METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted at a tertiary hospital in Malaysia, from 1st August 2010 until 31st July 2011. Children aged between 1 mo and 12 y who were admitted for CAP and had blood cultures performed before starting intravenous antibiotics were recruited. Children with congenital pneumonia, immunodeficiency, chronic cardiac or respiratory disorders, nosocomial pneumonia or those on corticosteroids, were excluded. Decision for admission was made by the attending Accident and Emergency physician.
RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-one children were enrolled. The median age was 13 mo (range: 38 d-10 y 3 mo) and 59 % were males. Blood cultures were positive in 1.2 % (2/171) of patients while the contamination rate was 1.8 % (3/171). Doctors altered antibiotics based on blood culture results in only one patient.
CONCLUSIONS: Both the yield and the impact of blood culture results on the adjustment of empiric antibiotic treatment were very small. There was a high contamination rate. The recommended practice of performing blood cultures in all children admitted with CAP should be reviewed.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study in a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia involved parents of children with asthma. Parents of children without asthma were the control group. Eleven validated video clips showing wheeze, stridor, transmitted noises, snoring or normal breathing were shown to the parents. Parents were asked, in English or Malay, "What do you call the sound this child is making?" and "Where do you think the sound is coming from?"
RESULTS: Two hundred parents participated in this study: 100 had children with asthma while 100 did not. Most (71.5 %) answered in Malay. Only 38.5 % of parents correctly labelled wheeze. Parents were significantly better at locating than labelling wheeze (OR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.64-3.73). Parents with asthmatic children were not better at labelling wheeze than those without asthma (OR1.04, 95 % CI 0.59-1.84). Answering in English (OR 3.4, 95 % CI 1.69-7.14) and having older children with asthma (OR 9.09, 95 % CI 3.13-26.32) were associated with correct labelling of wheeze. Other sounds were mislabelled as wheeze by 16.5 % of respondents.
CONCLUSION: Parental labelling of wheeze was inaccurate especially in the Malay language. Parents were better at identifying the origin of wheeze rather than labelling it. Physicians should be wary about parental reporting of wheeze as it may be inaccurate.
METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on all children aged 2-16 years who were admitted to the University Malaya Medical Centre with community-acquired pneumonia between 2012 and 2014.
RESULTS: In this study, of the 343 children, 58 (17%) developed CAPc. Chinese ethnicity (P < 0.001), reduced breastfeeding duration (P = 0.003), not receiving outpatient antibiotic (P < 0.001) and exposure to parental smoking (P < 0.001) were identified as risk factors for CAPc. Markedly increased respiratory rate (P = 0.021) and thrombocytosis (P < 0.001) were noted as the clinical parameters for CAPc.
CONCLUSION: This study identifies some modifiable risk to reduce the burden of pneumonia complications.
METHODS: A review of medical records of children who underwent adenotonsillectomy between January 2011 and December 2014 was performed. Association between demographic variables and post-operative complications were examined using chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests.
RESULTS: A total of 214 children were identified, and of these, 19 (8.8%) experienced post-operative complications. Six children (2.8%) had respiratory complications: hypoxaemia in four and laryngospasm requiring reintubation in a further two. Both of the latter patients were extubated upon arrival to PICU and required no escalation of therapy. A total of 13 (6.1%) children had non-respiratory complications: 8 (3.7%) had infection and 5 (2.3%) had haemorrhage. A total of 26 (12.1%) children were electively admitted to PICU and mean stay was 19.5 (SD ± 13) h. No association between demographic characteristics, comorbid conditions or polysomnographic parameters and post-operative complications were noted. A total of 194 (90.7%) children stayed only one night in hospital (median 1 day, range 1-5 days).
CONCLUSION: The previously identified risk factors and criteria for PICU admission need revision, and new recommendations are necessary.
METHODOLOGY: This prospective cohort study involved children 1 month to 5-years-old admitted with an LRTI. Children with asthma were excluded. Patients were reviewed at 1-, 6-, and 12-months post-hospital discharge. The parent cough-specific quality of life, the depression, anxiety, and stress scale questionnaire and cough diary for 1 month, were administered. Outcomes reviewed were number of unscheduled healthcare visits, respiratory symptoms and final respiratory diagnosis at 6 and/or 12 month-review by pediatric pulmonologists.
RESULTS: Three hundred patients with a mean ± SD age of 14 ± 15 months old were recruited. After 1 month, 239 (79.7%) returned: 28.5% (n = 68/239) had sought medical advice and 18% (n = 43/239) had cough at clinic review. Children who received antibiotics in hospital had significantly lower total cough scores (P = .005) as per the cough diary. After 1 year, 26% (n = 78/300) had a respiratory problem, predominantly preschool wheezing phenotype (n = 64/78, 82.1%). Three children had bronchiectasis or bronchiolitis obliterans. The parent cough-specific quality of life (PCQOL) was significantly lower in children with respiratory sequelae (P
OBJECTIVES: To determine the HRQoL and developmental outcome of children on HMV.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study used the TNO-AZL Preschool children's Quality Of Life (TAPQOL; <5 years old) and Health Utilities Index (HUI) 2/3 (≥5 years old) to assess the quality of life and the Schedule of Growing Skills-II to assess development. Instruments were used on children currently or previously on HMV (≥3 months) and compared with age and sex-matched controls.
