Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

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  1. Hashim NM, Engkasan JP, Hasnan N
    J Spinal Cord Med, 2021 Jan 19.
    PMID: 33465010 DOI: 10.1080/10790268.2020.1860868
    STUDY DESIGN: Pre- and post- trial.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the changes of health belief levels after a pressure ulcer (PrU) prevention educational program based on the Health Belief Model (HBM).

    SETTING: Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University Medical Centre, Malaysia.

    METHODS: This study was conducted between May 2016 and May 2018. We created a multidisciplinary structured PrU prevention education program based on the HBM, consisting of didactic lectures, open discussions and a practical session. The content of the program was based on several PrU prevention guidelines. The education program focused on a group of 6-10 participants, and was conducted by a multidisciplinary team; i.e. doctor, physiotherapist, occupational therapist and a nurse. The skin care belief scales (SCBS) questionnaire was administered pre, post and 8-week post intervention, which measured the 9 domains of HBM. The data from the study was analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA to assess the effectiveness of the program.

    RESULTS: Thirty spinal cord injured participants who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria completed this study. The results of the education program show statistically significant effects on Susceptibility; F (2,58) = 12.53, P < 0.05, Barriers to Skin Check Belief; F(2,58) = 5.74, P > 0.05, Benefits to Wheelchair Pressure Relief Belief; F(1.65,47.8) = 3.97, P < 0.05, Barriers to Turning and Positioning Belief; F(2,58) = 3.92, P 

  2. Jayash SN, Hashim NM, Misran M, Baharuddin NA
    J Biomed Mater Res A, 2017 02;105(2):398-407.
    PMID: 27684563 DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.35919
    The osteoprotegerin (OPG) system plays a critical role in bone remodelling by regulating osteoclast formation and activity. The study aimed to determine the physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of a newly formulated OPG-chitosan gel. The OPG-chitosan gel was formulated using human OPG protein and water-soluble chitosan. The physicochemical properties were determined using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Gel morphology was determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and then it was subjected to a protein release assay and biodegradability test. An in vitro cytotoxicity test on normal human periodontal ligament (NHPL) fibroblasts and normal human (NH) osteoblasts was carried out using the AlamarBlue assay. In vivo evaluation in a rabbit model involved creating critical-sized defects in calvarial bone, filling with the OPG-chitosan gel and sacrificing at 12 weeks. In vitro results demonstrated that the 25 kDa OPG-chitosan gel had the highest rate of protein release and achieved 90% degradation in 28 days. At 12 weeks, the defects filled with 25 kDa OPG-chitosan gel showed significant (p 
  3. Jayash SN, Hashim NM, Misran M, Baharuddin NA
    PeerJ, 2016;4:e2229.
    PMID: 27635307 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.2229
    The receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK)/RANK ligand/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system plays a critical role in bone remodelling by regulating osteoclast formation and activity. OPG has been used systemically in the treatment of bone diseases. In searching for more effective and safer treatment for bone diseases, we investigated newly formulated OPG-chitosan complexes, which is prepared as a local application for its osteogenic potential to remediate bone defects.
  4. Jayash SN, Hashim NM, Misran M, Baharuddin NA
    PeerJ, 2017;5:e3513.
    PMID: 28674665 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.3513
    BACKGROUND: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is used for the systemic treatment of bone diseases, although it has many side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate a newly formulated OPG-chitosan gel for local application to repair bone defects. Recent studies have reported that immunodetection of osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OC) can be used to characterise osteogenesis and new bone formation.

    METHODS: The osteogenic potential of the OPG-chitosan gel was evaluated in rabbits. Critical-sized defects were created in the calvarial bone, which were either left unfilled (control; group I), or filled with chitosan gel (group II) or OPG-chitosan gel (group III), with rabbits sacrificed at 6 and 12 weeks. Bone samples from the surgical area were decalcified and treated with routine histological and immunohistochemical protocols using OC, OPN, and cathepsin K (osteoclast marker) antibodies. The toxicity of the OPG-chitosan gel was evaluated by biochemical assays (liver and kidney function tests).

