Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 62 in total

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  1. Kannan, T.P., Quah, B.B., Azlina, A., Samsudin, A.R.
    MyJurnal
    Dentistry has searched for an ideal material to place in osseous defects for many years. Endogenous bone replacement has been the golden standard but involves additional surgery and may be available in limited quantities. Also, the exogenous bone replacement poses a risk of viral or bacterial transmission and the human body may even reject them. Therefore, before new biomaterials are approved for medical use, mutagenesis systems to exclude cytotoxic, mutagenic or carcinogenic properties are applied worldwide. The present preliminary study was carried out in five male New Zealand white rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Porous form of synthetic hydroxyapatite granules (500 mg), manufactured by School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, was implanted in the femur of the rabbits. Blood samples were collected prior to implantation and one week after implantation. The blood was cultured in vitro and the cell division was arrested at metaphase using colcemid. This was followed by the hypotonic treatment and fixation. Then, the chromosomes were prepared and stained for analysis. The modal chromosome number of rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was found to be 2n=44. The mean mitotic index values prior to and after implantation were 3.30 ± 0.66 and 3.24 ± 0.27 per cent respectively. No gross chromosome aberrations, both numerical and structural were noticed either prior to or after implantation of the biomaterial. These findings indicate that the test substance, synthetic hydroxyapatite granules does not produce gross chromosome aberrations under the present test conditions in rabbits.
  2. Azlina A. Razak, Effat Omar, Suhaila Muid, Hapizah Nawawi
    MyJurnal
    Tocotrienols have been reported to possess potent cholesterol lowering, anti-hypertensive, antiinflammatory and anti-oxidative properties which are superior to tocopherols. Emerging evidence suggests pure tocotrienols have anti-atherogenic properties. However, optimal doses of oftocotrienolrich fraction (TRF) in progressive atherogenesis remain unclear. This animal model experiment was designed to investigate the effects of a range concentration of TRF supplementation on the extent of atherosclerosis and soluble lipids, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in high-cholesterol diet (HCD) induced hypercholesterolaemic (HC) rabbits with atherosclerosis. A total of 28 New Zealand white rabbits were given 1% high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for two months and then randomised into five groups: Placebo (n=7), TRF 15 mg/kg (n=5), TRF 30 mg/kg (n=6), TRF 60 mg/kg (n=5) and TRF 90 mg/kg (n=5) daily. The treatment was given for three months and the animals were fed HCD throughout the duration. Aortic vessels were obtained to assess the extent of atherosclerotic lesions at the end of the study. Fasting serum lipids (FSL), C-reactive protein (CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-isoprostane levels were measured at baseline, one and two months post-HCD, one, two, and three months postintervention. There were no differences in the extent of the atherosclerotic lesions, percentage changes of FSL, MDA, 8-isoprostane and CRP levels between the placebo and TRF groups. In conclusion, TRF across all doses studied have neutral effects on atherosclerotic lesions, soluble lipids, biomarkers of oxidative stress, coronary risk and inflammation in severely atherosclerotic rabbits with progressive and continuous insult by high cholesterol feeding.
  3. Nurul Husna Kamarudin, Nor Azlina A. Rahman, Zainul Ibrahim Zainuddin
    MyJurnal
    The presence of imaging technologies in Malaysia needs to be supported by homegrown research to optimize and tailor their usage for local benefits. Research done elsewhere may not be applicable to local situations. This study investigates the contribution of researches by Malaysian academicians and service providers to the field of medical imaging, as evident in the Malaysian Citation index (MyCite) database. Bibliometric and thematic analyses were performed on publications featured in the database from 2006 to 2016. The bibliometric analysis provided information on the affiliation of the authors, their professional backgrounds, types of studies, and the journals involved while the thematic analysis identified the themes and sub-themes of identified articles. The study found that Malaysians contributed 54.1% of the publications, followed by non-Malaysians (41.8%) and collaboration authors (4.1%). Researchers were mostly from university-based and hospital university-based institutions. The thematic analysis presented that 42.9% of articles were classified under clinical themes. The results also suggested that the current trends of research in medical imaging are focused on topics involving clinical and modality, and only a few patient-centered researches. This is an indication that more researches that are relevant to local practices and needs are required as this will strengthen the medical imaging practice in the country.
  4. Mohammad NB, Rahman NAA, Haque M
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2018 4 17;10(1):7-14.
    PMID: 29657502 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_227_17
    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death around the world including Malaysia. Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the single largest cause of death in the developed countries and is one of the main contributors to the disease burden in developing countries.
    Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted to determine knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding the risk of CVD in patients attending an outpatient clinic in Kuantan, Malaysia. A total of 100 patients comprising 52 male and 48 female subjects were selected through convenient sampling method.
    Results: Of the total subjects, 86% were Malays. The mean scores (standard deviation) for KAP were 60.75±4.823, 54.36±8.711, and 33.43±4.046, respectively, whereas the maximum scores obtained by the subjects for KAP were 71, 65, and 43, respectively. Regarding questions related to knowledge, 88% subjects knew irregular eating pattern can cause disease and the benefits of vegetable intake. Most subjects recognized that smoking and obesity were CVD risk factors. Regarding questions related to attitude, 96% agreed that exercise can prevent CVD. More than half of the subjects followed healthy lifestyle. There were statistically significant differences observed in knowledge level between sexes (P = 0.046) and races (P = 0.001). Nevertheless, there was no statistically significant difference observed in KAP across different education levels of the subjects regarding the risk of CVD (P-value = 0.332, 0.185, and 0.160, respectively).
    Conclusion: This study revealed that patients had good knowledge and attitude regarding CVD risk factors. Yet, the number of smokers is still quite high. Development of better public information system is essential for the well-being of the society.
  5. Razak AA, Leach L, Ralevic V
    Diab Vasc Dis Res, 2018 11;15(6):528-540.
    PMID: 30130976 DOI: 10.1177/1479164118790904
    BACKGROUND: There is clinical and experimental evidence for altered adenosine signalling in the fetoplacental circulation in pregnancies complicated by diabetes, leading to adenosine accumulation in the placenta. However, the consequence for fetoplacental vasocontractility is unclear. This study examined contractility to adenosine of chorionic vessels from type 1 diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes mellitus and normal pregnancies.

