Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

  1. Ganasegeran K, Rashid A
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2017;11:1975-1985.
    PMID: 29263654 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S151053
    Background: Although evidence-based practice has shown the benefits of prescribed cardioprotective drugs in post-myocardial infarction (MI) survivors, adherence rates remain suboptimal. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with medication nonadherence among post-MI survivors in Malaysia.
    Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from February to September 2016 among 242 post-MI survivors aged 24-96 years at the cardiology outpatient clinic in a Malaysian cardiac specialist center. The study utilized an interviewer-administered questionnaire that consisted of items adapted and modified from the validated Simplified Medication Adherence Questionnaire, sociodemographics, health factors, perceived barriers, and novel psychological attributes, which employed the modified Confusion, Hubbub, and Order Scale and the Verbal Denial in Myocardial Infarction questionnaire.
    Results: The prevalence of medication nonadherence was 74%. In the multivariable model, denial of illness (AOR 1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.8; P=0.032), preference to traditional medicine (AOR 8.7, 95% CI 1.1-31.7; P=0.044), lack of information about illness (AOR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-10.6; P=0.045), fear of side effects (AOR 6.4, 95% CI 2.5-16.6; P<0.001), and complex regimen (AOR 5.2, 95% CI 1.9-14.2; P=0.001) were statistically significant variables associated with medication nonadherence.
    Conclusion: The relatively higher medication-nonadherence rate in this study was associated with patient-, provider-, and therapy-related factors and the novel psychological attribute denial of illness. Future research should explore these factors using robust methodological techniques to determine temporality among these factors.
    Study site: Cardiology clinic, Serdang Hospital, Selangor, Malaysia
  2. Ganasegeran K, Al-Dubai SA
    J Postgrad Med, 2014 Jan-Mar;60(1):12-5.
    PMID: 24625933 DOI: 10.4103/0022-3859.128799
    The practice of medicine requires good communication skills to foster excellent rapport in doctor patient relationship. Reports on communication skills learning attitude among medical professionals are key essentials toward improving patient safety and quality of care.
  3. Ganasegeran K, Selvaraj K, Rashid A
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Aug;24(4):39-46.
    PMID: 28951688 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.4.5
    BACKGROUND: The six item Confusion, Hubbub and Order Scale (CHAOS-6) has been validated as a reliable tool to measure levels of household disorder. We aimed to investigate the goodness of fit and reliability of a new Malay version of the CHAOS-6.

    METHODS: The original English version of the CHAOS-6 underwent forward-backward translation into the Malay language. The finalised Malay version was administered to 105 myocardial infarction survivors in a Malaysian cardiac health facility. We performed confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) using structural equation modelling. A path diagram and fit statistics were yielded to determine the Malay version's validity. Composite reliability was tested to determine the scale's reliability.

    RESULTS: All 105 myocardial infarction survivors participated in the study. The CFA yielded a six-item, one-factor model with excellent fit statistics. Composite reliability for the single factor CHAOS-6 was 0.65, confirming that the scale is reliable for Malay speakers.

    CONCLUSION: The Malay version of the CHAOS-6 was reliable and showed the best fit statistics for our study sample. We thus offer a simple, brief, validated, reliable and novel instrument to measure chaos, the Skala Kecelaruan, Keriuhan & Tertib Terubahsuai (CHAOS-6), for the Malaysian population.

  4. Ganasegeran K, Perianayagam W, Nagaraj P, Al-Dubai SA
    Occup Med (Lond), 2014 Jul;64(5):372-5.
    PMID: 24727561 DOI: 10.1093/occmed/kqu039
    Low back pain (LBP) is the most costly ailment in the work force. Risky work behaviour and psychological stress are established risk factors.

    To explore the associations between workplace risk factors, psychological stress and LBP among Malaysian railway workers.

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on railway workers in Malaysia. Socio-demographics, workplace risk factors for LBP, perceived psychological stress and history of LBP over the previous month were obtained by direct interviews using a structured closed-ended questionnaire. Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted.

    There were 513 study participants (70% response rate). The prevalence of LBP in the previous month was 69%. Multivariate analysis yielded four significant predictors of LBP: employment of ≥ 10 years, lifting and lowering heavy loads, prolonged standing posture and psychological stress.

