Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 66 in total

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  1. Hasan MS, Chan L
    J Oral Maxillofac Surg, 2014 Oct;72(10):1920.e1-4.
    PMID: 24985961 DOI: 10.1016/j.joms.2014.03.032
    Treating children with cyanotic congenital heart disease poses many challenges to anesthesiologists because of the multiple problems associated with the condition. The anesthetic technique and drugs used perioperatively can affect a patient's physiologic status during surgery. The adherence to certain hemodynamic objectives and the avoidance of factors that could worsen the abnormal cardiopulmonary physiology cannot be overemphasized. In the present case series, we describe the use of a dexmedetomidine-ketamine combination for dental extraction in spontaneously breathing children with cyanotic congenital heart disease. The anesthetic concerns regarding airway management, the pharmacologic effects of drugs, and maintenance of adequate hemodynamic, blood gases, and acid-base status are discussed.
  2. Islam N, Hasan M, Ali SM
    Med J Malaysia, 1977 Jun;31(4):322-5.
    PMID: 927240
  3. Hasan MJ, Shamsuzzaman SM
    Malays J Pathol, 2017 Dec;39(3):277-283.
    PMID: 29279590
    BACKGROUND: The adeB gene in Acinetobacter baumannii regulates the bacterial internal drug efflux pump that plays a significant role in drug resistance. The aim of our study was to determine the occurrence of adeB gene in multidrug resistant and New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM- 1) gene in imipenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from wound swab samples in a tertiary care hospital of Bangladesh.

    METHODS: A total of 345 wound swab samples were tested for bacterial pathogens. Acinetobacter baumannii was identified by culture and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined by the disc diffusion method according to CLSI standards. Extended spectrum beta-lactamases were screened using the double disc synergy technique. Gene encoding AdeB efflux pump and NDM-1 were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).

    RESULTS: A total 22 (6.37%) Acinetobacter baumannii were identified from 345 wound swab samples and 20 (91%) of them were multidrug resistant. High resistance rates to some antibiotics were seen namely, cefotaxime (95%), amoxyclavulanic acid (90%) and ceftriaxone (82%). All the identified Acinetobacter baumannii were sensitive to colistin and 82% to imipenem. Two (9%) ESBL producing Acinetobacter baumannii strains were detected. adeB gene was detected in 16 (80%) out of 20 multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. 4 (18%) of 22 Acinetobacter baumannii were imipenem resistant. NDM-1 gene was detected in 2 (50%) of the imipenem resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    CONCLUSION: The results of this study provide insight into the role of adeB gene as a potential regulator of drug resistance in Acinetobacter baumanni in Bangladesh. NDM-1 gene also contributes in developing such resistance for Acinetobacter baumannii.