    METHODS: Chorionic arteries and veins were isolated from human placenta from normal, gestational diabetes mellitus and type 1 diabetes mellitus pregnancies. Isometric tension recording measured responses to adenosine and the thromboxane A2 analogue U46619 (thromboxane A2 mediates fetoplacental vasoconstriction to adenosine). Adenosine and thromboxane prostanoid receptor protein expression was determined by immunoblotting.

    RESULTS: Adenosine elicited contractions in chorionic arteries and veins which were impaired in both gestational diabetes mellitus and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Contractions to potassium chloride were unchanged. Adenosine A2A and A2B receptor protein levels were not different in gestational diabetes mellitus and normal pregnancies. Contractions to U46619 were unaltered in gestational diabetes mellitus arteries and increased in type 1 diabetes mellitus arteries. Overnight storage of vessels restored contractility to adenosine in gestational diabetes mellitus arteries and normalized contraction to U46619 in type 1 diabetes mellitus arteries.

    CONCLUSION: These data are consistent with the concept of aberrant adenosine signalling in diabetes; they show for the first time that this involves impaired adenosine contractility of the fetoplacental vasculature.

  6. Razali N, Aziz AA, Junit SM
    Genes Nutr, 2010 Dec;5(4):331-41.
    PMID: 21189869 DOI: 10.1007/s12263-010-0187-5
    Tamarindus indicaL. (T. indica) or locally known as asam jawa belongs to the family of Leguminosae. The fruit pulp had been reported to have antioxidant activities and possess hypolipidaemic effects. In this study, we attempted to investigate the gene expression patterns in human hepatoma HepG2 cell line in response to treatment with low concentration of the fruit pulp extracts. Microarray analysis using Affymetrix Human Genome 1.0 S.T arrays was used in the study. Microarray data were validated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Amongst the significantly up-regulated genes were those that code for the metallothioneins (MT1M, MT1F, MT1X) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTA1, GSTA2, GST02) that are involved in stress response. APOA4, APOA5, ABCG5 and MTTP genes were also significantly regulated that could be linked to hypolipidaemic activities of the T. indica fruit pulp.
  7. Azlina A, Samsudin AR
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:166-7.
    PMID: 15468870
    In Malaysia, the field of genomics in toxicology is still in infancy. The purpose of this study is to focus on the use of toxicogenomics for determination of gene expressions changes in cultured human fibroblast cells treated with genotoxicology free biomaterial (using Ames test), a locally produced hyroxyapatite. Dose and time response is similar to Ames test with time interval up to 21 days. mRNA is extracted, followed with RT-PCR and polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis. Changes of the gene expressions compared to the non-treated fibroblast mRNA would suggest some gene interactions in the molecule level associated with the exposure of the fibroblast cell line to the biomaterials. Further analysis (cloning & sequencing) shall be carried out to investigate the genes involved as simple changes might not signified toxicity.
  8. Suria, M. S., Adlin Azlina, A. K., Mohd Afendy, A. T., Zamri, I.
    MyJurnal
    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) is an important foodborne pathogen causing diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans. STEC is an implicated in the vast majority of outbreaks, widely via consumption of STEC contaminated beef, as important vehicle of transmission of this organism to human. The E. coli O157:H7 serotype is traditionally identified by serological identification of the somatic antigen (O157) and structural flagella (H7). In this study, the bacteria were identified as STEC serotype O157:H7 with three primer pairs that amplified fragments of secD, rfbE and fliC genes in PCR assays. These primer pairs specifically amplified different sizes of target genes: a 244bp region of the E. coli diagnostic marker gene (secD); a 317bp region of the O157 lipopolysacharide (LPS) gene (rfbE); and a 381bp region of the H7 flagellin gene (fliC). The singleplex, duplex and triplex PCR assay developed in this study have a sensitivity limit at 2.8 x 103, 2.8 x 105 and 2.8 x 107 CFU/ml of E. coli O157:H7, respectively. Sensitivity to detect trace amount of E. coli O157:H7 DNA was reduced as the number of primer used was increased for competing to the same DNA template.