    The high prevalence of LBP and its significant associations with physical and psychological stress factors in railway workers points to an urgent need for preventive measures, particularly among workers in high-risk occupations.
  5. Awai NS, Ganasegeran K, Abdul Manaf MR
    PMID: 33447111 DOI: 10.2147/RMHP.S280954
    Background and Purpose: Workplace bullying has been regarded as a serious phenomenon, particularly in health-care settings, due to its tendency to predispose health workers to serious psychological repercussions, job dissatisfaction, and turnover. Such consequences are costly to health systems and disruptive to the continuity of patient care. While global bullying literature in health settings grows, evidence on the magnitude of the problem from a Malaysian perspective is scarce. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of workplace bullying and its associated factors among health workers in a Malaysian public university hospital.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from October to December 2019 among 178 hospital workers at the Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The study utilized a self-administered questionnaire that consisted of items on sociodemographics, work characteristics, sources of bullying, and the validated Malay version of the 23-item Negative Acts Questionnaire - revised to determine the prevalence of bullying. Descriptive and inferential statistics were analyzed using SPSS 22.0. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05.

    Results: The prevalence of workplace bullying in this sample was 11.2%. Superiors or supervisors from other departments and colleagues were the main perpetrators. In the multivariate model, working for 10 years or less (aOR 4, 95% CI 1.3-12.3; P=0.014) and not being involved in patient care (aOR 5, 95% CI 2.5-10; P<0.001) were statistically significant attributes associated with workplace bullying.

    Conclusion: Workplace bullying in the current study was strongly associated with occupational characteristics, particularly length of service and service orientation of the workers. Hospital directors and managers could undertake preventive measures to identify groups vulnerable to bullying and subsequently craft appropriate coping strategies and mentoring programs to curb bullying.

