METHODS: A total of 345 wound swab samples were tested for bacterial pathogens. Acinetobacter baumannii was identified by culture and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined by the disc diffusion method according to CLSI standards. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases were screened using the double disc synergy technique. Gene encoding AdeB efflux pump and NDM-1 were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).
RESULTS: A total 22 (6.37%) Acinetobacter baumannii were identified from 345 wound swab samples and 20 (91%) of them were multidrug resistant. High resistance rates to some antibiotics were seen namely, cefotaxime (95%), amoxyclavulanic acid (90%) and ceftriaxone (82%). All the identified Acinetobacter baumannii were sensitive to colistin and 82% to imipenem. Two (9%) ESBL producing Acinetobacter baumannii strains were detected. adeB gene was detected in 16 (80%) out of 20 multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. 4 (18%) of 22 Acinetobacter baumannii were imipenem resistant. NDM-1 gene was detected in 2 (50%) of the imipenem resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide insight into the role of adeB gene as a potential regulator of drug resistance in Acinetobacter baumanni in Bangladesh. NDM-1 gene also contributes in developing such resistance for Acinetobacter baumannii.
METHODS: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) in to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were divided into six different groups; normal control rats were not induced with STZ and served as reference, STZ diabetic control rats were given normal saline. Three groups were treated with OS aqueous extract at 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 g/kg, orally twice daily continuously for 21 d. The fifth group was treated with glibenclamide (6 mg/kg) in aqueous solution orally continuously for 21 d. After completion of the treatment period, biochemical parameters and expression levels of glucose transporter 2 (Slc2a2), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) were determined in liver by quantitative real time PCR.
RESULTS: Administration of OS at different doses to STZ induced diabetic rats, resulted in significant decrease (P<0.05) in blood glucose level in a dose dependent manner by 36%, 48%, and 64% at doses of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 g/kg, respectively, in comparison to the STZ control values. Treatment with OS elicited an increase in the expression level of Slc2a2 gene but reduced the expression of G6Pase and PCK1 genes. Morefore, OS treated rats, showed significantly lower levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and urea levels compared to STZ untreated rats. The extract at different doses elicited signs of recovery in body weight gain when compared to STZ diabetic controls although food and water consumption were significantly lower in treated groups compared to STZ diabetic control group.
CONCLUSIONS: O. sumatrana aqueous extract is beneficial for improvement of hyperglycemia by increasing gene expression of liver Slc2a2 and reducing expression of G6Pase and PCK1 genes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
METHODS: Case report.
RESULTS: The use pre-operative halo-ring traction for a duration of 6 weeks in this case lead to improvement in cobb angle from 123.3°, kyphotic angle 87.1° to cobb angle of 78.0°, kyphotic angle 57.2° (on bending and stress films). The operation was completed in 150 min, blood loss 1050 ml (25 ml/kg), and cell salvage of 490 ml. He was immediately extubated post correction, but monitored in ICU for a day. Total length of stay was 8 days without any perioperative morbidity or allogeneic blood transfusion. Final post-operative radiograph showed a cobb angle of 44.2°, kyphotic angle 22.8°. Follow up at 27 months showed solid union with no significant loss of correction.
CONCLUSION: From this case experience, pre-operative halo traction is a useful surgical strategy in patients with Fontan circulation with severe kyposcoliosis to achieve adequate correction without additional osteotomies to minimize the risk of surgical correction.
Methods: The maize seeds were first photobiomodulated with two lasers: 1) a helium-neon (He-Ne) red laser (632.8 nm), and 2) a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) green laser (532 nm). Following three replications of randomized complete block design (RCBD), four irradiation treatments were applied (45 s, 65 s, 85 s, and 105 s) at two power intensities (2 mW/cm2 and 4 mW/cm2).
Results: Based on the results, maize seeds pretreated with a green laser and 2 mW/cm2 power intensity for 105 s exhibited the highest rate of seed emergence (96%) compared to the untreated control seeds with a lower seed emergence rate (62.5%). Furthermore, maize seeds treated with a red laser for 45 s showed an increased vigor index compared to the other treatment options and the control (P
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the amount of blood loss at different stages of Posterior Instrumented Spinal Fusion (PSF) surgery in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients.
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Knowing the pattern of blood loss at different surgical stages may enable the surgical team to formulate a management strategy to reduce intraoperative blood loss.
METHODS: One hundred AIS patients who underwent PSF from January 2013 to December 2014 were recruited. The operation was divided into six stages; stage 1-exposure, stage 2-screw insertion, stage 3-release, stage 4-correction, stage 5-corticotomies and bone grafting, and stage 6-closure. The duration and blood loss at each stage was documented. The following values were calculated: total blood loss, blood loss per estimated blood volume, blood loss per minute, blood loss per vertebral level fused, and blood loss per minute per vertebral level fused.
RESULTS: There were 89 females and 11 males. The mean age was 17.0 ± 5.8 years old. Majority (50.0%) were Lenke 1 curve type. The mean preoperative major Cobb angle was 64.9 ± 15.0°. The mean number of levels fused was 9.5 ± 2.3 levels. The mean operating time was 188.5 ± 53.4 minutes with a mean total blood loss 951.0 ± 454.0 mLs. The highest mean blood loss occurred at stage 2 (301.0 ± 196.7 mL), followed by stage 4 (226.8 ± 171.2 mL) and stage 5 (161.5 ± 146.6 mL). The highest mean blood loss per minute was at stage 5 (17.1 ± 18.3 mL/min), followed by stage 3 (12.0 ± 10.8 mL/min). The highest mean blood loss per vertebral levels fused was at stage 2 (31.0 ± 17.7 mL/level), followed by stage 4 (23.9 ± 18.1 mL/level) and stage 5 (16.6 ± 13.3 mL/level).
CONCLUSION: All stages were significant contributors to the total blood loss except exposure (stage 1) and closure (stage 6). Blood loss per minute and blood loss per minute per level was highest during corticotomies (stage 5), followed by release (stage 3). However, the largest amount of total blood loss occurred during screw insertion (stage 2).
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2.