  4. Ahmad MZ, Hasan MK, Abbasbandy S
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:454969.
    PMID: 24082853 DOI: 10.1155/2013/454969
    We study a fuzzy fractional differential equation (FFDE) and present its solution using Zadeh's extension principle. The proposed study extends the case of fuzzy differential equations of integer order. We also propose a numerical method to approximate the solution of FFDEs. To solve nonlinear problems, the proposed numerical method is then incorporated into an unconstrained optimisation technique. Several numerical examples are provided.
  5. Ghafari S, Hasan M, Aroua MK
    J Biosci Bioeng, 2009 Mar;107(3):275-80.
    PMID: 19269592 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2008.11.008
    Accumulation of nitrite intermediate in autohydrogenotrophic denitrification process has been a challenging difficulty to tackle. This study showed that further growth of "true denitrifying" bacteria and adaptation to nitrite led to a faster reduction of nitrite than nitrate as a solution to circumvent nitrite accumulation. Moreover, two effective parameters namely pH and bicarbonate dose were optimized in order to achieve a better reduction rate. Sodium bicarbonate dose ranging from 20 to 2000 mg/L and pH in the range of 6.5-8.5 was selected to be examined employing 0.2 g MLVSS/L of reacclimatized denitrifying bacteria. Eleven runs of experiments were designed considering the interactive effect of these two operative parameters. A fairly close reduction time less than 4.5 h (>22.22 mg NO2(-)-N/g MLVSS/h) was gained for the pH range between 7 and 8. The highest specific nitrite reduction rate at 25 mg NO2(-)-N/g MLVSS/h was achieved applying 1000 mg NaHCO3/L at pH 7.5 and 8. The pH was found to be the leading parameter and bicarbonate as the less effective parameter on nitrite reduction removal. Central composite design (CCD) and response surface design (RSM) were employed to develop a model as well as define the optimum condition. Using the experimental data, the developed quadratic model predicted optimum condition at pH 7.8 and sodium bicarbonate dose 1070 mg/L upon which denitrifiers managed to accomplish reduction within 3.5 h and attained the specific degradation rate of 28.57 mg NO2(-)-N/g MLVSS/h.
  6. Ghafari S, Hasan M, Aroua MK
    Bioresour Technol, 2010 Apr;101(7):2236-42.
    PMID: 20015639 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.11.068
    In this study the kinetics of autohydrogenotrophic denitrification was studied under optimum solution pH and bicarbonate concentration. The optimal pH and bicarbonate concentration were firstly obtained using a design of experiment (DOE) methodology. For this purpose a total of 11 experiments were carried out. Sodium bicarbonate concentrations ranging of 20-2000 mg/L and pH values from 6.5 to 8.5 were used in the optimization runs. It was found that the pH has a more pronounced effect on the denitrification process as compared to the bicarbonate dose. The developed quadratic model predicted the optimum conditions at pH 8 and 1100 mg NaHCO(3)/L. Using these optimal conditions, the kinetics of denitrification for nitrate and nitrite degradation were investigated in separate experiments. Both processes were found to follow a zero order kinetic model. The ultimate specific degradation rates for nitrate and nitrite remediation were 29.60 mg NO(3)(-)-N/g MLVSS/L and 34.85 mg NO(3)(-)-N/g MLVSS/L respectively, when hydrogen was supplied every 0.5h.
  7. Ghafari S, Hasan M, Aroua MK
    J Hazard Mater, 2009 Mar 15;162(2-3):1507-13.
    PMID: 18639979 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.06.039
    Acclimation of autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria using inorganic carbon source (CO(2) and bicarbonate) and hydrogen gas as electron donor was performed in this study. In this regard, activated sludge was used as the seed source and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technique was applied for accomplishing the acclimatization. Three distinct strategies in feeding of carbon sources were applied: (I) continuous sparging of CO(2), (II) bicarbonate plus continuous sparging of CO(2), and (III) only bicarbonate. The pH-reducing nature of CO(2) showed an unfavorable impact on denitrification rate; however bicarbonate resulted in a buffered environment in the mixed liquor and provided a suitable mean to maintain the pH in the desirable range of 7-8.2. As a result, bicarbonate as the only carbon source showed a faster adaptation, while carbon dioxide as the only carbon source as well as a complementary carbon source added to bicarbonate resulted in longer acclimation period. Adapted hydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria, using bicarbonate and hydrogen gas in the aforementioned pH range, caused denitrification at a rate of 13.33 mg NO(3)(-)-N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 20 and 30 mg NO(3)(-)-N/L and 9.09 mg NO(3)(-)-N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 50mg NO(3)(-)-N/L.
  8. Ghafari S, Hasan M, Aroua MK
    Bioresour Technol, 2008 Jul;99(10):3965-74.
    PMID: 17600700
    Nitrates in different water and wastewater streams raised concerns due to severe impacts on human and animal health. Diverse methods are reported to remove nitrate from water streams which almost fail to entirely treat nitrate, except biological denitrification which is capable of reducing inorganic nitrate compounds to harmless nitrogen gas. Review of numerous studies in biological denitrification of nitrate containing water resources, aquaculture wastewaters and industrial wastewater confirmed the potential of this method and its flexibility towards the remediation of different concentrations of nitrate. The denitrifiers could be fed with organic and inorganic substrates which have different performances and subsequent advantages or disadvantages. Review of heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrifications with different food and energy sources concluded that autotrophic denitrifiers are more effective in denitrification. Autotrophs utilize carbon dioxide and hydrogen as the source of carbon substrate and electron donors, respectively. The application of this method in bio-electro reactors (BERs) has many advantages and is promising. However, this method is not so well established and documented. BERs provide proper environment for simultaneous hydrogen production on cathodes and appropriate consumption by immobilized autotrophs on these cathodes. This survey covers various designs and aspects of BERs and their performances.
  9. Sultan S, Irfan SM, Kaker J, Hasan M
    Med J Malaysia, 2016 04;71(2):53-6.
    PMID: 27326941
    BACKGROUND: The effect of Helicobacter-pylori eradication therapy on the platelet counts in patients with immune thrombocytopenia is still debatable. The aim of this study was to assess the response rates of standard triple eradication therapy in secondary immune thrombocytopenia with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    METHODS: From January 2012 to December 2013, 197 patients were diagnosed to have immune thrombocytopenia, out of which 22(11.1%) patients infected with Helicobacter- Pylorus were enrolled in this study. Helicobacter-Pylori infection was documented by Helicobacter-pylori stool antigen enzyme immunoassay method. All positive patients were put on triple eradication therapy. The responses rates to treatment were defined as per International Working Group on ITP.

