Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 44 in total

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  1. Higuchi A, Kumar SS, Benelli G, Alarfaj AA, Munusamy MA, Umezawa A, et al.
    Trends Biotechnol., 2017 11;35(11):1102-1117.
    PMID: 28751147 DOI: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2017.06.016
    Current clinical trials that evaluate human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-based therapies predominantly target treating macular degeneration of the eyes because the eye is an isolated tissue that is naturally weakly immunogenic. Here, we discuss current bioengineering approaches and biomaterial usage in combination with stem cell therapy for macular degeneration disease treatment. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) differentiated from hPSCs is typically used in most clinical trials for treating patients, whereas bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are intravitreally transplanted, undifferentiated, into patient eyes. We also discuss reported negative effects of stem cell therapy, such as patients becoming blind following transplantation of adipose-derived stem cells, which are increasingly used by 'stem-cell clinics'.
  2. Sung TC, Su HC, Ling QD, Kumar SS, Chang Y, Hsu ST, et al.
    Biomaterials, 2020 Sep;253:120060.
    PMID: 32450407 DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2020.120060
    The current differentiation process of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into cardiomyocytes to enhance the purity of hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes requires some purification processes, which are laborious processes. We developed cell sorting plates, which are prepared from coating thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and extracellular matrix proteins. After hPSCs were induced into cardiomyocytes on the thermoresponsive surface coated with laminin-521 for 15 days, the temperature of the cell culture plates was decreased to 8-9 °C to detach the cells partially from the thermoresponsive surface. The detached cells exhibited a higher cardiomyocyte marker of cTnT than the remaining cells on the thermoresponsive surface as well as the cardiomyocytes after purification using conventional cell selection. The detached cells expressed several cardiomyocyte markers, such as α-actinin, MLC2a and NKX2.5. This study suggested that the purification of hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes using cell sorting plates with the thermoresponsive surface is a promising method for the purification of hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes without conventional laborious processes.
  3. Higuchi A, Hirad AH, Kumar SS, Munusamy MA, Alarfaj AA
    Acta Biomater, 2020 10 15;116:162-173.
    PMID: 32911107 DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2020.09.010
    Thermoresponsive surfaces enable the detachment of cells or cell sheets by decreasing the temperature of the surface when harvesting the cells. However, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), such as embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, cannot be directly cultured on a thermoresponsive surface; hPSCs need a specific extracellular matrix to bind to the integrin receptors on their surfaces. We prepared a thermoresponsive surface by using poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-butylacrylate) and recombinant vitronectin to provide an optimal coating concentration for the hPSC culture. hPSCs can be cultured on the same thermoresponsive surface for 5 passages by partial detachment of the cells from the surface by decreasing the temperature for 30 min; then, the remaining hPSCs were subsequently cultured on the same dishes following the addition of new cultivation media. The detached cells, even after continual culture for five passages, showed high pluripotency, the ability to differentiate into cells derived from the 3 germ layers and the ability to undergo cardiac differentiation.
  4. Higuchi A, Ling QD, Kumar SS, Munusamy MA, Alarfaj AA, Chang Y, et al.
    Lab Invest, 2015 Jan;95(1):26-42.
    PMID: 25365202 DOI: 10.1038/labinvest.2014.132
    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a platform to obtain patient-specific cells for use as a cell source in regenerative medicine. Although iPSCs do not have the ethical concerns of embryonic stem cells, iPSCs have not been widely used in clinical applications, as they are generated by gene transduction. Recently, iPSCs have been generated without the use of genetic material. For example, protein-induced PSCs and chemically induced PSCs have been generated by the use of small and large (protein) molecules. Several epigenetic characteristics are important for cell differentiation; therefore, several small-molecule inhibitors of epigenetic-modifying enzymes, such as DNA methyltransferases, histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases, and histone demethylases, are potential candidates for the reprogramming of somatic cells into iPSCs. In this review, we discuss what types of small chemical or large (protein) molecules could be used to replace the viral transduction of genes and/or genetic reprogramming to obtain human iPSCs.