  9. Yi, Q.S., Wan Zarina, Z.A., Nurulhidayah, C.N., Mohamad Ezany, Y., Azlina, A., Suharni, M.
    Medicine & Health, 2017;12(1):34-41.
    MyJurnal
    Euphorbia tirucalli dilaporkan mempunyai aktiviti antibakteria terhadap pelbagai
    mikroorganisma. Kajian in vitro ini bertujuan untuk menilai ciri-ciri antibakteria
    ekstrak (metanol, etanol dan ekstrak akueus) batang Euphorbia tirucalli terhadap
    bakteria yang berkaitan dengan karies gigi, iaitu Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans)
    dan Streptococcus sobrinus (S. sobrinus). Sifat-sifat antibakteria telah ditentukan
    menggunakan ujian resapan agar berlubang pada kepekatan ekstrak yang berbeza
    (10, 20 dan 30 mg/ml). Komersial amoxicillin (10 µg) telah digunakan sebagai
    kawalan positif manakala pelarut yang sesuai telah digunakan sebagai kawalan
    negatif. Ekstrak metanol dan ethanol daripada batang Euphorbia tirucalli didapati
    berkesan terhadap S. mutans dan S. sobrinus. Walau bagaimanapun, ekstrak akueus
    batang Euphorbia tirucalli tidak menunjukkan aktiviti terhadap kedua-dua strain
    bakteria. Perbezaan dalam ciri-ciri antibakteria dalam perbezaan ekstrak Euphorbia
    tirucalli mungkin disebabkan oleh perbezaan dalam juzuk fitokimia.
  10. Md Hashim, S.N., Yusof, M.F.H., Alshehadat, S.A., Kannan, T.P., Azlina, A., Suzina, S.A.H., et al.
    MyJurnal
    Angiogenicity is one of the essential components to enable tissue function. It is important to develop a construct that would help in catering oxygen and nutrient to the engineered tissue area. Thus, this study aims to investigate the attachment, spreading and growth of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) on human AM (HAM) with or without vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) using scanning electron microscope (SEM), and indirectly see the potential of the HAM as a scaffold to promote angiogenic micro-environment. Since day 1, there were continuous changes of the cell morphology until day 28, SHED treated with VEGF seemed to change its shape from fibroblast-like into a round-shape cell, similar structure as an endotheliallike cell. The structures of filopodia-like were also observed on the treated SHED. SHED without VEGF treatment showed only normal morphological growth on HAM. VEGF is a protein produced to stimulate angiogenesis, and is believed to contribute to the morphological changes of SHED seeded on HAM. This indicates that HAM could be used as a scaffold to allow SHED differentiation into endothelial-like cells with the induction of VEGF.
  11. Maisalihah Zamzuri, Aliza Haslinda Hamirudin, Norain Zainudin, Suriati Sidek, Nor Azlina A. Rahman
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: Dietary calcium intake is important in body system regulation. Inadequate intake
    among elderly may lead to various health issues such as osteoporosis and hip fracture. In order to counter the problem, this study was carried out to identify dietary calcium intake among elderly in Kuantan, Pahang. Methods: A face to face interviewer-administered session was done individually with seventy-nine (n=79) subjects aged ≥60 years to collect data on sociodemographic background, health status and dietary intake. Diet history method was used to obtain information related to dietary intake and analyzed using Nutritionist Pro Software. P-value was set at p
  12. Maiwada, Abdullahi Mohammed, Nik Mazlan Mamat, Nor Azlina A. Rahman, Suzanah Abdul Rahman, Baba, Tukur Mohammed
    MyJurnal
    Reproductive and Maternal health are an important components of public health and medicine which are concerned with the complete state of physical, mental and social wellbeing in all matters regarding reproductive system and health of mother especially during pregnancy.It implies ensuring that all women receive the care they need to be safe and healthy throughout pregnancy, childbirth and beyond. However, according to World Health Organization, millions of women all over the world do not have access to good quality health services during pregnancy and childbirth resulting in mortalities. Islam is a complete way of life. The Qur’an and Hadith consider pregnancy and child bearing as signs among other signs of the divine existence of Allah.The importance of maternal and reproductive is thus not unexplained in the Islamic perspectives. The study look at