    RESULTS: Mean age of patients was 43.18±12.5 years. There were 10(45.5%) males and 12 (54.5%) females. Of the 22 patients, 7(31.8%) exhibited a complete response (CR) to Hpylori eradication therapy; 10(45.4%) attained a response; and 5(22.7%) had no response. Mean base line platelet counts were 53.36±24.5x109/l, while platelet counts at 4 week following eradication was 80.86±51.0x109/l (P=0.003). The predictive factor of response following eradication therapy was baseline platelet counts. Virtually all responders had baseline platelet counts >30x109/l and all non-responders had <30x109/l of platelet counts.

    CONCLUSIONS: Though the prevalence of H-pylori is low, this study confirmed the efficacy of eradication in increasing the platelet counts in H-pylori positive patients with ITP. It is an important measure in short time, safe and very cost effective to achieve platelets increment. We endorse the routine detection and eradication treatment of H-pylori infective ITP patients.
  10. Ling KU, Hasan MS, Ha KO, Wang CY
    Anaesth Intensive Care, 2009 Jan;37(1):124-6.
    PMID: 19157359
    We report our use of a superficial cervical plexus block to manage three adults who presented for drainage of dental abscesses. All patients had difficult airways related to severe trismus (preoperative inter-incisor distance < or = 1.5 cm). The first two patients, whose abcesses involved both the submandibular and submasseteric spaces, were managed with combined superficial cervical plexus and auriculotemporal nerve block. In a third patient, a superficial cervical plexus block alone was sufficient because the abscess was confined to the submandibular region. The blocks were successful in all three cases with minimal requirement for supplemental analgesia. We recommend the consideration of superficial cervical plexus block, and if necessary an auriculotemporal nerve block, for the management of selected patients with difficult airways who present for drainage of dental abcesses.
  11. Azahar MA, Al-Naqeb G, Hasan M, Adam A
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2012 Nov;5(11):875-81.
    PMID: 23146801 DOI: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60163-1
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of Octomeles sumatrana (O. sumatrana) (OS) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ) and its molecular mechanisms.

    METHODS: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) in to male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were divided into six different groups; normal control rats were not induced with STZ and served as reference, STZ diabetic control rats were given normal saline. Three groups were treated with OS aqueous extract at 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 g/kg, orally twice daily continuously for 21 d. The fifth group was treated with glibenclamide (6 mg/kg) in aqueous solution orally continuously for 21 d. After completion of the treatment period, biochemical parameters and expression levels of glucose transporter 2 (Slc2a2), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) were determined in liver by quantitative real time PCR.

    RESULTS: Administration of OS at different doses to STZ induced diabetic rats, resulted in significant decrease (P<0.05) in blood glucose level in a dose dependent manner by 36%, 48%, and 64% at doses of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 g/kg, respectively, in comparison to the STZ control values. Treatment with OS elicited an increase in the expression level of Slc2a2 gene but reduced the expression of G6Pase and PCK1 genes. Morefore, OS treated rats, showed significantly lower levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and urea levels compared to STZ untreated rats. The extract at different doses elicited signs of recovery in body weight gain when compared to STZ diabetic controls although food and water consumption were significantly lower in treated groups compared to STZ diabetic control group.