  5. Kumar SS, Alarfaj AA, Munusamy MA, Singh AJ, Peng IC, Priya SP, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(12):23418-47.
    PMID: 25526563 DOI: 10.3390/ijms151223418
    Human pluripotent stem cells, including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), hold promise as novel therapeutic tools for diabetes treatment because of their self-renewal capacity and ability to differentiate into beta (β)-cells. Small and large molecules play important roles in each stage of β-cell differentiation from both hESCs and hiPSCs. The small and large molecules that are described in this review have significantly advanced efforts to cure diabetic disease. Lately, effective protocols have been implemented to induce hESCs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to differentiate into functional β-cells. Several small molecules, proteins, and growth factors promote pancreatic differentiation from hESCs and hMSCs. These small molecules (e.g., cyclopamine, wortmannin, retinoic acid, and sodium butyrate) and large molecules (e.g. activin A, betacellulin, bone morphogentic protein (BMP4), epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), noggin, transforming growth factor (TGF-α), and WNT3A) are thought to contribute from the initial stages of definitive endoderm formation to the final stages of maturation of functional endocrine cells. We discuss the importance of such small and large molecules in uniquely optimized protocols of β-cell differentiation from stem cells. A global understanding of various small and large molecules and their functions will help to establish an efficient protocol for β-cell differentiation.
  6. Sivan PP, Syed S, Mok PL, Higuchi A, Murugan K, Alarfaj AA, et al.
    Stem Cells Int, 2016;2016:8304879.
    PMID: 27293447 DOI: 10.1155/2016/8304879
    Sustenance of visual function is the ultimate focus of ophthalmologists. Failure of complete recovery of visual function and complications that follow conventional treatments have shifted search to a new form of therapy using stem cells. Stem cell progenitors play a major role in replenishing degenerated cells despite being present in low quantity and quiescence in our body. Unlike other tissues and cells, regeneration of new optic cells responsible for visual function is rarely observed. Understanding the transcription factors and genes responsible for optic cells development will assist scientists in formulating a strategy to activate and direct stem cells renewal and differentiation. We review the processes of human eye development and address the strategies that have been exploited in an effort to regain visual function in the preclinical and clinical state. The update of clinical findings of patients receiving stem cell treatment is also presented.
  7. Sung TC, Liu CH, Huang WL, Lee YC, Kumar SS, Chang Y, et al.
    Biomater Sci, 2019 Oct 28.
    PMID: 31656967 DOI: 10.1039/c9bm00817a
    Current xeno-free and chemically defined methods for the differentiation of hPSCs (human pluripotent stem cells) into cardiomyocytes are not efficient and are sometimes not reproducible. Therefore, it is necessary to develop reliable and efficient methods for the differentiation of hPSCs into cardiomyocytes for future use in cardiovascular research related to drug discovery, cardiotoxicity screening, and disease modeling. We evaluated two representative differentiation methods that were reported previously, and we further developed original, more efficient methods for the differentiation of hPSCs into cardiomyocytes under xeno-free, chemically defined conditions. The developed protocol successively differentiated hPSCs into cardiomyocytes, approximately 90-97% of which expressed the cardiac marker cTnT, with beating speeds and sarcomere lengths that were similar to those of a healthy adult human heart. The optimal cell culture biomaterials for the cardiac differentiation of hPSCs were also evaluated using extracellular matrix-mimetic material-coated dishes. Synthemax II-coated and Laminin-521-coated dishes were found to be the most effective and efficient biomaterials for the cardiac differentiation of hPSCs according to the observation of hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes with high survival ratios, high beating colony numbers, a similar beating frequency to that of a healthy adult human heart, high purity levels (high cTnT expression) and longer sarcomere lengths similar to those of a healthy adult human heart.
  8. Qiang S, Alsaeedi HA, Yuhong C, Yang H, Tong L, Kumar S, et al.
    J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol., 2018 Jun;183:127-132.
