Since the establishment of implant in dentistry, the use of removable partial denture in replacing missing teeth apparently becomes less popular. The situation is made worse by the renowned limitations of removable partial denture. One of the obvious limitations of removable partial denture, especially in replacing missing anterior teeth is the unsightly view of metal used for retentive clasp. This case report describes the use of spring loaded plunger attachments as an alternative way to achieve retention and at the same time improving the aesthetic of the prosthesis.
The measurements of absorbed dose rate in air around amang plant buildings were carried out using a scintillation detector. It was found that the mean radiation levels at seven amang plants were in the range of 1.6 – 5.5 µGy h -1. The individual maximum value measured was 56 µGy h -1. The annual dose to a worker transporting the minerals to the plant was estimated to be 1.5 mSv y -1.
This paper presents the development of kidney TeleUltrasound consultation system. The TeleUltrasound system provides an innovative design that aids the acquisition, archiving, and dissemination of medical data and information over the internet as its backbone. The system provides data sharing to allow remote collaboration, viewing, consultation, and diagnosis of medical data. The design is layered upon a standard known as Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM). The DICOM standard defines protocols for exchanging medical images and their associated data. The TeleUltrasound system is an integrated solution for retrieving, processing, and archiving images and providing data storage management using Structured Query Language (SQL) database. Creating a web-based interface is an additional advantage to achieve global accessibility of experts that will widely open the opportunity of greater examination and multiple consultations. This system is equipped with a high level of data security and its performance has been tested with white, black, and gray box techniques. And the result was satisfactory. The overall system has been evaluated by several radiologists in Malaysia, United Arab Emirates, and Sudan, the result is shown within this paper.
This study was carried out in an oil palm plantation in Bandar Baharu, Kedah using monkey carcasses and focuses in documenting the decomposition and dipteran colonization sequences in 50 days. This is the first study of Diptera associated with the exploitation of carcasses conducted in the north of peninsular Malaysia during the dry and wet seasons thereat. During the process of decomposition in both seasons, five phases of decay were recognized namely fresh, bloated, active decay, advance decay and dry remain. In this decomposition study, biomass loss of carcass occurred rapidly during the fresh to active decay stage due to the colonization and feeding activity of the Diptera larvae. The duration of the fresh and bloated stages of decay were the same in wet and dry seasons but later stages of decay were markedly shorter during the wet season. Twenty one species of adult Diptera were identified colonizing carcasses in the study period. Among the flies from the family Calliphoridae, Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius and Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin were recognized as the earliest arrivals on the first day of exposure. Adult Ch. nigripes was abundant for approximately two weeks after placement of the carcasses. By comparing the percentages of adults collected during the study period, the calliphorids abundance in percentages in wet season was 50.83%, but in dry season, the abundance was only about 35.2%. In contrast, the percentage of Sphaeroceridae in wet season was only 3.33%, but in the dry season, the abundance was 20.8%. Dipteran in family Phoridae, Piophilidae, Sepsidae, Drosophilidae and Dolichopodidae colonized the carcasses for a long period of time and were categorized as long term colonizers.
Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common diseases affecting mankind causing major public health problems to billions of people living in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in various communities residing in different habitats in Malaysia and compare the findings with 101 studies conducted over the past 42 years (1970-2013). A cross-sectional study design was conducted with the aid of a questionnaire to collect relevant information about the study population. Faecal samples were examined using the direct smear and formal ether sedimentation techniques. A total of 342 children were examined amongst whom 24.6% were positive for intestinal parasitic infections. Results showed that 32.3% of rural children, 20.6% of urban squatters and 5.4% of children from flats were positive for one or more parasites. The most common parasite encountered was Trichuris trichiura (20.2%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%) and hookworm (6.7%). No case of hookworm was reported in urban children whereas 12.2% of rural children were positive. The most common protozoan parasite detected was Entamoeba coli (3.2%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (1.8%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.8%) and Blastocystis hominis (1.2%). Nearly one-fifth (18.4%) of the children had single infection followed by double (12.0%) and triple infections (1.2%). Orang Asli (indigenous) children (44.3%) had the highest infection rate followed by Indians (20.2%), Malays (14.0%) and Chinese (11.9%). Twenty-eight studies carried out on plantation communities with regards to intestinal parasitic infections in Malaysia from 1970 to 2013 showed a steady decline in the prevalence rate ranging from 95.0% in the seventies to 37.0 % in 2012. Intestinal parasitic infections were more common in Orang Asli communities with prevalence ranging from over 90% in the seventies and fluctuating below 70% in most studies between 2000 to 2013 except for two studies that showed a prevalence of 98.2% and 100%. The prevalence rate among urban squatters, urban residents and those living in flats showed dramatic decrease in prevalence rate.
