Displaying all 12 publications

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  1. Tewari R, Chopra D, Wazahat R, Dhingra S, Dudeja M
    Malays J Med Sci, 2018 May;25(3):129-134.
    PMID: 30899194 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2018.25.3.13
    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) bacterium, a nosocomial pathogen associated with a high mortality rate and limited therapeutic options have emerged as a serious problem throughout the world. The present study aimed to assess the current levels of antibiotic susceptibility among the isolates of Acinetobacter species. The sensitivity patterns were analysed from various clinical specimens obtained from both in-patients and outpatients of a teaching hospital. Isolation was performed on 5% sheep blood agar and MacConkey agar. Urine samples were inoculated into CLED agar. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by the disc diffusion method. A total of 16,452 samples were collected. The total number of samples positive for Acinetobacter species was 67 (0.4%). The highest number of isolates 26 (38.8%) were obtained from urine. Majority 80.3% of the isolates exhibited resistance to three or more classes of antibiotics. All isolates were susceptible to colistin (100%). The susceptibility rate of A. baumannii isolates was 80% for tigecycline and 53.3% for carbapenem. Combination therapies including colistin and tigecycline seem to be the rational treatment for MDR A. baumannii until new alternatives come forward.
  2. Rafieerad A, Yan W, Sequiera GL, Sareen N, Abu-El-Rub E, Moudgil M, et al.
    Adv Healthc Mater, 2019 Aug;8(16):e1900569.
    PMID: 31265217 DOI: 10.1002/adhm.201900569
    Inflammation is tightly linked to tissue injury. In regenerative medicine, immune activation plays a key role in rejection of transplanted stem cells and reduces the efficacy of stem cell therapies. Next-generation smart biomaterials are reported to possess multiple biologic properties for tissue repair. Here, the first use of 0D titanium carbide (Ti3 C2 ) MXene quantum dots (MQDs) for immunomodulation is presented with the goal of enhancing material-based tissue repair after injury. MQDs possess intrinsic immunomodulatory properties and selectively reduce activation of human CD4+ IFN-γ+ T-lymphocytes (control 87.1 ± 2.0%, MQDs 68.3 ± 5.4%) while promoting expansion of immunosuppressive CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells (control 5.5 ± 0.7%, MQDs 8.5 ± 0.8%) in a stimulated lymphocyte population. Furthermore, MQDs are biocompatible with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived fibroblasts. Finally, Ti3 C2 MQDs are incorporated into a chitosan-based hydrogel to create a 3D platform with enhanced physicochemical properties for stem cell delivery and tissue repair. This composite hydrogel demonstrates increased conductivity while maintaining injectability and thermosensitivity. These findings suggest that this new class of biomaterials may help bridge the translational gap in material and stem cell-based therapies for tissue repair and treatment of inflammatory and degenerative diseases.
  3. Khan MU, Hassali MA, Ahmad A, Elkalmi RM, Zaidi ST, Dhingra S
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(2):e0149623.
    PMID: 26901404 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149623
    BACKGROUND: Increasing antimicrobial resistance is one of the pressing concerns globally. Injudicious use of antibiotics is one of the modifiable factors responsible for antimicrobial resistance. Given the widespread use of antimicrobials in community settings, pharmacists have an important role in ensuring appropriate use of antibiotics. The objective of this study was to assess the perception and self-reported practices of community pharmacists towards antimicrobial stewardship.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among community pharmacists between March-April, 2015, using a self-administered, pre-tested questionnaire in the State of Selangor, Malaysia. A simple random sampling approach was used to select pharmacy sites. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyse the data.

    RESULTS: A total of 188 pharmacists responded to the survey, giving a response rate of 83.5%. The majority of participants (n = 182, 96.8%) believed that antimicrobial stewardship program helps healthcare professionals to improve the quality of patient care. However, more than half of pharmacists were neutral in their opinion about the incorporation of antimicrobial stewardship programs in community pharmacies (n = 102, 54.2%). Though collaboration was often done by pharmacists with other health professionals over the use of antibiotics (n = 104, 55.3%), a significant proportion of participants (n = 102, 54.2%) rarely/occasionally participate in antimicrobial awareness campaigns. Pharmacists having postgraduate qualification were more likely to held positive perceptions of, and were engaged in, antimicrobial stewardship than their non-postgraduate counterpart (p<0.05). Similarly, more experienced pharmacists (> 10 years) held positive perceptions towards antimicrobial stewardship (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: The study highlighted some gaps in the perception and practices of community pharmacist towards antimicrobial stewardship. Development of customized interventions would be critical to bridging these gaps and improve their perception and practices towards antimicrobial stewardship.

