Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 132 in total

  1. Britton J, Sachithanandan A, Srinivasan L, Ghosh S
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2011 Oct;66(4):363-4.
    PMID: 22299560 MyJurnal
    Unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis (UPAA) is a rare congenital anomaly usually diagnosed in infancy due to associated cardiovascular malformations. We report a rare case of isolated right UPAA that presented atypically in adulthood with massive haemoptysis requiring a pneumonectomy. This case highlights the importance of maintaining a high clinical suspicion, the role of CT angiography and a multi disciplinary approach. Optimal management is often surgical however bronchial artery embolization (BAE) remains a useful adjunct.
  2. Ganaraja B, Pavithran P, Ghosh S
    Indian J Med Sci, 2004 Apr;58(4):150-4.
    PMID: 15122050
    BACKGROUND: Plasma ceruloplasmin, a copper containing protein, belongs to a class called acute phase proteins. Reduced level of ceruloplasmin was associated with Wilson's disease and Menke's kinky hair disease in man, primarily affecting copper metabolism. Stress was known to increase Ceruloplasmin. Several stress associated changes were commonly observed in women at menopause and also those who underwent overiectomy. Present experiment investigated the effect of estrogen on ceruloplasmin level in acute stress.

    AIMS: To assess the estradiol induced changes in plasma ceruloplasmin concentration on exposure of the rats to acute stress.

    SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Acute stress was induced by forcing the rats to swim till exhaustion. The rats were overiectomised bilaterally to remove the primary source of sex hormones. And hormone replacement was done later.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Wistar albino female rats were used. Acute stress was induced before overiectomy, following recovery from surgery, and again after Estradiol Valerate injection (for 10 days) in same group of rats. The plasma ceruloplasmin was estimated immediately after stress during each stage--that is preoperative control, stressed control, after overiectomy and then following treatment with Estradiol Valerate.

    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Paired sample T test was applied to analyze the findings.

    RESULTS: We found lowest ceruloplasmin level after stress in overiectomised animals, while on substitution of estradiol the trend appeared to be reversed.

    CONCLUSION: The result suggested a direct effect of estrogen on hepatic ceruloplasmin production/release and this could account for some of the beneficial effects of hormone replacement therapy.

  3. Jaiprakash H, Min AK, Ghosh S
    Korean J Med Educ, 2016 Mar;28(1):123-5.
    PMID: 26838577 DOI: 10.3946/kjme.2016.18
    This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL) course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group's tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group's tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors' performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors' scores in group 1 was 0.099 (p<0.001) and for group 2 was 0.305 (p<0.001). The higher correlation coefficient in the group where tutors received the PBL training reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course.
  4. Mutalib HA, Ghosh S, Sharanjeet-Kaur, Ghoshal R
    Clin Optom (Auckl), 2016;8:79-83.
    PMID: 30214352 DOI: 10.2147/OPTO.S106421
    A 22-year-old Indian female was referred to Sg Buloh hospital with the diagnosis of bilateral keratoconus. On examination, slit lamp biomicroscopy and corneal topography revealed stage 3 keratoconus in the right eye and stage 2 keratoconus in the left eye. Corneal cell morphology in both eyes was evaluated using confocal microscope. In qualitative observation, almost all corneal layers in right eye except endothelium were partially or completely obscured by haze. Additionally, morphological alterations, such as elongation of keratocyte nuclei and cluster of cells, and dark bands in the anterior stroma were observed in right eye. In the left eye, the amount of haze was less, allowing better visibility of the corneal layers compared with the right eye. The dark bands were evident in the posterior stroma. Quantitative analysis showed that anterior and posterior stromal keratocyte density and endothelium cell density were relatively low in the right eye (834.0, 700.5, and 2,133 cells/mm2, respectively) compared with the left eye (934.1, 750.6, and 2,361 cells/mm2, respectively). In this case, the right eye, exhibiting stage 3 keratoconus, showed more morphological alteration, particularly in the anterior stroma compared with the left eye with stage 2 keratoconus. Increased severity of the disease can explain these differences in corneal cell morphology.
  5. Ghosh S, Mutalib HA, Sharanjeet-Kaur, Ghoshal R, Retnasabapathy S
    Int J Ophthalmol, 2017;10(2):228-234.
    PMID: 28251081 DOI: 10.18240/ijo.2017.02.08
    AIM: To evaluate the corneal cell morphology of new keratoconus patients wearing two different types of rigid gas-permeable (RGP) contact lenses for 1y.

