;175:232-238.
    PMID: 28800547 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2017.07.030
    New synthesized bis-imidazolium salts that are linked by xylyl derivatives moiety, 1-4 was reacted with Ag2O to facilitate the formation of dinuclear Ag(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes, 5-8, respectively. All the synthesized ligand salts and complexes were characterized by1H and13C NMR, FTIR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Molecular structures of compounds 3, 5, and 7 were elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Larvicidal studies against the Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were carried out on all synthesized compounds following the World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test. All the imidazolium salts were found inactive while the activity of the dinuclear Ag(I)-NHC complexes on mosquito larvae are varies with the nature of the ligands. Complex 7 has high activity on Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, emphasising its potential as a larvicidal compound.
  7. Muhammad NAF, Abu Kassim NF, Ab Majid AH, Abd Rahman A, Dieng H, Avicor SW
    PLoS One, 2020;15(11):e0241688.
    PMID: 33175896 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0241688
    Urbanization could potentially modify Aedes albopictus' ecology by changing the dynamics of the species, and affecting their breeding sites due to environmental changes, and thus contribute to dengue outbreaks. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the biting rhythm, fecundity and longevity of adult female Ae. albopictus in relation to urbanization strata; urban, suburban and rural areas in Penang Island, Malaysia. The experiments were done in comparison to a laboratory strain. Twenty-four hours biting activity of all the mosquito strains showed a clear bimodal biting activity, with morning and evening twilight peaks. The interaction effect between biting time and mosquito strains was not significant. Meanwhile, differences in fecundity among mosquito strains were statistically significant (F(3,442) = 10.559, P < 0.05) with urban areas having higher mean number of eggs (mean = 107.69, standard error = 3.98) than suburban (mean = 94.48, standard error = 5.18), and rural areas (mean = 72.52, standard error = 3.87). Longevity of adult females were significantly higher (F(3,441) = 31.259, P < 0.05) for mosquito strains from urban areas compared to the other strains. These findings would provide crucial information for the planning of control programs in Malaysia, particularly Penang.
  8. Avicor SW, Wajidi MF, El-Garj FM, Jaal Z, Yahaya ZS
    Protein J., 2014 Oct;33(5):457-64.
    PMID: 25199940 DOI: 10.1007/s10930-014-9580-z
    Mosquito coils are insecticides commonly used for protection against mosquitoes due to their toxic effects on mosquito populations. These effects on mosquitoes could induce the expression of metabolic enzymes in exposed populations as a counteractive measure. Cytochrome P450 family 4 (CYP4) are metabolic enzymes associated with a wide range of biological activities including insecticide resistance. In this study, the efficacies of three commercial mosquito coils with different pyrethroid active ingredients were assessed and their potential to induce the expression of CYP4 genes in Aedes albopictus analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. Coils containing 0.3 % D-allethrin and 0.005 % metofluthrin exacted profound toxic effects on Ae. albopictus, inducing high mortalities (≥90 %) compared to the 0.2 % D-allethrin reference coil. CYP4H42 and CYP4H43 expressions were significantly higher in 0.3 % D-allethrin treated mosquitoes compared to the other treated populations. Short-term (KT50) exposure to mosquito coils induced significantly higher expression of both genes in 0.005 % metofluthrin exposed mosquitoes. These results suggest the evaluated products provided better protection than the reference coil; however, they also induced the expression of metabolic genes which could impact negatively on personal protection against mosquito.
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