    RESULTS: The mean bone growth in defects filled with the OPG-chitosan gel was significantly higher than those filled with the chitosan gel or the unfilled group (p 

  5. Hisamud-Din N, Mustafah NM, Fauzi AA, Hashim NM
    Spinal Cord Ser Cases, 2017;3:17020.
    PMID: 28503326 DOI: 10.1038/scsandc.2017.20
    INTRODUCTION: Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is the production of blood cell precursors outside the bone marrow that occur in various hematological diseases. In patients with thalassemia intermedia, ineffective erythropoiesis drives compensatory EMH in the liver, pancreas, pleura, spleen, ribs and spine.

    CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a patient with thalassemia intermedia who presented with acute neurological symptoms caused by paraspinal EMH, which responded well to combination therapy of steroid, hypertransfusion, laminectomy and excision of pseudotumor and hydroxyurea therapy to boost the formation of fetal haemoglobin.

    DISCUSSION: Prompt recognition of EMH based on clinical presentation and typical radiological findings should be made. Early treatment is recommended to prevent irreversible damage to the spinal cord.

  6. Girish S, Kumar S, Aminudin N, Hashim NM
    Sci Rep, 2021 04 09;11(1):7833.
    PMID: 33837230 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-81418-x
    Blastocystis sp. infection, although many remain asymptomatic, there is growing data in recent studies that suggests it is a frequent cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in children and adults. This proposes that treatment against this infection is necessary however metronidazole (MTZ), which is the current choice of treatment, has expressed non-uniformity in its efficacy in combating this infection which has led to the study of alternative treatment. In our previous study, it was established that Tongkat Ali fractions exhibited promising anti-protozoal properties which leads to the current aim of the study, to further narrow down the purification process in order to identify the specific active compound promoting the anti-protozoal effect through HPLC analysis. Based on the data analysis and in-vitro susceptibility assay, the collected Tongkat Ali fraction that demonstrated anti-blastocystis property was shown to contain eurycomanone. Previous studies have suggested that there is a mechanism in Blastocystis sp. that regulates the apoptotic process to produce higher number of viable cells when treated. In reference to this, our current study also aims to investigate the apoptotic response of Tongkat Ali extract and eurycomanone across different subtype groups with comparison to MTZ. Based on our investigation, both Tongkat Ali extract and eurycomanone induced the high apoptotic rate however exhibited a reduction in viable cell count (p 
  7. Fani S, Kamalidehghan B, Lo KM, Hashim NM, Chow KM, Ahmadipour F
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:6191-201.
    PMID: 26648695 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S87064
    A new monoorganotin Schiff base compound, [N-(3,5-dichloro-2-oxidobenzylidene)-4-chlorobenzyhydrazidato](o-methylbenzyl)aquatin(IV) chloride, (compound C1), was synthesized, and its structural features were investigated by spectroscopic techniques and single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. Compound C1 was exposed to several human cancer cell lines, including breast adenocarcinoma cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines Skov3 and Caov3, and prostate cancer cell line PC3, in order to examine its cytotoxic effect for different forms of cancer. Human hepatic cell line WRL-68 was used as a normal cell line. We concentrated on the MCF-7 cell line to detect possible underlying mechanism involvement of compound C1. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay revealed the strongest cytotoxicity of compound C1 against MCF-7 cells, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 2.5±0.50 μg/mL after 48 hours treatment. The IC50 value was >30 μg/mL in WRL-68 cells. Induced antiproliferative activity of compound C1 for MCF-7 cells was further confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase, reactive oxygen species, acridine orange/propidium iodide staining, and DNA fragmentation assays. A significant increase of lactate dehydrogenase release in treated cells was observed via fluorescence analysis. Luminescent analysis showed significant growth in intracellular reactive oxygen species production after treatment. Morphological changes of necrosis and early and late apoptosis stages were observed in treated cells after staining with acridine orange/propidium iodide. DNA fragmentation was observed as a characteristic of apoptosis in treated cells. Results of the present study obviously reveal potential cytotoxic effects of compound C1 against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.
  8. Yahayu MA, Rahmani M, Hashim NM, Amin MA, Ee GC, Sukari MA, et al.
    Molecules, 2011 May 27;16(6):4401-7.