    METHODS: Thirty nine eyes of 39 new keratoconus patients were selected and randomly fitted with two types of RGP contact lenses. Group 1 had 21 eyes with regular rigid gas-permeable (RRGP) contact lens and rest 18 eyes were in group 2 with specially designed rigid gas-permeable (SRGP) contact lens. Corneal cell morphology was evaluated using a slit scanning confocal microscope at no-lens wear and after 1y of contact lens wearing.

    RESULTS: After 1y of contact lens wearing in group 1, the mean anterior and posterior stromal keratocyte density were significantly less (P=0.006 and P=0.001, respectively) compared to no-lens wear. The mean cell area of anterior and posterior stromal keratocyte were also significantly different (P=0.005 and P=0.001) from no-lens wear. The anterior and posterior stromal haze increased by 18.74% and 23.81%, respectively after 1y of contact lens wearing. Whereas in group 2, statistically significant changes were observed only in cell density & area of anterior stroma (P=0.001 and P=0.001, respectively) after 1y. While, level of anterior and posterior stromal haze increased by 16.67% and 11.11% after 1y of contact lens wearing. Polymegathism and pleomorphism also increased after 1y of contact lens wearing in both the contact lens groups.

    CONCLUSION: Confocal microscopy observation shows the significant alterations in corneal cell morphology of keratoconic corneas wearing contact lenses especially in group 1. The type of contact lens must be carefully selected to minimize changes in corneal cell morphology.

  6. Ghosh S, Mutalib HA, Kaur S, Ghoshal R, Retnasabapathy S
    Malays J Med Sci, 2017 Mar;24(2):44-54.
    PMID: 28894403 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/mjms2017.24.2.6
    PURPOSE: To evaluate corneal cell morphology in patients with keratoconus using an in vivo slit scanning confocal microscope.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the corneal cell morphology of 47 keratoconus patients and 32 healthy eyes without any ocular disease. New keratoconus patients with different disease severities and without any other ocular co-morbidity were recruited from the ophthalmology department of a public hospital in Malaysia from June 2013 to May 2014. Corneal cell morphology was evaluated using an in vivo slit-scanning confocal microscope. Qualitative and quantitative data were analysed using a grading scale and the Nidek Advanced Visual Information System software, respectively.

    RESULTS: The corneal cell morphology of patients with keratoconus was significantly different from that of healthy eyes except in endothelial cell density (P = 0.072). In the keratoconus group, increased level of stromal haze, alterations such as the elongation of keratocyte nuclei and clustering of cells at the anterior stroma, and dark bands in the posterior stroma were observed with increased severity of the disease. The mean anterior and posterior stromal keratocyte densities and cell areas among the different stages of keratoconus were significantly different (P < 0.001 and P = 0.044, respectively). However, the changes observed in the endothelium were not significantly different (P > 0.05) among the three stages of keratoconus.

    CONCLUSION: Confocal microscopy observation showed significant changes in corneal cell morphology in keratoconic cornea from normal healthy cornea. Analysis also showed significant changes in different severities of keratoconus. Understanding the corneal cell morphology changes in keratoconus may help in the long-term monitoring and management of keratoconus.

  7. Siti Norashikin MT, Ghosh S, Chatterjee R, Rajikin MH, Chatterjee A
    Reprod. Med. Biol., 2014 Jul;13(3):135-141.
    PMID: 29699157 DOI: 10.1007/s12522-013-0174-9
    Purpose: The present study aims to investigate the effects of nicotine on the endometrial decidual growth and levels of estrogen and progesterone in pseudopregnant rats.

    Methods: Pseudopregnancy (pc) was induced in cyclic Sprague-Dawley rats by sterile mating. Subcutaneous injection of nicotine tartrate (7.5 mg/kg/day) was scheduled from day 1 through day 5, day 5 through day 9 or day 1 through day 9 of pc. In another group of pseudopregnant rats, concomitant treatment of nicotine tartrate concurrently with progesterone (2 mg/day) was scheduled from day 1 through day 9 pc. Control groups received subcutaneous injections of vehicle only. Endometrial decidualization was induced on day 5 pc. On day 10 pc, animals were sacrificed.The degree of decidual growth and circulating levels of estrogen and progesterone were measured.