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is notorious for its metabolic effect, acute and chronic complications and impact on Quality of Life (QoL). Successful intervention to improve QoL necessitates a valid and reliable measurement tool to identify areas of concern to patients with diabetes.
OBJECTIVES: To (1) assess the factor structure of the Malay Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life-18 (ADDQoL-18) questionnaire; (2) determine the impact of DM on QoL; and (3) identify areas of concern to patients with type 2 DM from three major ethnic groups in Malaysia.
METHODS: Data was obtained from a cross sectional study involving 256 patients with type 2 DM attending the diabetes clinic of the National University of Malaysia Medical Centre. The Malay version of ADDQoL-18 survey was translated from its English version according to standard guidelines and administered by a trained research assistant. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) with oblimin rotation was used to determine factor structure of the data. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to confirm the factor structure. Hierarchical liner regression was used to determine factors associated with QoL.
RESULTS: Unforced factor solution yielded two factors for the whole sample. Forced one factor solution was ascertained for the whole sample and for each ethnic group. Loadings ranged between 0.588 and 0.949. Reliability coefficients were all higher than 0.955. CFA showed that the two factor model had better fit statistics. QoL was associated with the use of insulin and desired glycaemic control, longer diabetes duration, worry about diabetes, and diabetes complications.
CONCLUSIONS: The Malay ADDQoL-18 is a valid tool to be used among patients with diabetes from different ethnic groups in Malaysia. The use of insulin to achieve desired glycaemic control had more negative impact on QoL than the use of tablets and/or dietary changes.
Nanoprecipitation is a simple and increasingly trending method for nanoparticles preparation. The self-assembly feature of poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-PLGA) amphiphilic copolymer into a nanoparticle and its versatile structure makes nanoprecipitation one of the best methods for its preparation. The aim of this study is to review currently available literature for standard preparation of PEG-PLGA nanoparticles using nanoprecipitation technique in order to draw conclusive evidenceto draw conclusive evidence that can guide researchers during formulation development. To achieve this, three databases (Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed) were searched using relevant keywords and the extracted articles were reviewed based on defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data extraction and narrative analysis of the obtained literature was performed when appropriate, along with our laboratory observations to support those claims wherever necessary. As a result of this analysis, reports that matched our criteria conformed to the general facts about nanoprecipitation techniques such as simplicity in procedure, low surfactants requirement, narrow size distribution, and low resulting concentrations. However, these reports showed interesting advantages for using PEG-PLGA as they are frequently reported to be freeze-dried and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) with low hydrophobicity were reported to successfully be encapsulated in the particles.
Two performance (efficacy and attractiveness) comparisons of neonicotinoid baits QuickBayt® (imidacloprid) and Agita® (thiamethoxam) against filth flies were conducted under field conditions to determine suitability for use outdoors. The first experiment compared bait performance and the second compared effects of different applications on QuickBayt® performance. Applications compared were: (i) scattered in petri dish (SPD); (ii) wet-down in petri dish (WPD); (iii) scattered on cardboard (SCB) and (iv) painted on cardboards (PCB). Efficacy and attractiveness were assessed based on knockdown percentage (KD%) and number of flies feeding on baits, respectively. The KD% of QuickBayt® (34% ± 3.0%) was not significantly higher than Agita® (29% ± 1.3%) (t-test, P>0.05). Agita® (101 ± 5.7 flies) was significantly more attractive to flies than QuickBayt® (76 ± 4.8 flies) and the sugar solution (49 ± 7.2) (one-way ANOVA, P<0.05). The PCB and SCB applications were significantly more attractive to filth flies than WPD and SPD (One-way ANOVA, P<0.05), however differences in KD% were not significantly different (One-way ANOVA, P>0.05). The two baits provided the same level of efficacy in a wide-open area against filth flies of various species. QuickBayt® was more versatile; efficacy was not significantly affected by different applications. Surface area and moisture affects attractiveness of the bait.
