METHODS: Chorionic arteries and veins were isolated from human placenta from normal, gestational diabetes mellitus and type 1 diabetes mellitus pregnancies. Isometric tension recording measured responses to adenosine and the thromboxane A2 analogue U46619 (thromboxane A2 mediates fetoplacental vasoconstriction to adenosine). Adenosine and thromboxane prostanoid receptor protein expression was determined by immunoblotting.
RESULTS: Adenosine elicited contractions in chorionic arteries and veins which were impaired in both gestational diabetes mellitus and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Contractions to potassium chloride were unchanged. Adenosine A2A and A2B receptor protein levels were not different in gestational diabetes mellitus and normal pregnancies. Contractions to U46619 were unaltered in gestational diabetes mellitus arteries and increased in type 1 diabetes mellitus arteries. Overnight storage of vessels restored contractility to adenosine in gestational diabetes mellitus arteries and normalized contraction to U46619 in type 1 diabetes mellitus arteries.
CONCLUSION: These data are consistent with the concept of aberrant adenosine signalling in diabetes; they show for the first time that this involves impaired adenosine contractility of the fetoplacental vasculature.
Methods: A total of 110 respondents aged 18 years old and above were selected by convenience sampling. Data was collected using a structured interviewer-guided questionnaire with Likert-scale choices of answers.
Results: All respondents were Malay with the mean age of 41 years [Standard Deviation (SD)=11.828]. The total mean and SD of knowledge, attitude and practice scores were 74.33 (SD=6.25), 44.22 (SD=5.05) and 27.55 (SD=2.86), respectively. There were significant positive correlations between knowledge with attitude (r=+0.393; p<0.001) and practice (r=+0.378; p<0.001). However, there was no significant correlation between attitude and practice (r=+0.120; p=0.212). There were significant fair positive correlations between age with knowledge (r=+0.402; p<0.001), attitude (r=+0.265; p=0.005) and practice (r=+0.337; p<0.001) regarding hypertension. Meanwhile, gender, educational level, employment status and family history had no significant association with knowledge, attitude and practice regarding hypertension.
Conclusion: This study revealed that KAP regarding hypertension were associated with age, but not with other socio-demographic characteristics studied. The awareness, prevention and control programs of hypertension in their community should be increased, so that the residents could enjoy and maintain the healthy lifestyle.