    Results: The decidual growth in all the first three nicotine-treated groups of animals was significantly reduced, particularly in the animals treated with nicotine from day 1 through day 9 pc. Plasma estrogen levels were significantly elevated in animals treated with nicotine from day 1 through day 9 pc. Conversely, levels of plasma progesterone were found to be significantly attenuated in the same group of nicotine-treated animals compared to controls. Exogenous replacement of progesterone, however, caused a higher degree of endometrial decidualization compared to the nicotine-treated group but it was slightly less than when compared to control.

    Conclusions: In conclusion, nicotine-induced progesterone deficiency with a corresponding elevation of estrogen may possibly attenuate the degree of endometrial decidualization in pseudopregnant rats.

  8. Ghosh S, Choudhury D, Roy T, Moradi A, Masjuki HH, Pingguan-Murphy B
    Sci Technol Adv Mater, 2015 Aug;16(4):045002.
    PMID: 27877822
    The concentration of biological components of synovial fluid (such as albumin, globulin, hyaluronic acid, and lubricin) varies between healthy persons and osteoarthritis (OA) patients. The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of such variation on tribological performance in a simulated hip joint model. The study was carried out experimentally by utilizing a pin-on-disk simulator on ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) and ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoP) hip joint implants. The experimental results show that both friction and wear of artificial joints fluctuate with the concentration level of biological components. Moreover, the performance also varies between material combinations. Wear debris sizes and shapes produced by ceramic and polyethylene were diverse. We conclude that the biological components of synovial fluid and their concentrations should be considered in order to select an artificial hip joint to best suit that patient.
  9. Ghosh S, Choudhury D, Roy T, Bin Mamat A, Masjuki HH, Pingguan-Murphy B
    Sci Technol Adv Mater, 2015 Jun;16(3):035002.
    PMID: 27877803
    Osteoarthritis-oriented synovial fluid (OASF), i.e., that typical of a patient with osteoarthritis, has different physical and biological characteristics than bovine serum (BS), a lubricant widely used in biotribological investigations. Micro-dimpled and diamond-like carbon- (DLC) coated surfaces are key emerging interfaces for orthopedic implants. In this study, tribological performances of dimpled surfaces, with and without DLC coating, have been investigated under both BS and OASF. The friction tests were performed utilizing a pin on a disk tribometer, whereas contact pressure, speed, and temperature were simulated to a 'medium walking gait' of hip joint conditions. The mechanical properties of the specimen and the physical properties of the lubricant were characterized before the friction test. Raman analysis was conducted to identify the coating condition both before and after the test. The DLC-coated dimpled surface showed maximum hardness and residual stress. A DLC-coated dimpled surface under an OASF lubricated condition yielded a lower friction coefficient and wear compared to those of plain and dimpled specimens. The higher graphitization of coated materials with increasing load was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy.
  10. Yu CY, Ang GY, Chua AL, Tan EH, Lee SY, Falero-Diaz G, et al.
    J. Microbiol. Methods, 2011 Sep;86(3):277-82.
    PMID: 21571011 DOI: 10.1016/j.mimet.2011.04.020
    Cholera is a communicable disease caused by consumption of contaminated food and water. This potentially fatal intestinal infection is characterised by profuse secretion of rice watery stool that can rapidly lead to severe dehydration and shock, thus requiring treatment to be given immediately. Epidemic and pandemic cholera are exclusively associated with Vibrio cholerae serogroups O1 and O139. In light of the need for rapid diagnosis of cholera and to prevent spread of outbreaks, we have developed and evaluated a direct one-step lateral flow biosensor for the simultaneous detection of both V. cholerae O1 and O139 serogroups using alkaline peptone water culture. Serogroup specific monoclonal antibodies raised against lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were used to functionalize the colloidal gold nanoparticles for dual detection in the biosensor. The assay is based on immunochromatographic principle where antigen-antibody reaction would result in the accumulation of gold nanoparticles and thus, the appearance of a red line on the strip. The dry-reagent dipstick format of the biosensor ensure user-friendly application, rapid result that can be read with the naked eyes and cold-chain free storage that is well-suited to be performed at resource-limited settings.
  11. Schaefer N, Rotermund C, Blumrich EM, Lourenco MV, Joshi P, Hegemann RU, et al.
    J. Neurochem., 2017 Jun 20.
    PMID: 28632905 DOI: 10.1111/jnc.14107