  4. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Patel I, Maharaj S, Pandey S, Dhingra S
    J Res Pharm Pract, 2015 Jan-Mar;4(1):37-41.
    PMID: 25710049 DOI: 10.4103/2279-042X.150057
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of B.Sc. Pharmacy students about usage and resistance of antibiotics in Trinidad and Tobago.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study involving B.Sc. Pharmacy students. The questionnaire was divided into five components including Demographics data, knowledge about antibiotic use, attitude toward antibiotic use and resistance, self-antibiotic usage and possible causes of antibiotic resistance. Data were analyzed by employing Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests using SPSS version 20.
    FINDINGS: The response rate was 83.07%. The results showed good knowledge of antibiotic use among students. The overall attitude of pharmacy students was poor. About 75% of participants rarely use antibiotics, whereas self-decision was the major reason of antibiotic use (40.7%) and main source of information was retail pharmacist (42.6%). Common cold and flu is a major problem for which antibiotics were mainly utilized by pharmacy students (35.2%).
    CONCLUSION: The study showed good knowledge of pharmacy students regarding antibiotic usage. However, students' attitude towards antibiotic use was poor. The study recommends future studies to be conducted with interventional design to improve knowledge and attitude of pharmacy students about antibiotic use and resistance.
    KEYWORDS: Antibiotics; Trinidad and Tobago; knowledge; pharmacy students; resistance
  5. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Gogoi LJ, Kalita M, Sikdar AP, Pandey S, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(8):e0135767.
    PMID: 26296212 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135767
    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a major cause of high morbidity and mortality in several states across India. However, in 2014, a sharp rise was observed in the number of cases of JE in north-eastern Assam state, and 51% of the total cases of JE in India were reported from the Assam in the same year. In this regard, a study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers in Darrang, a district of Assam highly affected by JE.
  6. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Malik S, Mohanta GP, Parimalakrishnan S, Patel I, et al.
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Oct-Dec;8(4):335-340.
    PMID: 28216959 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.199340
    BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis and respiratory illnesses are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prescription pattern of antibiotic utilization during the treatment of cough/cold and/or diarrhea in pediatric patients.

    METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted for 6 months in pediatric units of a tertiary care hospital in South India. Children under 5 years of age presenting with illness related to diarrhea and/or cough/cold were included in this study. Data were collected by reviewing patient files and then assessed for its appropriateness against the criteria developed in view of the Medication Appropriateness Index and Guidelines of the Indian Academy of Pediatrics. The results were expressed in frequencies and percentages. Chi-square test was used to analyze the data. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