    PMID: 21623311 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16064401
    Extraction and chromatographic separation of the extracts of dried stem barks of Glycosmis macrantha lead to isolation of two new acridone alkaloids, macranthanine and 7-hydroxynoracronycine, and a known acridone, atalaphyllidine. The structures of these alkaloids were determined by detailed spectral analysis and also by comparison with reported data.
  9. Parhoodeh P, Rahmani M, Hashim NM, Sukari MA, Lian GE
    Molecules, 2011 Mar 07;16(3):2268-73.
    PMID: 21383663 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16032268
    During our phytochemical investigation of Haplophyllum villosum (Rutaceae), a perennial herb from Iran, a new 4,8-diaryl-3,7-dioxobicyclo-(3,3,0)-octane type lignan, eudesmin A (1), together with four known compounds--eudesmin (2), haplamine (3), umbelliferone (4) and scopoletin (5)--were isolated from aerial parts of the plant. The structures of the compounds were elucidated using NMR spectral analysis (¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR, HSQC, COSY and HMBC) as well as UV, IR and MS spectra and comparison with previously reported data.
  10. Shamaun SS, Rahmani M, Hashim NM, Ismail HB, Sukari MA, Lian GE, et al.
    J Nat Med, 2010 Oct;64(4):478-81.
    PMID: 20526745 DOI: 10.1007/s11418-010-0427-4
    Six prenylated flavones, including one new compound, were isolated and identified from the stem bark extracts of Artocarpus altilis. The new prenylated flavone hydroxyartocarpin (1) was characterized as 3-(gamma,gamma-dimethylallyl)-6-isopentenyl-5,8,2',4'-tetrahydroxy-7-methoxyflavone and the known compounds were artocarpin (2), morusin (3), cycloartobiloxanthone (4), cycloartocarpin A (5) and artoindonesianin V (6). The structures of the compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods (IR, MS, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR) and comparison with published data for the known compounds.
  11. Nordin N, Majid NA, Mohan S, Dehghan F, Karimian H, Rahman MA, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2016 Apr 15;23(4):406-16.
    PMID: 27002411 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2016.02.016
    Cleistopholine is a natural alkaloid present in plants with numerous biological activities. However, cleistopholine has yet to be isolated using modern techniques and the mechanism by which this alkaloid induces apoptosis in cancer cells remains to be elucidated.
  12. Bin Ismail AA, Ee GC, Bin Daud S, Teh SS, Hashim NM, Awang K
    J Asian Nat Prod Res, 2015;17(11):1104-8.
    PMID: 26023810 DOI: 10.1080/10286020.2015.1047353
    A new pyranoxanthone, venuloxanthone (1), was isolated from the stem bark of Calophyllum venulosum, together with three other xanthones, tovopyrifolin C (2), ananixanthone (3) and caloxanthone I (4), along with two common triterpenes, friedelin (5) and lupeol (6). The structures of these compounds were identified using several spectroscopic analyses which are NMR, GCMS and FTIR experiments.
  13. Nordin N, Majid NA, Hashim NM, Rahman MA, Hassan Z, Ali HM
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:1437-48.
    PMID: 25792804 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S77727
    Enicosanthellum pulchrum is a tropical plant from Malaysia and belongs to the Annonaceae family. This plant is rich in isoquinoline alkaloids. In the present study, liriodenine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, was examined as a potential anticancer agent, particularly in ovarian cancer. Liriodenine was isolated by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Cell viability was performed to determine the cytotoxicity, whilst the detection of morphological changes was carried out by acridine orange/propidium iodide assay. Initial and late apoptosis was examined by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and DNA laddering assays, respectively. The involvement of pathways was detected via caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 analyses. Confirmation of pathways was further performed in mitochondria using a cytotoxicity 3 assay. Apoptosis was confirmed at the protein level, including Bax, Bcl-2, and survivin, while interruption of the cell cycle was used for final validation of apoptosis. The result showed that liriodenine inhibits proliferation of CAOV-3 cells at 37.3 μM after 24 hours of exposure. Changes in cell morphology were detected by the presence of cell membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, and formation of apoptotic bodies. Early apoptosis was observed by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate bound to the cell membrane as early as 24 hours. Liriodenine activated the intrinsic pathway by induction of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Involvement of the intrinsic pathway in the mitochondria could be seen, with a significant increase in mitochondrial permeability and cytochrome c release, whereas the mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased. DNA fragmentation occurred at 72 hours upon exposure to liriodenine. The presence of DNA fragmentation indicates the CAOV-3 cells undergo late apoptosis or final stage of apoptosis. Confirmation of apoptosis at the protein level showed overexpression of Bax and suppression of Bcl-2 and survivin. Liriodenine inhibits progression of the CAOV-3 cell cycle in S phase. These findings indicate that liriodenine could be considered as a promising anticancer agent.
