AIMS: To assess the estradiol induced changes in plasma ceruloplasmin concentration on exposure of the rats to acute stress.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Acute stress was induced by forcing the rats to swim till exhaustion. The rats were overiectomised bilaterally to remove the primary source of sex hormones. And hormone replacement was done later.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Wistar albino female rats were used. Acute stress was induced before overiectomy, following recovery from surgery, and again after Estradiol Valerate injection (for 10 days) in same group of rats. The plasma ceruloplasmin was estimated immediately after stress during each stage--that is preoperative control, stressed control, after overiectomy and then following treatment with Estradiol Valerate.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Paired sample T test was applied to analyze the findings.
RESULTS: We found lowest ceruloplasmin level after stress in overiectomised animals, while on substitution of estradiol the trend appeared to be reversed.
CONCLUSION: The result suggested a direct effect of estrogen on hepatic ceruloplasmin production/release and this could account for some of the beneficial effects of hormone replacement therapy.
METHODS: Thirty nine eyes of 39 new keratoconus patients were selected and randomly fitted with two types of RGP contact lenses. Group 1 had 21 eyes with regular rigid gas-permeable (RRGP) contact lens and rest 18 eyes were in group 2 with specially designed rigid gas-permeable (SRGP) contact lens. Corneal cell morphology was evaluated using a slit scanning confocal microscope at no-lens wear and after 1y of contact lens wearing.
RESULTS: After 1y of contact lens wearing in group 1, the mean anterior and posterior stromal keratocyte density were significantly less (P=0.006 and P=0.001, respectively) compared to no-lens wear. The mean cell area of anterior and posterior stromal keratocyte were also significantly different (P=0.005 and P=0.001) from no-lens wear. The anterior and posterior stromal haze increased by 18.74% and 23.81%, respectively after 1y of contact lens wearing. Whereas in group 2, statistically significant changes were observed only in cell density & area of anterior stroma (P=0.001 and P=0.001, respectively) after 1y. While, level of anterior and posterior stromal haze increased by 16.67% and 11.11% after 1y of contact lens wearing. Polymegathism and pleomorphism also increased after 1y of contact lens wearing in both the contact lens groups.
CONCLUSION: Confocal microscopy observation shows the significant alterations in corneal cell morphology of keratoconic corneas wearing contact lenses especially in group 1. The type of contact lens must be carefully selected to minimize changes in corneal cell morphology.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the corneal cell morphology of 47 keratoconus patients and 32 healthy eyes without any ocular disease. New keratoconus patients with different disease severities and without any other ocular co-morbidity were recruited from the ophthalmology department of a public hospital in Malaysia from June 2013 to May 2014. Corneal cell morphology was evaluated using an in vivo slit-scanning confocal microscope. Qualitative and quantitative data were analysed using a grading scale and the Nidek Advanced Visual Information System software, respectively.
RESULTS: The corneal cell morphology of patients with keratoconus was significantly different from that of healthy eyes except in endothelial cell density (P = 0.072). In the keratoconus group, increased level of stromal haze, alterations such as the elongation of keratocyte nuclei and clustering of cells at the anterior stroma, and dark bands in the posterior stroma were observed with increased severity of the disease. The mean anterior and posterior stromal keratocyte densities and cell areas among the different stages of keratoconus were significantly different (P < 0.001 and P = 0.044, respectively). However, the changes observed in the endothelium were not significantly different (P > 0.05) among the three stages of keratoconus.
CONCLUSION: Confocal microscopy observation showed significant changes in corneal cell morphology in keratoconic cornea from normal healthy cornea. Analysis also showed significant changes in different severities of keratoconus. Understanding the corneal cell morphology changes in keratoconus may help in the long-term monitoring and management of keratoconus.
Methods: Pseudopregnancy (pc) was induced in cyclic Sprague-Dawley rats by sterile mating. Subcutaneous injection of nicotine tartrate (7.5 mg/kg/day) was scheduled from day 1 through day 5, day 5 through day 9 or day 1 through day 9 of pc. In another group of pseudopregnant rats, concomitant treatment of nicotine tartrate concurrently with progesterone (2 mg/day) was scheduled from day 1 through day 9 pc. Control groups received subcutaneous injections of vehicle only. Endometrial decidualization was induced on day 5 pc. On day 10 pc, animals were sacrificed.The degree of decidual growth and circulating levels of estrogen and progesterone were measured.
Results: The decidual growth in all the first three nicotine-treated groups of animals was significantly reduced, particularly in the animals treated with nicotine from day 1 through day 9 pc. Plasma estrogen levels were significantly elevated in animals treated with nicotine from day 1 through day 9 pc. Conversely, levels of plasma progesterone were found to be significantly attenuated in the same group of nicotine-treated animals compared to controls. Exogenous replacement of progesterone, however, caused a higher degree of endometrial decidualization compared to the nicotine-treated group but it was slightly less than when compared to control.
Conclusions: In conclusion, nicotine-induced progesterone deficiency with a corresponding elevation of estrogen may possibly attenuate the degree of endometrial decidualization in pseudopregnant rats.