    RESULTS: A total of 303 patients were studied during the study period. The mean age of the patients was 3.5 ± 0.6 years. The majority of children were admitted mainly due to chief complaint of fever (63%) and cough and cold (56.4%). The appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions was higher in bloody and watery diarrhea (83.3% and 82.6%; P < 0.05). Cephalosporins (46.2%) and penicillins (39.9%) were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics, though the generic prescriptions of these drugs were the lowest (13.5% and 10%, respectively). The seniority of prescriber was significantly associated with the appropriateness of prescriptions (P < 0.05). Antibiotics prescription was higher in cold/cough and diarrhea (93.5%) in comparison to cough/cold (85%) or diarrhea (75%) alone.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study observed high rates of antibiotic utilization in Chidambaram during the treatment of cough/cold and/or diarrhea in pediatric patients. The findings highlight the need for combined interventions using education and expert counseling, targeted to the clinical conditions and classes of antibiotic for which inappropriate usage is most common.
  7. Rafi MS, Naqvi SB, Khan MU, Fayyaz M, Ashraf N, Khan MA, et al.
    J Clin Diagn Res, 2015 Jul;9(7):FC05-8.
    PMID: 26393139 DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/13437.6207
    Limited resources of healthcare system and high use of antidepressants have raised some serious concerns regarding proper surveillance system of prescribed medicines. Not much literature is available from Pakistan regarding the potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs) associated with antidepressants.
  8. Saravanan S, Sareen N, Abu-El-Rub E, Ashour H, Sequiera GL, Ammar HI, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2018 10 10;8(1):15069.
    PMID: 30305684 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-33144-0
    Abnormal conduction and improper electrical impulse propagation are common in heart after myocardial infarction (MI). The scar tissue is non-conductive therefore the electrical communication between adjacent cardiomyocytes is disrupted. In the current study, we synthesized and characterized a conductive biodegradable scaffold by incorporating graphene oxide gold nanosheets (GO-Au) into a clinically approved natural polymer chitosan (CS). Inclusion of GO-Au nanosheets in CS scaffold displayed two fold increase in electrical conductivity. The scaffold exhibited excellent porous architecture with desired swelling and controlled degradation properties. It also supported cell attachment and growth with no signs of discrete cytotoxicity. In a rat model of MI, in vivo as well as in isolated heart, the scaffold after 5 weeks of implantation showed a significant improvement in QRS interval which was associated with enhanced conduction velocity and contractility in the infarct zone by increasing connexin 43 levels. These results corroborate that implantation of novel conductive polymeric scaffold in the infarcted heart improved the cardiac contractility and restored ventricular function. Therefore, our approach may be useful in planning future strategies to construct clinically relevant conductive polymer patches for cardiac patients with conduction defects.
  9. Sartelli M, Kluger Y, Ansaloni L, Hardcastle TC, Rello J, Watkins RR, et al.
    World J Emerg Surg, 2018;13:6.
    PMID: 29416555 DOI: 10.1186/s13017-018-0165-6
    The Global Alliance for Infections in Surgery appreciates the great effort of the task force who derived and validated the Sepsis-3 definitions and considers the new definitions an important step forward in the evolution of our understanding of sepsis. Nevertheless, more than a year after their publication, we have a few concerns regarding the use of the Sepsis-3 definitions.
  10. Sartelli M, Weber DG, Ruppé E, Bassetti M, Wright BJ, Ansaloni L, et al.
    World J Emerg Surg, 2017;12:35.
    PMID: 28785301 DOI: 10.1186/s13017-017-0147-0
    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13017-016-0089-y.].
  11. Sartelli M, Weber DG, Ruppé E, Bassetti M, Wright BJ, Ansaloni L, et al.
    World J Emerg Surg, 2016;11:33.
    PMID: 27429642 DOI: 10.1186/s13017-016-0089-y
    Intra-abdominal infections (IAI) are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in high-risk patients. The cornerstones in the management of complicated IAIs are timely effective source control with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is important in the management of intra-abdominal infections and must be broad enough to cover all likely organisms because inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with poor patient outcomes and the development of bacterial resistance. The overuse of antimicrobials is widely accepted as a major driver of some emerging infections (such as C. difficile), the selection of resistant pathogens in individual patients, and for the continued development of antimicrobial resistance globally. The growing emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms and the limited development of new agents available to counteract them have caused an impending crisis with alarming implications, especially with regards to Gram-negative bacteria. An international task force from 79 different countries has joined this project by sharing a document on the rational use of antimicrobials for patients with IAIs. The project has been termed AGORA (Antimicrobials: A Global Alliance for Optimizing their Rational Use in Intra-Abdominal Infections). The authors hope that AGORA, involving many of the world's leading experts, can actively raise awareness in health workers and can improve prescribing behavior in treating IAIs.
  12. Sartelli M, Labricciosa FM, Barbadoro P, Pagani L, Ansaloni L, Brink AJ, et al.
    World J Emerg Surg, 2017;12:34.
    PMID: 28775763 DOI: 10.1186/s13017-017-0145-2
    BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs) have been promoted to optimize antimicrobial usage and patient outcomes, and to reduce the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant organisms. However, the best strategies for an ASP are not definitively established and are likely to vary based on local culture, policy, and routine clinical practice, and probably limited resources in middle-income countries. The aim of this study is to evaluate structures and resources of antimicrobial stewardship teams (ASTs) in surgical departments from different regions of the world.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted in 2016 on 173 physicians who participated in the AGORA (Antimicrobials: A Global Alliance for Optimizing their Rational Use in Intra-Abdominal Infections) project and on 658 international experts in the fields of ASPs, infection control, and infections in surgery.

    RESULTS: The response rate was 19.4%. One hundred fifty-six (98.7%) participants stated their hospital had a multidisciplinary AST. The median number of physicians working inside the team was five [interquartile range 4-6]. An infectious disease specialist, a microbiologist and an infection control specialist were, respectively, present in 80.1, 76.3, and 67.9% of the ASTs. A surgeon was a component in 59.0% of cases and was significantly more likely to be present in university hospitals (89.5%, p 

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