  6. Ganasegeran K, Rajendran AK, Al-Dubai SA
    PLoS One, 2014;9(11):e112124.
    PMID: 25375256 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0112124
    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as a source of cure has gained much spectrum worldwide, despite skeptics and advocates of evidence-based practice conceptualized such therapies as human nostrum.
  7. Al-Dubai S, Ganasegeran K, Barua A, Rizal A, Rampal K
    Ann Med Health Sci Res, 2014 Jul;4(Suppl 2):S104-7.
    PMID: 25184074 DOI: 10.4103/2141-9248.138023
    BACKGROUND: The 10-item version of Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) is a widely used tool to measure stress. The Malay version of the PSS-10 has been validated among Malaysian Medical Students. However, studies have not been conducted to assess its validity in occupational settings.
    AIM: The aim of this study is to assess the psychometric properties of the Malay version of the PSS-10 in two occupational setting in Malaysia.
    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study was conducted among 191 medical residents and 513 railway workers. An exploratory factor analysis was performed using the principal component method with varimax rotation. Correlation analyses, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin, Bartlett's test of Sphericity and Cronbach's alpha were obtained. Statistical analysis was carried out using statistical package for the social sciences version 16 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) software.
    RESULTS: Analysis yielded two factor structure of the Malay version of PSS-10 in both occupational groups. The two factors accounted for 59.2% and 64.8% of the variance in the medical residents and the railway workers respectively. Factor loadings were greater than 0.59 in both occupational groups. Cronbach's alpha co-efficient was 0.70 for medical residents and 0.71 for railway workers.
    CONCLUSION: The Malay version of PSS-10 had adequate psychometric properties and can be used to measure stress among occupational settings in Malaysia.
    KEYWORDS: Factor structure; Malaysia; Occupational; Perceived stress scale; Psychometric properties; Validity
  8. Ganasegeran K, Renganathan P, Manaf RA, Al-Dubai SA
    BMJ Open, 2014;4(4):e004794.
    PMID: 24760351 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-004794
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with anxiety and depression among type 2 diabetes outpatients in Malaysia.
    DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional single-centre study with universal sampling of all patients with type 2 diabetes.
    SETTING: Endocrinology clinic of medical outpatient department in a Malaysian public hospital.
    PARTICIPANTS: All 169 patients with type 2 diabetes (men, n=99; women, n=70) aged between 18 and 90 years who acquired follow-up treatment from the endocrinology clinic in the month of September 2013.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The validated Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), sociodemographic characteristics and clinical health information from patient records.
    RESULTS: Of the total 169 patients surveyed, anxiety and depression were found in 53 (31.4%) and 68 (40.3%), respectively. In multivariate analysis, age, ethnicity and ischaemic heart disease were significantly associated with anxiety, while age, ethnicity and monthly household income were significantly associated with depression.
    CONCLUSIONS: Sociodemographics and clinical health factors were important correlates of anxiety and depression among patients with diabetes. Integrated psychological and medical care to boost self-determination and confidence in the management of diabetes would catalyse optimal health outcomes among patients with diabetes.
    Study site: Endocrinology Clinic, Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Hospital (HTAR), Selangor, Malaysia
  9. Al-Dubai SA, Ganasegeran K, Perianayagam W, Rampal KG
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:137620.
    PMID: 24367238 DOI: 10.1155/2013/137620
    This study was the first to explore factors associated with emotional burnout (EB) among medical residents in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a universal sample of 205 medical residents in a Malaysian general hospital. The self-administered questionnaire used consisted of questions on sociodemographics and work characteristics, sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, engagement, and EB. EB was measured using the emotional exhaustion subscale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Mean (±SD) age of the respondents was 26.5 (±1.6). The most common source of job stress was "fear of making mistakes." Most of the participants were dissatisfied with the increase of residentship period from one year to two years. A high level of EB was reported by 36.6% of the respondents. In multivariate analysis, the most important correlates of EB were sources of job stress, professional fulfillment, and engagement. A high prevalence of EB was found among medical residents. Sociodemographic characteristics, performance pressure, and satisfaction with policies were significantly associated with EB. Although this study was limited by its cross-sectional design, its findings posit a sufficient foundation to relevant authorities to construct, amend, and amalgamate existing and future policies. Nothing will sustain you more potently than the power to recognize in your humdrum routine, as perhaps it may be thought, the true poetry of life-the poetry of the common place, of the common man, of the plain, toil-worn woman, with their loves and their joys, their sorrows and their grief.SirWilliam Osler, Aphorisms from the Student Life (Aequanimitas, 1952).
  10. Abdulrahman SA, Ganasegeran K, Rampal L, Martins OF
    AIDS Rev, 2019 08 06;21(3):23-27.
    PMID: 31386650 DOI: 10.24875/AIDSRev.19000069
    Non-adherence remains a significant barrier to achieving successful HIV treatment outcomes. This review aimed to holistically examine the concept of adherence in the light of current research evidence and to provide a basic and adaptable conceptual framework for investigating and influencing adherence behavior among various HIV populations. We reviewed published journal articles and gray literature within the period from 2000 to 2017. A comprehensive search from major online databases and repositories such as PubMed, Scopus, Medline, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was conducted using focused search terms that included "social cognition models" or "theories and models of health behavior change" or "behavior change in health psychology" or "theory-based interventions" or "behavioral frameworks" and "adherence behavior" or "medication adherence," and "HIV patients" or "HIV/AIDS." Only papers published in English were included in this study. We found varied and extensive literature evidence supporting the use of psychobehavioral models to promote conceptual understanding of adherence behavior among HIV-positive patients globally. We observed that certain approaches at investigating nonadherence worked better among certain populations and epidemics than others, largely because of contextual differences in barriers and burden of non-adherence among these populations. We synthesized the evidence and applied social cognition models in explaining and providing a basic, evidence-based and adaptable conceptual framework for investigating and influencing adherence behavior among HIV-positive populations around the world, regardless of geographical and HIV epidemiological context.
  11. Ganasegeran K, Ch'ng ASH, Aziz ZA, Looi I
    Sci Rep, 2020 07 09;10(1):11353.
    PMID: 32647336 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-68335-1
    Stroke has emerged as a major public health concern in Malaysia. We aimed to determine the trends and temporal associations of real-time health information-seeking behaviors (HISB) and stroke incidences in Malaysia. We conducted a countrywide ecological correlation and time series study using novel internet multi-timeline data stream of 6,282 hit searches and conventional surveillance data of 14,396 stroke cases. We searched popular search terms related to stroke in Google Trends between January 2004 and March 2019. We explored trends by comparing average relative search volumes (RSVs) by month and weather through linear regression bootstrapping methods. Geographical variations between regions and states were determined through spatial analytics. Ecological correlation analysis between RSVs and stroke incidences was determined via Pearson's correlations. Forecasted model was yielded through exponential smoothing. HISB showed both cyclical and seasonal patterns. Average RSV was significantly higher during Northeast Monsoon when compared to Southwest Monsoon (P 
  12. Abdulrahman SA, Ganasegeran K, Rampal L, Martins OF
    AIDS Rev, 2019;21(1):28-39.
    PMID: 30899114 DOI: 10.24875/AIDSRev.19000037
    Successful HIV treatment is contingent on sustained high levels of treatment adherence. Several barriers to optimal adherence have been documented. In this article, we first review the global burden of non-adherence among HIV/AIDS positive individuals on a public health scale. Second, we synthesized available evidence from different study designs and stratified across the European, African, and Asian literature to determine the factors influencing adherence to scheduled clinic appointments and medication non-adherence. Third, we discuss common measurement techniques that quantify the magnitude of non-adherence, their relative advantages and limitations in current practice. From January to May 2018, we reviewed guidelines, standard operating procedures, journal articles, and book chapters on treatment adherence among HIV patients receiving adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. We searched PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews with the search terms "adherence," "adherence behavior," "medication adherence," and "HIV patients," or "HIV/AIDS," and "Antiretroviral Therapy" or "ART" or "ARVs" or "highly active ART " from 2000 to 2017. We also identified articles through searches of authors' files and previous research on HIV. We included only papers published in English in this review. We then generated a final list of reference on the basis of originality and the broad scope of this review. We found rich literature evidence of research findings and best practice recommendations on the importance of adherence in HIV/AIDS management, a general understanding of factors associated with non-adherence and approaches to investigating non-adherence behavior among different populations. We observed significant contextual differences exist with regard to barriers and burden of non-adherence among these populations.
  13. Abdulrahman SA, Ganasegeran K, Loon CW, Rashid A
    Tob Induc Dis, 2020;18:26.
    PMID: 32292316 DOI: 10.18332/tid/118720
    INTRODUCTION: The use of e-cigarettes (EC) has reached alarming proportions among Malaysians. On a national level, little is known about the profile and perceptions of Malaysian EC users. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of long-term EC usage and its associated factors among EC users in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This nationwide online questionnaire survey was administered among 694 EC users across 13 states and 1 Federal Territory in Malaysia, between January and April 2018. A survey link was e-mailed to EC users that were recruited from an official national vape entity through their Facebook association page. We obtained information on respondents' sociodemographic characteristics, smoking habits, long-term e-cigarette usage and perceptions of EC use. We estimated long-term EC user prevalence and fitted multivariate regression models to predict factors associated with long-term EC usage. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05.