    PMID: 29704860 DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2018.04.003
    BACKGROUND: Retinal degeneration is a condition ensued by various ocular disorders such as artery occlusion, diabetic retinopathy, retrolental fibroplasia and retinitis pigmentosa which cause abnormal loss of photoreceptor cells and lead to eventual vision impairment. No efficient treatment has yet been found, however, the use of stem cell therapy such as bone marrow and embryonic stem cells has opened a new treatment modality for retinal degenerative diseases. The major goal of this study is to analyze the potential of endothelial progenitor cells derived from bone marrow to differentiate into retinal neural cells for regenerative medicine purposes.

    METHODS: In this study, endothelial progenitor cells were induced in-vitro with photoreceptor growth factor (taurine) for 21 days. Subsequently, the morphology and gene expression of CRX and RHO of the photoreceptors-induced EPCs were examined through immunostaining assay.

    FINDINGS: The results indicated that the induced endothelial progenitor cells demonstrated positive gene expression of CRX and RHO. Our findings suggested that EPC cells may have a high advantage in cell replacement therapy for treating eye disease, in addition to other neural diseases, and may be a suitable cell source in regenerative medicine for eye disorders.

  9. Benelli G, Maggi F, Romano D, Stefanini C, Vaseeharan B, Kumar S, et al.
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis, 2017 10;8(6):821-826.
    PMID: 28865955 DOI: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2017.08.004
    Ticks serve as vectors of a wide range of infectious agents deleterious to humans and animals. Tick bite prevention is based to a large extent on the use of chemical repellents and acaricides. However, development of resistance in targeted ticks, environmental pollution, and contamination of livestock meat and milk are major concerns. Recently, metal, metal oxide and carbon nanoparticles, particularly those obtained through green fabrication routes, were found to be highly effective against a wide array of arthropod pests and vectors. We summarize current knowledge on the toxicity of nanoparticles against tick vectors of medical and veterinary importance. We also discuss the toxicity of products from botanical- and bacterial-based as well as classic chemical nanosynthesis routes, showing differences in bioactivity against ticks based on the products used for the fabrication of nanoparticles. Further research is needed, to validate the efficacy of nanoparticle-based acaricides in the field and clarify mechanisms of action of nanoparticles against ticks. From a technical point of view, the literature analyzed here showed little standardization of size and weight of tested ticks, a lack of uniform methods to assess toxicity and concerns related to data analysis. Finally, an important challenge for future research is the need for ecotoxicology studies to evaluate potential negative effects on non-target organisms and site contamination arising from nanoparticle-based treatments in close proximity of livestock and farmers.
  10. Priya SP, Sakinah S, Sharmilah K, Hamat RA, Sekawi Z, Higuchi A, et al.
    Acta Trop, 2017 Dec;176:206-223.
    PMID: 28823908 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.007
    Immuno-pathogenesis of leptospirosis can be recounted well by following its trail path from entry to exit, while inducing disastrous damages in various tissues of the host. Dysregulated, inappropriate and excessive immune responses are unanimously blamed in fatal leptospirosis. The inherent abilities of the pathogen and inabilities of the host were debated targeting the severity of the disease. Hemorrhagic manifestation through various mechanisms leading to a fatal end is observed when this disease is unattended. The similar vascular destructions and hemorrhage manifestations are noted in infections with different microbes in endemic areas. The simultaneous infection in a host with more than one pathogen or parasite is referred as the coinfection. Notably, common endemic infections such as leptospirosis, dengue, chikungunya, and malaria, harbor favorable environments to flourish in similar climates, which is aggregated with stagnated water and aggravated with the poor personal and environmental hygiene of the inhabitants. These factors aid the spread of pathogens and parasites to humans and potential vectors, eventually leading to outbreaks of public health relevance. Malaria, dengue and chikungunya need mosquitoes as vectors, in contrast with leptospirosis, which directly invades human, although the environmental bacterial load is maintained through other mammals, such as rodents. The more complicating issue is that infections by different pathogens exhibiting similar symptoms but require different treatment management. The current review explores different pathogens expressing specific surface proteins and their ability to bind with array of host proteins with or without immune response to enter into the host tissues and their ability to evade the host immune responses to invade and their affinity to certain tissues leading to the common squeal of hemorrhage. Furthermore, at the host level, the increased susceptibility and inability of the host to arrest the pathogens' and parasites' spread in different tissues, various cytokines accumulated to eradicate the microorganisms and their cellular interactions, the antibody dependent defense and the susceptibility of individual organs bringing the manifestation of the diseases were explored. Lastly, we provided a discussion on the immune trail path of pathogenesis from entry to exit to narrate the similarities and dissimilarities among various hemorrhagic fevers mentioned above, in order to outline future possibilities of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of coinfections, with special reference to endemic areas.