what role Muslim religious leaders can play in the prevention of maternal deaths and morbidities in developing countries. A qualitative study was conducted through in-depth interviews and focus groups discussion with a purposive sample of some Muslim religious leaders from Gusau local government area of Zamfara state northwest Nigeria in order to elicit information about the Islamic perspectives of reproductive and maternal health and the roles they can play in the prevention of maternal deaths among the Muslim communities. Muslim Religious leaders have a crucial role and contribution for the attainment and maintenance of good heath of women and children among Muslim communities through public enlightenment in the context of ‘ilm’, providing guidance through ‘Fatwah’ and community mobilization in the spirit brotherhood ‘ukhuwah’.Islam does not accept the “preventable death of a woman” due to childbirth or pregnancy. Thus, Islam encourages attendance of antenatal care visits and health care seeking.
  13. Chong PP, Selvaratnam L, Abbas AA, Kamarul T
    J Orthop Res, 2012 Apr;30(4):634-42.
    PMID: 21922534 DOI: 10.1002/jor.21556
    The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for cartilage repair has generated much interest owing to their multipotentiality. However, their significant presence in peripheral blood (PB) has been a matter of much debate. The objectives of this study are to isolate and characterize MSCs derived from PB and, compare their chondrogenic potential to MSC derived from bone marrow (BM). PB and BM derived MSCs from 20 patients were isolated and characterized. From 2 ml of PB and BM, 5.4 ± 0.6 million and 10.5 ± 0.8 million adherent cells, respectively, were obtained by cell cultures at passage 2. Both PB and BM derived MSCs were able to undergo tri-lineage differentiation and showed negative expression of CD34 and CD45, but positively expressed CD105, CD166, and CD29. Qualitative and quantitative examinations on the chondrogenic potential of PB and BM derived MSCs expressed similar cartilage specific gene (COMP) and proteoglycan levels, respectively. Furthermore, the s-GAG levels expressed by chondrogenic MSCs in cultures were similar to that of native chondrocytes. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that MSCs from PB maintain similar characteristics and have similar chondrogenic differentiation potential to those derived from BM, while producing comparable s-GAG expressions to chondrocytes.
  14. Chong PP, Selvaratnam L, Abbas AA, Kamarul T
    Open Life Sci, 2018 Jan;13:279-284.
    PMID: 33817094 DOI: 10.1515/biol-2018-0034
    Most studies highlight mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) extracted primarily from bone marrow (BM), very few report the use of peripheral blood (PB), often due to the associated low seeding density and difficulties with extraction techniques. As ageing populations are becoming more predominant globally, together with escalating demands for MSC transplantation and tissue regeneration, obtaining quality MSCs suitable for induced differentiation and biological therapies becomes increasingly important. In this study, BM and PB were obtained from elderly patients and extracted MSCs grown in vitro to determine their successful isolation and expansion. Patients' socio-demographic background and other medical information were obtained from medical records. Successful and failed cultures were correlated with key demographic and medical parameters. A total of 112 samples (BM or PB) were used for this study. Of these, 50 samples (44.6%) were successfully cultured according to standardised criteria with no signs of contamination. Our comparative analyses demonstrated no statistical correlation between successful MSC cultures and any of the six demographic or medical parameters examined, including sample quantity, age, sex, race, habits and underlying comorbidities of sample donors. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that typical demographics and comorbidities do not influence successful MSC isolation and expansion in culture.
  15. Buang NFB, Rahman NAA, Haque M
    Med Pharm Rep, 2019 Apr;92(2):145-152.
    PMID: 31086842 DOI: 10.15386/mpr-1227
    Background and aims: Hypertension is becoming a global epidemic and threat to the world population. This cross-sectional study was carried out at a housing area in Selangor, Malaysia to study the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding hypertension among the residents.