  14. Eliaser EM, Ho JH, Hashim NM, Rukayadi Y, Ee GCL, Razis AFA
    Molecules, 2018 Oct 20;23(10).
    PMID: 30347850 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23102708
    Natural products, either pure compounds or standardized plant extracts, have provided opportunities for the discovery of new drugs. Nowadays, most of the world's population still relies on traditional medicines for healthcare purposes. Plants, in particular, are always used as traditional medicine, as they contain a diverse number of phytochemicals that can be used for the treatment of diseases. The multicomponent feature in the plants is considered a positive phytotherapeutic hallmark. Hence, ethnopharmacognosy has been the focus for finding alternative treatments for diseases. Melicopelunu-ankenda, also known as Euodialunu-ankenda, is widely distributed in tropical regions of Asia. Different parts of M.lunu-ankenda have been used for treatment of hypertension, menstrual disorder, diabetes, and fever, and as an emmenagogue and tonic. It has also been consumed as salad and as a condiment for food flavorings. The justification of use of M.lunu-ankenda in folk medicines is supported by its reported biological activities, including its cytotoxic, antibacterial, antioxidant, analgesic, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. This review summarizes the phytochemical compounds isolated from various parts of M.lunu-ankenda, such as root and leaves, and also its biological activities, which could make the species a new therapeutic agent for some diseases, including diabetes, in the future.
  15. Al-Ani LA, AlSaadi MA, Kadir FA, Hashim NM, Julkapli NM, Yehye WA
    Eur J Med Chem, 2017 Oct 20;139:349-366.
    PMID: 28806615 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2017.07.036
    Early detection and efficient treatment of cancer disease remains a drastic challenge in 21st century. Throughout the bulk of funds, studies, and current therapeutics, cancer seems to aggressively advance with drug resistance strains and recurrence rates. Nevertheless, nanotechnologies have indeed given hope to be the next generation for oncology applications. According to US National cancer institute, it is anticipated to revolutionize the perspectives of cancer diagnosis and therapy. With such success, nano-hybrid strategy creates a marvelous preference. Herein, graphene-gold based composites are being increasingly studied in the field of oncology, for their outstanding performance as robust vehicle of therapeutic agents, built-in optical diagnostic features, and functionality as theranostic system. Additional modes of treatments are also applicable including photothermal, photodynamic, as well as combined therapy. This review aims to demonstrate the various cancer-related applications of graphene-gold based hybrids in terms of detection and therapy, highlighting the major attributes that led to designate such system as a promising ally in the war against cancer.
  16. Nordin N, Majid NA, Othman R, Omer FAA, Nasharuddin MNA, Hashim NM
    Apoptosis, 2018 02;23(2):152-169.
    PMID: 29430581 DOI: 10.1007/s10495-018-1447-x
    Plagioneurin B belongs to acetogenin group has well-established class of compounds. Acetogenin group has attracted worldwide attention in the past few years due their biological abilities as inhibitors for several types of tumour cells. Plagioneurin B was isolated via conventional chromatography and tested for thorough mechanistic apoptosis activity on human ovarian cancer cells (CAOV-3). Its structure was also docked at several possible targets using Autodock tools software. Our findings showed that plagioneurin B successfully inhibits the growth of CAOV-3 cells at IC50 of 0.62 µM. The existence of apoptotic bodies, cell membrane blebbing and chromatin condensation indicated the hallmark of apoptosis. Increase of Annexin V-FITC bound to phosphatidylserine confirmed the apoptosis induction in the cells. The apoptosis event was triggered through the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways via activation of caspases 8 and 9, respectively. Stimulation of caspase 3 and the presence of DNA ladder suggested downstream apoptotic signalling were initiated. Further confirmation of apoptosis was conducted at the molecular levels where up-regulation in Bax, as well as down-regulation of Bcl-2, Hsp-70 and survivin were observed. Plagioneurin B was also seen to arrest CAOV-3 cells cycle at the G2/M phase. Docking simulation of plagioneurin B with CD95 demonstrated that the high binding affinity and hydrogen bonds formation may explain the capability of plagioneurin B to trigger apoptosis. This study is therefore importance in finding the effective compound that may offer an alternative drug for ovarian cancer treatment.