    One of the most intriguing features of the brain is its ability to be malleable, allowing it to adapt continually to changes in the environment. Specific neuronal activity patterns drive long-lasting increases or decreases in the strength of synaptic connections, referred to as long-term potentiation and long-term depression, respectively. Such phenomena have been described in a variety of model organisms, which are used to study molecular, structural, and functional aspects of synaptic plasticity. This review originated from the first International Society for Neurochemistry (ISN) and Journal of Neurochemistry (JNC) Flagship School held in Alpbach, Austria (Sep 2016), and will use its curriculum and discussions as a framework to review some of the current knowledge in the field of synaptic plasticity. First, we describe the role of plasticity during development and the persistent changes of neural circuitry occurring when sensory input is altered during critical developmental stages. We then outline the signaling cascades resulting in the synthesis of new plasticity-related proteins, which ultimately enable sustained changes in synaptic strength. Going beyond the traditional understanding of synaptic plasticity conceptualized by long-term potentiation and long-term depression, we discuss system-wide modifications and recently unveiled homeostatic mechanisms, such as synaptic scaling. Finally, we describe the neural circuits and synaptic plasticity mechanisms driving associative memory and motor learning. Evidence summarized in this review provides a current view of synaptic plasticity in its various forms, offers new insights into the underlying mechanisms and behavioral relevance, and provides directions for future research in the field of synaptic plasticity. Read the Editorial Highlight for this article on doi: 10.1111/jnc.14102.
  12. Clarke K, Ricciardi S, Pearson T, Bharudin I, Davidsen PK, Bonomo M, et al.
    Cell Rep, 2017 Nov 07;21(6):1507-1520.
    PMID: 29117557 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2017.10.040
    Regular endurance training improves muscle oxidative capacity and reduces the risk of age-related disorders. Understanding the molecular networks underlying this phenomenon is crucial. Here, by exploiting the power of computational modeling, we show that endurance training induces profound changes in gene regulatory networks linking signaling and selective control of translation to energy metabolism and tissue remodeling. We discovered that knockdown of the mTOR-independent factor Eif6, which we predicted to be a key regulator of this process, affects mitochondrial respiration efficiency, ROS production, and exercise performance. Our work demonstrates the validity of a data-driven approach to understanding muscle homeostasis.
  13. Watson A, Ghosh S, Williams MJ, Cuddy WS, Simmonds J, Rey MD, et al.
    Nat Plants, 2018 01;4(1):23-29.
    PMID: 29292376 DOI: 10.1038/s41477-017-0083-8
    The growing human population and a changing environment have raised significant concern for global food security, with the current improvement rate of several important crops inadequate to meet future demand 1 . This slow improvement rate is attributed partly to the long generation times of crop plants. Here, we present a method called 'speed breeding', which greatly shortens generation time and accelerates breeding and research programmes. Speed breeding can be used to achieve up to 6 generations per year for spring wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and pea (Pisum sativum), and 4 generations for canola (Brassica napus), instead of 2-3 under normal glasshouse conditions. We demonstrate that speed breeding in fully enclosed, controlled-environment growth chambers can accelerate plant development for research purposes, including phenotyping of adult plant traits, mutant studies and transformation. The use of supplemental lighting in a glasshouse environment allows rapid generation cycling through single seed descent (SSD) and potential for adaptation to larger-scale crop improvement programs. Cost saving through light-emitting diode (LED) supplemental lighting is also outlined. We envisage great potential for integrating speed breeding with other modern crop breeding technologies, including high-throughput genotyping, genome editing and genomic selection, accelerating the rate of crop improvement.
  14. Arora S, Steuernagel B, Gaurav K, Chandramohan S, Long Y, Matny O, et al.
    Nat. Biotechnol., 2019 02;37(2):139-143.
    PMID: 30718880 DOI: 10.1038/s41587-018-0007-9
    Disease resistance (R) genes from wild relatives could be used to engineer broad-spectrum resistance in domesticated crops. We combined association genetics with R gene enrichment sequencing (AgRenSeq) to exploit pan-genome variation in wild diploid wheat and rapidly clone four stem rust resistance genes. AgRenSeq enables R gene cloning in any crop that has a diverse germplasm panel.
  15. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2016 Feb 19;116(7):071801.
    PMID: 26943527 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.071801
    A search for narrow resonances in proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV is presented. The invariant mass distribution of the two leading jets is measured with the CMS detector using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.4  fb^{-1}. The highest observed dijet mass is 6.1 TeV. The distribution is smooth and no evidence for resonant particles is observed. Upper limits at 95% confidence level are set on the production cross section for narrow resonances with masses above 1.5 TeV. When interpreted in the context of specific models, the limits exclude string resonances with masses below 7.0 TeV, scalar diquarks below 6.0 TeV, axigluons and colorons below 5.1 TeV, excited quarks below 5.0 TeV, color-octet scalars below 3.1 TeV, and W^{'} bosons below 2.6 TeV. These results significantly extend previously published limits.
  16. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2015;75(5):235.