    Methods: A total of 110 respondents aged 18 years old and above were selected by convenience sampling. Data was collected using a structured interviewer-guided questionnaire with Likert-scale choices of answers.

    Results: All respondents were Malay with the mean age of 41 years [Standard Deviation (SD)=11.828]. The total mean and SD of knowledge, attitude and practice scores were 74.33 (SD=6.25), 44.22 (SD=5.05) and 27.55 (SD=2.86), respectively. There were significant positive correlations between knowledge with attitude (r=+0.393; p<0.001) and practice (r=+0.378; p<0.001). However, there was no significant correlation between attitude and practice (r=+0.120; p=0.212). There were significant fair positive correlations between age with knowledge (r=+0.402; p<0.001), attitude (r=+0.265; p=0.005) and practice (r=+0.337; p<0.001) regarding hypertension. Meanwhile, gender, educational level, employment status and family history had no significant association with knowledge, attitude and practice regarding hypertension.

    Conclusion: This study revealed that KAP regarding hypertension were associated with age, but not with other socio-demographic characteristics studied. The awareness, prevention and control programs of hypertension in their community should be increased, so that the residents could enjoy and maintain the healthy lifestyle.

  16. Ragu R, Eng JY, Azlina AR
    Med J Malaysia, 2014 Aug;69(4):199-201.
    PMID: 25500854
    Kimura's disease is rare chronic inflammatory disease with a distinct clinicopathological entity. It has three major components; inflammatory, vascular and fibrosis. It has to be considered as a differential diagnosis in young patient presenting with head and neck swelling. Although of unknown aetiology many hypothesis has been postulated. Inflammation is the most prominent and predominating characteristic in this disease. Although reported to be predominant in Asian literature regarding this disease is scanty. We report a complete clinical-radiological and pathological picture of this disease.
  17. Nurliza I, Norzi G, Azlina A, Hashimah I, Sabzah MH
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Dec;66(5):474-8.
    PMID: 22390104 MyJurnal
    OBJECTIVE: We present our experience with daycare tonsillectomy and evaluate patient satisfaction and the post operative complication rate.
    METHODS: A prospective audit review of 38 patients from March 2009 till May 2010 was conducted in our ambulatory care center.
    RESULTS: There were 38 patients involved in this review. All patients were satisfied with our Ambulatory care services. No admission was reported after daycare tonsillectomy.
    CONCLUSION: Daycare tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy is safe. It can reduce the waiting time and also bed occupancy thus cost effective. Proper selection of patient is very important.
  18. Boo NY, Nor Azlina AA, Rohana J
    Singapore Med J, 2008 Mar;49(3):204-8.
    PMID: 18363001
    This study was designed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a semi-quantitative procalcitonin (PCT) test kit for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.
  19. Suzina AH, Azlina A, Shamsuria O, Samsudin AR
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:105-6.
    PMID: 15468840
    Mutagenicity of CORAGRAF (natural coral) and REKAGRAF (hydroxyapatite) was tested in Ames test with and without an external metabolic activation system (S9). The test revealed no mutagenic activity of both locally produced osseous substitutes.
  20. Niza Samsuddin, Nor Azlina A Rahman, Ailin Razali, Muhammad Zubir Yusof, Ahmad Fitri Abdullah Hair, Manivasagam, Dayanath, et al.
    MyJurnal
    A guideline on Basic Occupational Health Services (BOHS) has been established jointly by ILO/WHO/ICOH in response to poor achievements of the Occupational Health Services (OHS), especially among workers in small and medium enterprises at the global level. Malaysia. The international guideline describes competent and skilled human resources as an essential strategy for BOHS implementation. This commentary will discuss the challenges faced by current occupational health personnel providing OHS in Malaysia and proposes improvements of human resource development for future BOHS in Malaysia to ensure fair and better OHS coverage for Malaysian workers.
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