  11. Danjuma L, Ling MP, Hamat RA, Higuchi A, Alarfaj AA, Marlina, et al.
    Tuberculosis (Edinb), 2017 12;107:38-47.
    PMID: 29050770 DOI: 10.1016/j.tube.2017.03.006
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a remarkable ability of long-term persistence despite vigorous host immunity and prolonged therapy. The bacteria persist in secure niches such as the mesenchymal stem cells in the bone marrow and reactivate the disease, leading to therapeutic failure. Many bacterial cells can remain latent within a diseased tissue so that their genetic material can be incorporated into the genetic material of the host tissue. This incorporated genetic material reproduces in a manner similar to that of cellular DNA. After the cell division, the incorporated gene is reproduced normally and distributed proportionately between the two progeny. This inherent adoption of long-term persistence and incorporating the bacterial genetic material into that of the host tissue remains and is considered imperative for microbial advancement and chemotherapeutic resistance; moreover, new evidence indicates that the bacteria might pass on genetic material to the host DNA sequence. Several studies focused on the survival mechanism of M. tuberculosis in the host immune system with the aim of helping the efforts to discover new drugs and vaccines against tuberculosis. This review explored the mechanisms through which this bacterium affects the expression of human genes. The first part of the review summarizes the current knowledge about the interactions between microbes and host microenvironment, with special reference to the M. tuberculosis neglected persistence in immune cells and stem cells. Then, we focused on how bacteria can affect human genes and their expression. Furthermore, we analyzed the literature base on the process of cell death during tuberculosis infection, giving particular emphasis to gene methylation as an inherited process in the neutralization of possibly injurious gene components in the genome. The final section discusses recent advances related to the M. tuberculosis interaction with host epigenetic circuitry.
  12. Teh SW, Mok PL, Abd Rashid M, Bastion MC, Ibrahim N, Higuchi A, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2018 Feb 13;19(2).
    PMID: 29438279 DOI: 10.3390/ijms19020558
    Ocular microbial infection has emerged as a major public health crisis during the past two decades. A variety of causative agents can cause ocular microbial infections; which are characterized by persistent and destructive inflammation of the ocular tissue; progressive visual disturbance; and may result in loss of visual function in patients if early and effective treatments are not received. The conventional therapeutic approaches to treat vision impairment and blindness resulting from microbial infections involve antimicrobial therapy to eliminate the offending pathogens or in severe cases; by surgical methods and retinal prosthesis replacing of the infected area. In cases where there is concurrent inflammation, once infection is controlled, anti-inflammatory agents are indicated to reduce ocular damage from inflammation which ensues. Despite advances in medical research; progress in the control of ocular microbial infections remains slow. The varying level of ocular tissue recovery in individuals and the incomplete visual functional restoration indicate the chief limitations of current strategies. The development of a more extensive therapy is needed to help in healing to regain vision in patients. Stem cells are multipotent stromal cells that can give rise to a vast variety of cell types following proper differentiation protocol. Stem cell therapy shows promise in reducing inflammation and repairing tissue damage on the eye caused by microbial infections by its ability to modulate immune response and promote tissue regeneration. This article reviews a selected list of common infectious agents affecting the eye; which include fungi; viruses; parasites and bacteria with the aim of discussing the current antimicrobial treatments and the associated therapeutic challenges. We also provide recent updates of the advances in stem cells studies on sepsis therapy as a suggestion of optimum treatment regime for ocular microbial infections.