    PMID: 26069461
    Results are presented from a search for particle dark matter (DM), extra dimensions, and unparticles using events containing a jet and an imbalance in transverse momentum. The data were collected by the CMS detector in proton-proton collisions at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text]at a centre-of-mass energy of 8[Formula: see text]. The number of observed events is found to be consistent with the standard model prediction. Limits are placed on the DM-nucleon scattering cross section as a function of the DM particle mass for spin-dependent and spin-independent interactions. Limits are also placed on the scale parameter [Formula: see text] in the Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali (ADD) model of large extra dimensions, and on the unparticle model parameter [Formula: see text]. The constraints on ADD models and unparticles are the most stringent limits in this channel and those on the DM-nucleon scattering cross section are an improvement over previous collider results.
  17. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2015;75(6):251.
    PMID: 26097407
    A search for a standard model Higgs boson produced in association with a top-quark pair and decaying to bottom quarks is presented. Events with hadronic jets and one or two oppositely charged leptons are selected from a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.5[Formula: see text] collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC in [Formula: see text] collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8[Formula: see text]. In order to separate the signal from the larger [Formula: see text]  + jets background, this analysis uses a matrix element method that assigns a probability density value to each reconstructed event under signal or background hypotheses. The ratio between the two values is used in a maximum likelihood fit to extract the signal yield. The results are presented in terms of the measured signal strength modifier, [Formula: see text], relative to the standard model prediction for a Higgs boson mass of 125[Formula: see text]. The observed (expected) exclusion limit at a 95 % confidence level is [Formula: see text] (3.3), corresponding to a best fit value [Formula: see text].
  18. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2015;75(4):151.
    PMID: 25983648
    A search has been performed for long-lived particles that could have come to rest within the CMS detector, using the time intervals between LHC beam crossings. The existence of such particles could be deduced from observation of their decays via energy deposits in the CMS calorimeter appearing at times that are well separated from any proton-proton collisions. Using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.6[Formula: see text] of 8[Formula: see text] proton-proton collisions, and a search interval corresponding to 281 h of trigger livetime, 10 events are observed, with a background prediction of [Formula: see text] events. Limits are presented at 95 % confidence level on gluino and top squark production, for over 13 orders of magnitude in the mean proper lifetime of the stopped particle. Assuming a cloud model of R-hadron interactions, a gluino with mass [Formula: see text]1000[Formula: see text] and a top squark with mass [Formula: see text]525[Formula: see text] are excluded, for lifetimes between 1 [Formula: see text]s and 1000[Formula: see text]. These results are the most stringent constraints on stopped particles to date.
  19. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2015;75(5):186.
    PMID: 25983654
    This paper presents a measurement of the inclusive 3-jet production differential cross section at a proton-proton centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5[Formula: see text]collected with the CMS detector. The analysis is based on the three jets with the highest transverse momenta. The cross section is measured as a function of the invariant mass of the three jets in a range of 445-3270 GeV and in two bins of the maximum rapidity of the jets up to a value of 2. A comparison between the measurement and the prediction from perturbative QCD at next-to-leading order is performed. Within uncertainties, data and theory are in agreement. The sensitivity of the observable to the strong coupling constant [Formula: see text] is studied. A fit to all data points with 3-jet masses larger than 664 GeV gives a value of the strong coupling constant of [Formula: see text].
  20. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, Dragicevic M, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2015 Mar 13;114(10):101801.
    PMID: 25815923
    Results are presented from a search for new decaying massive particles whose presence is inferred from an imbalance in transverse momentum and which are produced in association with a single top quark that decays into a bottom quark and two light quarks. The measurement is performed using 19.7  fb^{-1} of data from proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8 TeV, collected with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. No deviations from the standard model predictions are observed and lower limits are set on the masses of new invisible bosons. In particular, scalar and vector particles, with masses below 330 and 650 GeV, respectively, are excluded at 95% confidence level, thereby substantially extending a previous limit published by the CDF Collaboration.
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