Absorbed dose rates in vehicles during travelling by different modes of transport in Malaysia were measured. Radiation levels measured on roads in Peninsular Malaysia were within a broad range, i.e. between 36 and 1560 nGy h(-1). The highest reading, recorded while travelling near monazite and zircon mineral dumps, was 13 times the mean environmental radiation level of Malaysia. It is evident that radioactive material dumps on the roadsides can influence the radiation level on the road. The absorbed dose rates measured while travelling on an ordinary train were between 60 and 350 nGy h(-1). The highest reading was measured when the train passed a tunnel built through a granite rock hill. The measurement during sea travelling by ferries gave the lowest radiation level owing to merely cosmic radiation at the sea level.
Leiomyosarcoma of the scrotum is a rare tumor. Johnson H Jr in 1987 reported first case. Only 39 cases been reported in the literature. A 74 years old Indian gentleman presented with progressive painless right testicular swelling for 3 months. On examination, a firm right testicular mass. We proceeded with right scrotal exploration with excision of the right scrotal mass. Histopathology showed scrotum leiomyosarcoma. We would like to discuss the rarity of presentation, dilemma of diagnosis and managing in a district hospital. We advocate wide local excision with clear margin of 2 cm which give good overall survival benefits.
Electroplated nickel coating on cemented carbide is a potential pretreatment technique for providing an interlayer prior to diamond deposition on the hard metal substrate. The electroplated nickel coating is expected to be of high quality, for example, indicated by having adequate thickness and uniformity. Electroplating parameters should be set accordingly for this purpose. In this study, the gap distances between the electrodes and duration of electroplating process are the investigated variables. Their effect on the coating thickness and uniformity was analyzed and quantified using design of experiment. The nickel deposition was carried out by electroplating in a standard Watt's solution keeping other plating parameters (current: 0.1 Amp, electric potential: 1.0 V, and pH: 3.5) constant. The gap distance between anode and cathode varied at 5, 10, and 15 mm, while the plating time was 10, 20, and 30 minutes. Coating thickness was found to be proportional to the plating time and inversely proportional to the electrode gap distance, while the uniformity tends to improve at a large electrode gap. Empirical models of both coating thickness and uniformity were developed within the ranges of the gap distance and plating time settings, and an optimized solution was determined using these models.
Two types of municipal solid waste (MSW), newly arrived and 2 weeks old, were sampled from a sanitary landfill in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia at a fortnightly interval and kept under field conditions for 2 weeks. A total of 480 kg of each type of MSW was sampled to study species composition and impact of delays in cover soil applications on filth fly emergence. Out of 960 kg of MSW sampled, 9.2 ± 0.5 flies emerged per kilogram. Weekly adult fly emergence rates of newly arrived and 2-week-old waste did not differ significantly and MSW remained suitable for fly breeding for up to 1 month. Eight species of flies emerged from the MSW: namely, Musca domestica, Musca sorbens, Synthesiomyia nudiseta, Hydrotaea chalcogaster, Chrysomya megacephala, Lucilia cuprina, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Sarcophaga sp. Newly arrived waste was determined to be the main source for M. domestica, C. megacephala and L. cuprina in the landfill owing to significantly higher mean emergence compared with 2-week-old waste. Musca sorbens was found in newly arrived waste but not in 2-week-old waste, suggesting that the species was able to survive transportation to landfill but unable to survive landfill conditions. Hemipyrellia ligurriens, H. chalcogaster and S. nudiseta were not imported into the landfill with MSW and pre-existing flies in and around the landfill itself may be their source. The results show that landfills can be a major source of fly breeding if cover soil or temporary cover is not applied daily or on a regular schedule.