  13. Higuchi A, Wang CT, Ling QD, Lee HH, Kumar SS, Chang Y, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2015;5:10217.
    PMID: 25970301 DOI: 10.1038/srep10217
    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) exhibit heterogeneous characteristics, indicating various genotypes and differentiation abilities. The isolated hADSCs can possess different purity levels and divergent properties depending on the purification methods used. We developed a hybrid-membrane migration method that purifies hADSCs from a fat tissue solution with extremely high purity and pluripotency. A primary fat-tissue solution was permeated through the porous membranes with a pore size from 8 to 25 μm, and the membranes were incubated in cell culture medium for 15-18 days. The hADSCs that migrated from the membranes contained an extremely high percentage (e.g., >98%) of cells positive for mesenchymal stem cell markers and showed almost one order of magnitude higher expression of some pluripotency genes (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and Nanog) compared with cells isolated using the conventional culture method.
  14. Chen DC, Chen LY, Ling QD, Wu MH, Wang CT, Suresh Kumar S, et al.
    Biomaterials, 2014 May;35(14):4278-87.
    PMID: 24565521 DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.02.004
    The purification of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) from human adipose tissue cells (stromal vascular fraction) was investigated using membrane filtration through poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid)/silk screen hybrid membranes. Membrane filtration methods are attractive in regenerative medicine because they reduce the time required to purify hADSCs (i.e., less than 30 min) compared with conventional culture methods, which require 5-12 days. hADSCs expressing the mesenchymal stem cell markers CD44, CD73, and CD90 were concentrated in the permeation solution from the hybrid membranes. Expression of the surface markers CD44, CD73, and CD99 on the cells in the permeation solution from the hybrid membranes, which were obtained using 18 mL of feed solution containing 50 × 10⁴ cells, was statistically significantly higher than that of the primary adipose tissue cells, indicating that the hADSCs can be purified in the permeation solution by the membrane filtration method. Cells expressing the stem cell-associated marker CD34 could be successfully isolated in the permeation solution, whereas CD34⁺ cells could not be purified by the conventional culture method. The hADSCs in the permeation solution demonstrated a superior capacity for osteogenic differentiation based on their alkali phosphatase activity, their osterix gene expression, and the results of mineralization analysis by Alizarin Red S and von Kossa staining compared with the cells from the suspension of human adipose tissue. These results suggest that the hADSCs capable of osteogenic differentiation preferentially permeate through the hybrid membranes.
  15. Yeh CC, Muduli S, Peng IC, Lu YT, Ling QD, Alarfaj AA, et al.
    Data Brief, 2016 Mar;6:603-8.
    PMID: 26909373 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2015.12.056
    This data article contains two figures and one table supporting the research article entitled: "Continuous harvest of stem cells via partial detachment from thermoresponsive nanobrush surface" [1]. The table shows coating conditions of three copolymers, poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) grafted with oligovitronectin, poly(styrene-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) and poly(styrene-co-polyethylene glycol methacrylate) to prepare thermoresponsive surface. XPS spectra show the nitrogen peak of the polystyrene surface coated with poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) grafted with oligovitronectin. The surface coating density analyzed from sorption of poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) grafted with oligovitronectin by UV-vis spectroscopy is also presented.
  16. Higuchi A, Kao SH, Ling QD, Chen YM, Li HF, Alarfaj AA, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2015 Dec 14;5:18136.
    PMID: 26656754 DOI: 10.1038/srep18136
    The tentative clinical application of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), such as human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, is restricted by the possibility of xenogenic contamination resulting from the use of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) as a feeder layer. Therefore, we investigated hPSC cultures on biomaterials with different elasticities that were grafted with different nanosegments. We prepared dishes coated with polyvinylalcohol-co-itaconic acid hydrogels grafted with an oligopeptide derived from vitronectin (KGGPQVTRGDVFTMP) with elasticities ranging from 10.3 to 30.4 kPa storage moduli by controlling the crosslinking time. The hPSCs cultured on the stiffest substrates (30.4 kPa) tended to differentiate after five days of culture, whereas the hPSCs cultured on the optimal elastic substrates (25 kPa) maintained their pluripotency for over 20 passages under xeno-free conditions. These results indicate that cell culture matrices with optimal elasticity can maintain the pluripotency of hPSCs in culture.