    CONCLUSIONS: O. sumatrana aqueous extract is beneficial for improvement of hyperglycemia by increasing gene expression of liver Slc2a2 and reducing expression of G6Pase and PCK1 genes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  12. Chan CY, Lim CY, Shahnaz Hasan M, Kwan MK
    Eur Spine J, 2016 05;25 Suppl 1:245-50.
    PMID: 27028615 DOI: 10.1007/s00586-016-4538-9
    PURPOSE: Patients with Fontan circulation have increased cardio-respiratory risk during major spinal surgery. We report a case of severe scoliosis with a Cobb angle of 123.3° in a 16-year-old boy with Fontan circulation treated with single stage posterior segmental pedicle screw instrumentation and fusion.

    METHODS: Case report.

    RESULTS: The use pre-operative halo-ring traction for a duration of 6 weeks in this case lead to improvement in cobb angle from 123.3°, kyphotic angle 87.1° to cobb angle of 78.0°, kyphotic angle 57.2° (on bending and stress films). The operation was completed in 150 min, blood loss 1050 ml (25 ml/kg), and cell salvage of 490 ml. He was immediately extubated post correction, but monitored in ICU for a day. Total length of stay was 8 days without any perioperative morbidity or allogeneic blood transfusion. Final post-operative radiograph showed a cobb angle of 44.2°, kyphotic angle 22.8°. Follow up at 27 months showed solid union with no significant loss of correction.

    CONCLUSION: From this case experience, pre-operative halo traction is a useful surgical strategy in patients with Fontan circulation with severe kyposcoliosis to achieve adequate correction without additional osteotomies to minimize the risk of surgical correction.

  13. Hasan MN, Banarjee SK, Ahsan SA, Habib SM, Mahmood M
    Mymensingh Med J, 2018 Oct;27(4):851-858.
    PMID: 30487504
    Mitral stenosis (MS) affects left atrial (LA) function as a result of hemodynamic and myocardial factors that causes significant symptoms and complications. Conventional echocardiographic methods have been practicing to see the improvement of left atrial function after successful percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty (PMBV). Introduction of tissue doppler imaging allows direct and non-invasive measurement of myocardial velocities. The aim of the study was to evaluate LA functions after PMBV using colour tissue doppler imaging. This cross sectional study was performed in Cardiology department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from March 2014 to February 2015. Forty six (46) patients (28 females, mean age: 28.96±5.78 years) presenting with mitral valve stenosis who fulfilled the indications for PMBV were included in the study. Within 24 hours before PMBV, all the patients underwent colour tissue doppler study in addition to routine conventional echocardiographic examinations. Late diastolic velocities (A') measured at the septal and lateral annuli were recorded. All the measurements were repeated 24 hours after PMBV. The PMBV was done using the Inoue technique. After PMBV mitral valve areas (MVA) were significantly increased. Maximum and mean gradients, LA diameter, LA area, LA volume, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure and mean LA pressures were decreased while septal and lateral A' were significantly (p<0.001) increased. Lateral and septal A' velocities were correlated with MVA and inversely related to LA pressure measured invasively during PMBV. Tissue doppler velocities illustrated improvement of left atrial systolic function after PMBV in relation to decreased mean left atrial pressure and increased mitral valve area. Therefore, tissue doppler Imaging is a useful tool to detect improvement of left atrial systolic function after PMBV in patients with mitral stenosis.
  14. Hasan MS, Leong KW, Chan CY, Kwan MK
    J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong), 2017 01;25(1):2309499016684743.
    PMID: 28166704 DOI: 10.1177/2309499016684743
    Segawa's syndrome or dopa-responsive dystonia is a rare hereditary disorder characterized by progressive dystonia of childhood onset, diurnal fluctuation of symptoms and complete or near complete alleviation of symptoms with administration of low-dose oral levodopa. From our literature search in PubMed, we found only three related publications: two on anesthesia for cesarean section and one on anesthesia for electroconvulsive therapy. We report our experience in providing anesthesia for corrective scoliosis surgery in two biological sisters with Segawa's syndrome. A review of the literature is also included.
  15. Islam MJ, Roshid B, Pervin S, Kabir S, Chigurupati S, Hasan MN
    Mymensingh Med J, 2019 Apr;28(2):484-489.
    PMID: 31086172
    Approximately 80% ovarian tumors are benign, and these arise mostly in young adult females. Malignant tumors are more prevalent in ageing women, between the ages of 45-65 years. Mucinous ovarian cancer represents about 5% of epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC). We have reported a case of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in 35-year-old lady with metastasis to momentum. Imaging (Radiograph & CT scan) studies showed a large right sided pelvic mass with probable origin in the right ovary. Cancer antigen-125 was elevated, while carcinoembrionic antigen and alpha-fetoprotein were normal. Mutational profiles shown distinct finding, as KRAS mutations positive nevertheless p53 and BRCA mutations are absent. She had undergone total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salphingo-oopherectomy along with pelvic dissection for removal of lymph nodes at the age of 35. She was given 3 cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin and paclitaxel. To the best of our knowledge, this is the one of the little cases of ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma being reported at a relatively young age and the first case being reported from Bangladesh.
  16. Hasan M, Hanafiah MM, Alhilfy IHH, Aeyad Taha Z
    PeerJ, 2021;9:e10614.
    PMID: 33520446 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.10614
    Background: Laser applications in agriculture have recently gained much interest due to improved plant characteristics following laser treatment before the sowing of seeds. In this study, maize seeds were exposed to different levels of laser treatment prior to sowing to improve their field performance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of pre-sowing laser photobiomodulation on the field emergence and growth of treated maize seeds.