Wormian bones are a subset of the small intrasutural bones that lie between the cranial sutures formed by the bones of the skull vault. They are formed due to additional ossification centres in or near sutures. They are usually considered as normal variants and seem to be determined genetically in certain populations. They have been linked with rapid cranial expansion as they appear in great number in hydrocephalic skulls. They are commonly found in the lambdoid suture and fontanelles but are occasionally seen in other sutures especially the coronal, squamosal, and sagittal sutures. We examined 25 dried human skulls with the aim to find out the occurrence and variations of Wormian bones, and surprisingly we found Wormian bones in the coronal, squamosal, and sagittal sutures in 6 skulls. These are uncommon sites of occurrence of sutural bones as reported in the literature. These findings prompted us to report these cases as their presence can lead to confusion in diagnosis in cases of skull fractures.
Three species composition surveys were conducted in a rural location in Kedah and an urban location in Pulau Pinang. Two of the surveys were conducted in November 2003, the first was at the Kedah site and the second was at the Pulau Pinang site. The third survey was conducted at the Pulau Pinang site again on the last week of April 2004. All these surveys were conducted one week prior to field evaluations of commercial chemical fly baits. The predominant species recovered from the surveys was the house fly, Musca domestica, which ranked first in prevalence in all three studies. Catches of Musca sorbens, Chrysoma megacephala and Lucillia cuprina were lower than M. domestica. Sarcophaga sp. was not present at the Kedah site and was only present at the Pulau Pinang site during the survey in April 2004. The other fly species present at the Kedah site were Megaselia sp., Psycoda sp., Piophila sp. and Fannia sp. These species were scarce and never exceeded 1% of the total catch.
The efficacy and residual efficacy of commercial baits, Quick Bayt (0.5% w/w imidacloprid) and Agita (10.0% w/w thiamethoxam) against synanthropic flies were evaluated under field conditions. Efficacy was evaluated based on knockdown percentage (KD %). The bait efficacy and residual efficacy evaluation were conducted for a period of 3 weeks and 6 weeks respectively. Baits were applied onto bait targets and placed on fly-count targets to facilitate the counting of flies. All baits were applied according to the manufacturer's recommended application rate. Three replicate treatments for each type of bait were placed at the study site each week. The number of flies feeding on baits and the knocked down flies were counted and collected. The efficacy of Agita and Quick Bayt did not differ significantly (t-test, P>0.05) over the 3-week period, even though Quick Bayt had a slightly higher KD% than Agita. In the residual efficacy evaluation, the (knockdown) KD% of Quick Bayt was consistent at around 36% for the first five weeks but dropped to 33.8 +/- 0.4% on the sixth week. The KD% for Agita on the first week was 33.6 +/- 12.2% and remained relatively consistent for the first 4 weeks at around 31%. KD% dropped to 16.7 +/- 3.3% on week 5 and to 15.7 +/- 1.2% on week 6. The difference in residual efficacy of the two baits was significant (t-test, p < 0.05).
Measurements of external radiation level, radon/thoron daughters concentrations in air and uranium/thorium concentrations in airborne mineral dust at 16 amang plants in Malaysia were carried out for three consecutive months to assess radiation dose to workers. Estimated occupational dose was within the range of 1.7-10.9 mSv y(-1). The mean total dose at the amang plants was 4.1 mSv y(-1). Overall, it was found that the major dose contribution of 80% came from external radiation. Radon/thoron daughters and airborne mineral dust contributed to only 11 and 9% of the total dose, respectively.
Using the cow-baited trap (CBT) method, 1,845 Anopheles mosquitos, comprising 14 species, were caught in malaria-endemic area of Hulu Perak district, Peninsular Malaysia. The two dominant species were An. barbirostris (18.59%) and An. aconitus (18.86%). Anopheles maculatus, the main malaria vector, constituted 9.11% of the total number of mosquitos sampled. Three hundred and seventy-seven Anopheles larvae, comprising 8 species, were sampled using the North Carolina Biological Station dipper. Anopheles barbirostris larvae amounted to 64.69% of the total number of larvae; An. aconitus accounted for 10.65% of larvae. Seven habitats were identified as breeding places of Anopheles. Most species were found to breed in paddies, fishponds, and rivers. Other less popular habitats were temporary pools, mountain streams, and spring wells.