  17. Abdullah SNF, Ismail A, Juahir H, Lananan F, Hashim NM, Ariffin N, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Jul;28(27):35613-35627.
    PMID: 33666850 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-12772-6
    Rainwater harvesting is an effective alternative practice, particularly within urban regions, during periods of water scarcity and dry weather. The collected water is mostly utilized for non-potable household purposes and irrigation. However, due to the increase in atmospheric pollutants, the quality of rainwater has gradually decreased. This atmospheric pollution can damage the climate, natural resources, biodiversity, and human health. In this study, the characteristics and physicochemical properties of rainfall were assessed using a qualitative approach. The three-year (2017-2019) data on rainfall in Peninsular Malaysia were analysed via multivariate techniques. The physicochemical properties of the rainfall yielded six significant factors, which encompassed 61.39% of the total variance as a result of industrialization, agriculture, transportation, and marine factors. The purity of rainfall index (PRI) was developed based on subjective factor scores of the six factors within three categories: good, moderate, and bad. Of the 23 variables measured, 17 were found to be the most significant, based on the classification matrix of 98.04%. Overall, three different groups of similarities that reflected the physicochemical characteristics were discovered among the rain gauge stations: cluster 1 (good PRI), cluster 2 (moderate PRI), and cluster 3 (bad PRI). These findings indicate that rainwater in Peninsular Malaysia was suitable for non-potable purposes.
  18. Syam S, Bustamam A, Abdullah R, Sukari MA, Hashim NM, Mohan S, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2014 Apr 28;153(2):435-45.
    PMID: 24607509 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2014.02.051
    The fruit hull of Garcinia mangostana Linn. has been used in traditional medicine for treatment of various inflammatory diseases. Hence, this study aims to investigate the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of β mangostin (βM), a major compound present in Garcinia mangostana.
  19. Omar H, Hashim NM, Zajmi A, Nordin N, Abdelwahab SI, Azizan AH, et al.
    Molecules, 2013 Jul 29;18(8):8994-9009.
    PMID: 23899833 DOI: 10.3390/molecules18088994
    The oxoaporphine alkaloid lysicamine (1), and three proaporphine alkaloids, litsericinone (2), 8,9,11,12-tetrahydromecambrine (3) and hexahydromecambrine A (4) were isolated from the leaves of Phoebe grandis (Nees) Merr. (Lauraceae). Compounds 2 and 3 were first time isolated as new naturally occurring compounds from plants. The NMR data for the compounds 2-4 have never been reported so far. Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant cytotoxic activity against a MCF7 (human estrogen receptor (ER+) positive breast cancer) cell line with IC₅₀ values of 26 and 60 µg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, in vitro cytotoxic activity against HepG2 (human liver cancer) cell line was evaluated for compounds 1-4 with IC₅₀ values of 27, 14, 81 and 20 µg/mL, respectively. Lysicamine (1) displayed strong antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis (B145), Staphylococcus aureus (S1434) and Staphylococus epidermidis (a clinically isolated strain) with inhibition zones of 15.50 ± 0.57, 13.33 ± 0.57 and 12.00 ± 0.00 mm, respectively. However, none of the tested pathogenic bacteria were susceptible towards compounds 2 and 3.
  20. Hashim NM, Rahmani M, Ee GC, Sukari MA, Yahayu M, Amin MA, et al.
    Molecules, 2012;17(5):6071-82.
    PMID: 22614861 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17056071
    One of the most promising plants in biological screening test results of thirteen Artocarpus species was Artocarpus obtusus FM Jarrett and detailed phytochemical investigation of powdered dried bark of the plant has led to the isolation and identification of three xanthones; pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A (1), dihydroartoindonesianin C (2) and pyranocycloartobiloxanthone B (3). These compounds were screened for antioxidant, antimicrobial and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A (1) exhibited a strong free radical scavenger towards DPPH free radicals with IC50 value of 2 µg/mL with prominent discoloration observed in comparison with standard ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol and quercetin, The compound also exhibited antibacterial activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC3359) and Bacillus subtilis (clinically isolated) with inhibition zone of 20 and 12 mm, respectively. However the other two xanthones were found to be inactive. For the tyrosinase inhibitory activity, again compound (1) displayed strong activity comparable with the standard kojic acid.
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