    Methods: The maize seeds were first photobiomodulated with two lasers: 1) a helium-neon (He-Ne) red laser (632.8 nm), and 2) a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) green laser (532 nm). Following three replications of randomized complete block design (RCBD), four irradiation treatments were applied (45 s, 65 s, 85 s, and 105 s) at two power intensities (2 mW/cm2 and 4 mW/cm2).

    Results: Based on the results, maize seeds pretreated with a green laser and 2 mW/cm2 power intensity for 105 s exhibited the highest rate of seed emergence (96%) compared to the untreated control seeds with a lower seed emergence rate (62.5%). Furthermore, maize seeds treated with a red laser for 45 s showed an increased vigor index compared to the other treatment options and the control (P 

  17. Hasan M, Ahmad-Hamdani MS, Rosli AM, Hamdan H
    Plants (Basel), 2021 Jun 15;10(6).
    PMID: 34203650 DOI: 10.3390/plants10061212
    Weed management is an arduous undertaking in crop production. Integrated weed management, inclusive of the application of bioherbicides, is an emerging weed control strategy toward sustainable agriculture. In general, bioherbicides are derived either from plants containing phytotoxic allelochemicals or certain disease-carrying microbes that can suppress weed populations. While bioherbicides have exhibited great promise in deterring weed seed germination and growth, only a few in vitro studies have been conducted on the physiological responses they evoke in weeds. This review discusses bioherbicide products that are currently available on the market, bioherbicide impact on weed physiology, and potential factors influencing bioherbicide efficacy. A new promising bioherbicide product is introduced at the end of this paper. When absorbed, phytotoxic plant extracts or metabolites disrupt cell membrane integrity and important biochemical processes in weeds. The phytotoxic impact on weed growth is reflected in low levels of root cell division, nutrient absorption, and growth hormone and pigment synthesis, as well as in the development of reactive oxygen species (ROS), stress-related hormones, and abnormal antioxidant activity. The inconsistency of bioherbicide efficacy is a primary factor restricting their widespread use, which is influenced by factors such as bioactive compound content, weed control spectrum, formulation, and application method.
  18. Lau YL, Hasan MT, Thiruvengadam G, Idris MM, Init I
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Dec;27(3):525-33.
    PMID: 21399595
    GRA4 of Toxoplasma gondii has been shown to prompt IgG, IgM and IgA responses in previous studies and is thus considered one of the major immunogenic proteins from T. gondii that can be used for both diagnostics purposes and vaccine development. This study seeks to clone and express the GRA4 in Pichia pastoris, which has numerous advantages over other systems for expression of eukaryotic proteins. In order to achieve this, the gene was cloned into the pPICZα A expression vector, which was then incorporated into the P. pastoris genome via insertional integration for expression of the recombinant protein, under the AOX1 promoter. The antigen was expressed along with the prepro sequence of the α-factor of yeast so that it could be excreted out of the P. pastoris cells and obtained from the medium. Upon SDS-PAGE analysis it was found that the recombinant protein was expressed optimally as a 40 kDa protein after 96 hours of induction with 0.75% of methanol. The expressed GRA4 protein showed discrepancy in size with the calculated molecular mass. This may be attributed to the various posttranslational modifications including glycosylation and phosphorylation. Despite the difference in molecular weight, the recombinant protein was able to detect toxoplasmosis in Western blot format. The recombinant GRA4 was expressed with an intact polyhistidine-tag, which could be used for future purification of the antigen.
  19. Al Khalaf MS, Al Ehnidi FH, Al-Dorzi HM, Tamim HM, Abd-Aziz N, Tangiisuran B, et al.
    Annals of thoracic medicine, 2015 Apr-Jun;10(2):132-6.
    PMID: 25829965 DOI: 10.4103/1817-1737.150731
    RATIONALE: Sepsis is a leading cause of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions worldwide and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Limited data exist regarding the outcomes and functional status among survivors of severe sepsis and septic shock.
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the functional status among survivors of severe sepsis and septic shock a year after hospital discharge.
    METHODS: Adult patients admitted between April 2007 and March 2010 to the medical-surgical ICU of a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia, were included in this study. The ICU database was investigated for patients with a diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock. Survival status was determined based on hospital discharge. Patients who required re-admission, stayed in ICU for less than 24 hours, had incomplete data were all excluded. Survivors were interviewed through phone calls to determine their functional status one-year post-hospital discharge using Karnofsky performance status scale.
    RESULTS: A total of 209 patients met the eligibility criteria. We found that 38 (18.1%) patients had severe disability before admission, whereas 109 (52.2%) patients were with severe disability or died one-year post-hospital discharge. Only one-third of the survivors had good functional status one-year post-discharge (no/mild disability). After adjustment of baseline variables, age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.04] and pre-sepsis functional status of severe disability (aOR = 50.9, 95% CI = 6.82-379.3) were found to be independent predictors of functional status of severe disability one-year post-hospital discharge among survivors.
    CONCLUSIONS: We found that only one-third of the survivors of severe sepsis and septic shock had good functional status one-year post-discharge (no/mild disability). Age and pre-sepsis severe disability were the factors that highly predicted the level of functional status one-year post-hospital discharge.
    KEYWORDS: Disability; functional status; septic shock; severe sepsis
  20. Chiu CK, Chan CY, Aziz I, Hasan MS, Kwan MK
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 2016 May;41(9):E566-73.
    PMID: 26630421 DOI: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000001304
    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical study.