    RESULTS: Respondents were predominantly Malays (87.6%), aged >30 years (68.1%) and tertiary educated (71%). The majority were employed (93.1%) with a monthly household income of MYR 4000 or less (56.6%). About 84% were former smokers, while 10% were current smokers. The prevalence of long-term EC usage in this study was 82.3%. Most users believed that EC had helped them to cut down tobacco smoking (94.8%), reduced the urge to smoke (88.3%) and ultimately helped them to quit smoking (87.2%). Respondents aged >30 years and those who perceived that EC has helped them stop smoking were significantly more likely to be long-term EC users.

    CONCLUSIONS: Most respondents engaged in EC use to quit smoking. They were more likely to be long-term EC users if they were older and perceived that EC has helped them to quit smoking. This information is valuable for targeted prevention, health promotion and policy regulations.
  14. Ganasegeran K, Renganathan P, Rashid A, Al-Dubai SA
    Int J Med Inform, 2017 01;97:145-151.
    PMID: 27919374 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2016.10.013
    BACKGROUND: The dawn of m-Health facilitates new horizons of professional communication through WhatsApp, allowing health professionals to interact fast and efficiently for effective patient management. This preliminary study aimed to investigate perceived benefits, if any, of WhatsApp use across general medical and emergency teams during clinical practice in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a universal sample of 307 health professionals comprising of nurses, medical assistants, medical residents, medical officers and physicians across medical and casualty departments in a Malaysian public hospital. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of items on socio-demographics, WhatsApp usage characteristics and the type of communication events during clinical practice.

    RESULTS: The majority of respondents (68.4%) perceived WhatsApp as beneficial during clinical practice. In multivariate analysis, perceived benefits was significantly higher amongst the clinical management group (aOR=2.6, 95% CI 1.5-4.6, p=0.001), those using WhatsApp for >12months (aOR=1.7, 95% CI 1.0-3.0, p=0.047), those receiving response ≤15min to a new communication (aOR=1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.2, p=0.017), and frequent information giving events (aOR=2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8, p=0.016).

    CONCLUSION: Perceived benefits of WhatsApp use in clinical practice was significantly associated with usage characteristics and type of communication events. This study lays the foundation for quality improvement innovations in patient management delivered through m-Health technology.

