OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with anxiety and depression among type 2 diabetes outpatients in Malaysia.
DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional single-centre study with universal sampling of all patients with type 2 diabetes.
SETTING: Endocrinology clinic of medical outpatient department in a Malaysian public hospital.
PARTICIPANTS: All 169 patients with type 2 diabetes (men, n=99; women, n=70) aged between 18 and 90 years who acquired follow-up treatment from the endocrinology clinic in the month of September 2013.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The validated Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), sociodemographic characteristics and clinical health information from patient records.
RESULTS: Of the total 169 patients surveyed, anxiety and depression were found in 53 (31.4%) and 68 (40.3%), respectively. In multivariate analysis, age, ethnicity and ischaemic heart disease were significantly associated with anxiety, while age, ethnicity and monthly household income were significantly associated with depression.
CONCLUSIONS: Sociodemographics and clinical health factors were important correlates of anxiety and depression among patients with diabetes. Integrated psychological and medical care to boost self-determination and confidence in the management of diabetes would catalyse optimal health outcomes among patients with diabetes.
Study site: Endocrinology Clinic, Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Hospital (HTAR), Selangor, Malaysia
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.