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the amount of blood loss at different stages of Posterior Instrumented Spinal Fusion (PSF) surgery in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients.

    SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Knowing the pattern of blood loss at different surgical stages may enable the surgical team to formulate a management strategy to reduce intraoperative blood loss.

    METHODS: One hundred AIS patients who underwent PSF from January 2013 to December 2014 were recruited. The operation was divided into six stages; stage 1-exposure, stage 2-screw insertion, stage 3-release, stage 4-correction, stage 5-corticotomies and bone grafting, and stage 6-closure. The duration and blood loss at each stage was documented. The following values were calculated: total blood loss, blood loss per estimated blood volume, blood loss per minute, blood loss per vertebral level fused, and blood loss per minute per vertebral level fused.

    RESULTS: There were 89 females and 11 males. The mean age was 17.0 ± 5.8 years old. Majority (50.0%) were Lenke 1 curve type. The mean preoperative major Cobb angle was 64.9 ± 15.0°. The mean number of levels fused was 9.5 ± 2.3 levels. The mean operating time was 188.5 ± 53.4 minutes with a mean total blood loss 951.0 ± 454.0 mLs. The highest mean blood loss occurred at stage 2 (301.0 ± 196.7 mL), followed by stage 4 (226.8 ± 171.2 mL) and stage 5 (161.5 ± 146.6 mL). The highest mean blood loss per minute was at stage 5 (17.1 ± 18.3 mL/min), followed by stage 3 (12.0 ± 10.8 mL/min). The highest mean blood loss per vertebral levels fused was at stage 2 (31.0 ± 17.7 mL/level), followed by stage 4 (23.9 ± 18.1 mL/level) and stage 5 (16.6 ± 13.3 mL/level).

    CONCLUSION: All stages were significant contributors to the total blood loss except exposure (stage 1) and closure (stage 6). Blood loss per minute and blood loss per minute per level was highest during corticotomies (stage 5), followed by release (stage 3). However, the largest amount of total blood loss occurred during screw insertion (stage 2).

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2.

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