  15. Ganasegeran K, Perianayagam W, Manaf RA, Jadoo SA, Al-Dubai SA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2015;2015:714754.
    PMID: 25654133 DOI: 10.1155/2015/714754
    This study aimed to explore factors associated with patient satisfaction of outpatient medical care in Malaysia. A cross-sectional exit survey was conducted among 340 outpatients aged between 13 and 80 years after successful clinical consultations and treatment acquirements using convenience sampling at the outpatient medical care of Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Hospital (HTAR), Malaysia, being the country's busiest medical outpatient facility. A survey that consisted of sociodemography, socioeconomic, and health characteristics and the validated Short-Form Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ-18) scale were used. Patient satisfaction was the highest in terms of service factors or tangible priorities, particularly "technical quality" and "accessibility and convenience," but satisfaction was low in terms of service orientation of doctors, particularly the "time spent with doctor," "interpersonal manners," and "communication" during consultations. Gender, income level, and purpose of visit to the clinic were important correlates of patient satisfaction. Effort to improve service orientation among doctors through periodical professional development programs at hospital and national level is essential to boost the country's health service satisfaction.

    Study site: outpatient medical care of Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Hospital (HTAR
  16. Ganasegeran K, Menke JM, Challakere Ramaswamy VM, Abdul Manaf R, Alabsi AM, Al-Dubai SA
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:370273.
    PMID: 24701573 DOI: 10.1155/2014/370273
    BACKGROUND: Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, an ancient malady greatly impairing modern population quality of life, has stimulated global attention to find effective modes of prevention and intervention.
    PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess factors affecting knowledge of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) among Malaysian railway workers.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 513 railway workers involving eight major states within Peninsular Malaysia using population-based sampling. The assessment instrument was a face-validated, prepiloted, self-administered instrument with sociodemographics and knowledge items on knee OA.
    RESULTS: Mean (± SD) age of the respondents was 41.4 (± 10.7), with the majority aged 50 years or older (34.9%). Of the total respondents, 53.6% had low levels of knowledge of knee OA disease. Multivariate analysis found that four demographic predictors, age ≥ 50 years, family history of knee OA, self-awareness, and clinical diagnosis of the disease entity, were significantly associated with knowledge scores.
    CONCLUSION: The finding of a low level knee OA knowledge among Malaysian railway workers points to an urgent need for massive information to be disseminated among the workers at risk to foster primary prevention and self-care.
  17. Al-Dubai S, Ganasegeran K, Alshagga M, Hawash A, Wajih W, Kassim S
    Health Psychol Res, 2014 Jan 13;2(1):1195.
    PMID: 26973928 DOI: 10.4081/hpr.2014.1195
    This study aimed to explore factors associated, specifically belief factors, with self-reported tobacco smoking status. A sample of 300 students was recruited from a private university in Malaysia. Data was collected using a pre-tested self-administrated questionnaire that investigated various factors including socio-demographics, socio-economic status, smoking behavior and beliefs on tobacco smoking. The main tobacco use in this study sample was cigarettes and the estimated prevalence of self-reported cigarette smoking was 10.3%. In bivariate analysis, self-reported cigarette smoking was significantly associated with socio-demographic, behavioral factors and faculty of study (P<0.05). In multivariate modeling, being male and a non-medical student, did not exercise, having a smoker father and brother or sister, suffering from financial difficulties and having the belief that smokers had more friends, all had statistically significant associations (P<0.05) with self-reported cigarette smoking. Social and interpersonal factors were associated with self-reported cigarette smoking status. A comprehensive health model focusing on changing the social norms of parent and sibling tobacco smoking and students' beliefs, alongside nurturing skills of dealing with stressful situations, warrant implementation.
  18. Al-Dubai SA, Ganasegeran K, Al-Shagga MA, Yadav H, Arokiasamy JT
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:465161.
    PMID: 24453859 DOI: 10.1155/2013/465161
    Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationship, unhealthy behaviors, and health effects. Mean age was 20.5 (±2.7) years. All students had a Facebook account. The average daily Facebook surfing hours were 2.5 (±1.7). Significant associations were found between average hours of Facebook surfing and the following factors: isolation from family members and community, refusing to answer calls, musculoskeletal pain, headache, and eye irritation (P < 0.005). The average hours spent on Facebook were significantly associated with holding urination and defecation while online, surfing Facebook until midnight, and postponing, forgetting, or skipping meals (P < 0.005). The average hours spent on Facebook were associated with adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students, as well as social isolation from the family and community.
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