RESULTS: Sixty-five patients and 130 controls were recruited. Patients' median (interquartile range) age was 3.12 (1.65, 5.81) years. Patients had significantly lower TAPQOL scores in the domains of lung, liveliness, positive mood, social functioning, motor functioning, and communication, and lower HUI 2/3 scores in hearing, sensation, pain, speech, mobility, ambulatory, dexterity, and self-care domains. The developmental outcome of patients was poorer in all domains. However, patients had fewer behavioral problems. Those with respiratory tract disease and without comorbidities had better HRQoL and developmental scores. Having a parent as the primary caregiver was associated with better speech and language skills.
CONCLUSIONS: HRQoL and the developmental outcome are lower in children on HMV compared to controls. Children with respiratory tract disease and without comorbidities have a better outcome. Parents play a crucial role in the acquisition of speech.
METHODOLOGY: This retrospective study included patients sent home on noninvasive or invasive ventilation, over 13 years, by the pediatric respiratory unit in a single center. Children who declined treatment were excluded.
RESULTS: Seventy children were initiated on HV: 85.7% on noninvasive ventilation, 14.3% on invasive ventilation. There was about a threefold increase from 2001-2008 (n = 18) to 2009-2014 (n = 52). Median (range) age of initiating HV was 11 (1-169) months and 73% of children were <2 years old. Common indications for HV were respiratory (57.2%), chest/spine anomalies (11.4%), and neuromuscular (10.0%). Fifty-two percent came off their devices with a median (interquartile range) usage duration of 12 (4.8, 21.6) months. Ten children (14.3%) died with one avoidable death. Children with neuromuscular disease were less likely to come off their ventilator (0.0%) compared to children with respiratory disease (62.1%). Forty-one percent of parents bought their equipment, whereas 58.6% borrowed their equipment from the medical social work department and other sources.
CONCLUSION: HV in a resource-limited country is possible. Children with respiratory disease made up a significant proportion of those requiring HV and were more likely to be weaned off. The mortality rate was low. The social work department played an important role in facilitating early discharge. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:500-507. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
METHODOLOGY: Retrospective review of children under 12 years of age, admitted with HAdV pneumonia, between January 2011 and July 2013, in a single centre in Malaysia. HAdV isolated from nasopharyngeal secretions were typed by sequencing hypervariable regions 1-6 of the hexon gene. Patients were reviewed for respiratory complications.
RESULTS: HAdV was detected in 131 children of whom 92 fulfilled inclusion criteria. Median (range) age was 1.1 (0.1-8.0) years with 80% under 2 years. Twenty percent had severe disease with a case-fatality rate of 5.4%. Duration of admission (p = 0.02) was independently associated with severe illness. Twenty-two percent developed respiratory complications, the commonest being bronchiolitis obliterans (15.2%) and recurrent wheeze (5.4%). The predominant type shifted from HAdV1 and HAdV3 in 2011 to HAdV7 in 2013. The commonest types identified were types 7 (54.4%), 1(17.7%) and 3 (12.6%). Four out of the five patients who died were positive for HAdV7. Infection with type 7 (OR 8.90, 95% CI 1.32, 59.89), family history of asthma (OR 14.80, 95% CI 2.12-103.21) and need for invasive or non-invasive ventilation (OR 151.84, 95% CI 9.93-2.32E) were independent predictors of respiratory complications.
CONCLUSIONS: One in five children admitted with HAdV pneumonia had severe disease and 22% developed respiratory complications. Type 7 was commonly isolated in children with severe disease. Family history of asthma need for invasive or non-invasive ventilation and HAdV 7 were independent predictors of respiratory complications.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the a) aetiology, b) factors associated with bacterial pneumonia and c) association between co-infections (bacteria + virus) and severity of disease, in children admitted with severe pneumonia.
METHODS: A prospective cohort study involving children aged 1-month to 5-years admitted with very severe pneumonia, as per the WHO definition, over 2 years. Induced sputum and blood obtained within 24 hrs of admission were examined via PCR, immunofluorescence and culture to detect 17 bacteria/viruses. A designated radiologist read the chest radiographs.
RESULTS: Three hundred patients with a mean (SD) age of 14 (±15) months old were recruited. Significant pathogens were detected in 62% of patients (n = 186). Viruses alone were detected in 23.7% (n = 71) with rhinovirus (31%), human metapneumovirus (HMP) [22.5%] and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) [16.9%] being the commonest. Bacteria alone was detected in 25% (n = 75) with Haemophilus influenzae (29.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (24%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (22.7%) being the commonest. Co-infections were seen in 13.3% (n = 40) of patients. Male gender (AdjOR 1.84 [95% CI 1.10, 3.05]) and presence of crepitations (AdjOR 2.27 [95% CI 1.12, 4.60]) were associated with bacterial infection. C-reactive protein (CRP) [p = 0.007]) was significantly higher in patients with co-infections but duration of hospitalization (p = 0.77) and requirement for supplemental respiratory support (p = 0.26) were not associated with co-infection.
CONCLUSIONS: Bacteria remain an important cause of very severe pneumonia in developing countries with one in four children admitted isolating bacteria alone. Male gender and presence of crepitations were significantly associated with bacterial aetiology. Co-infection was associated with a higher CRP but no other parameters of severe clinical illness.