  17. Peng IC, Yeh CC, Lu YT, Muduli S, Ling QD, Alarfaj AA, et al.
    Biomaterials, 2016 Jan;76:76-86.
    PMID: 26519650 DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2015.10.039
    Stem cell culture is typically based on batch-type culture, which is laborious and expensive. Here, we propose a continuous harvest method for stem cells cultured on thermoresponsive nanobrush surfaces. In this method, stem cells are partially detached from the nanobrush surface by reducing the temperature of the culture medium below the critical solution temperature needed for thermoresponse. The detached stem cells are harvested by exchange into fresh culture medium. Following this, the remaining cells are continuously cultured by expansion in fresh culture medium at 37 °C. Thermoresponsive nanobrush surfaces were prepared by coating block copolymers containing polystyrene (for hydrophobic anchoring onto culture dishes) with three types of polymers: (a) polyacrylic acid with cell-binding oligopeptides, (b) thermoresponsive poly-N-isopropylacrylamide, and (c) hydrophilic poly(ethyleneglycol)methacrylate. The optimal coating durations and compositions for these copolymers to facilitate adequate attachment and detachment of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) and embryonic stem cells (hESCs) were determined. hADSCs and hESCs were continuously harvested for 5 and 3 cycles, respectively, via the partial detachment of cells from thermoresponsive nanobrush surfaces.
  18. Anbu P, Murugan K, Madhiyazhagan P, Dinesh D, Subramaniam J, Panneerselvam C, et al.
    Nat Prod Res, 2016 Sep;30(18):2077-84.
    PMID: 26679526 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2015.1114935
    The impact of green-synthesised mosquitocidal nanoparticles on non-target aquatic predators is poorly studied. In this research, we proposed a single-step method to synthesise silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) using the seed extract of Melia azedarach. Ag NP were characterised using a variety of biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In laboratory assays on Anopheles stephensi, Ag NP showed LC50 ranging from 2.897 (I instar larvae) to 14.548 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of Ag NP (10 × LC50) lead to complete elimination of larval populations after 72 h. The application of Ag NP in the aquatic environment did not show negative adverse effects on predatory efficiency of the mosquito natural enemy Cyclops vernalis. Overall, this study highlights the concrete possibility to employ M. azedarach-synthesised Ag NP on young instars of malaria vectors.
  19. Padma Priya S, Higuchi A, Abu Fanas S, Pooi Ling M, Kumari Neela V, Sunil PM, et al.
    Lab Invest, 2015 Dec;95(12):1344-52.
    PMID: 26367485 DOI: 10.1038/labinvest.2015.108
    The ultimate goal of dental stem cell research is to construct a bioengineered tooth. Tooth formation occurs based on the well-organized reciprocal interaction of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The dental mesenchymal stem cells are the best explored, but because the human odontogenic epithelium is lost after the completion of enamel formation, studies on these cells are scarce. The successful creation of a bioengineered tooth is achievable only when the odontogenic epithelium is reconstructed to produce a replica of natural enamel. This article discusses the untapped sources of odontogenic epithelial stem cells in humans, such as those present in the active dental lamina in postnatal life, in remnants of dental lamina (the gubernaculum cord), in the epithelial cell rests of Malassez, and in reduced enamel epithelium. The possible uses of these stem cells in regenerative medicine, not just for enamel formation, are discussed.
  20. Chen YM, Chen LH, Li MP, Li HF, Higuchi A, Kumar SS, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 03 23;7:45146.
    PMID: 28332572 DOI: 10.1038/srep45146
    Establishing cultures of human embryonic (ES) and induced pluripotent (iPS) stem cells in xeno-free conditions is essential for producing clinical-grade cells. Development of cell culture biomaterials for human ES and iPS cells is critical for this purpose. We designed several structures of oligopeptide-grafted poly (vinyl alcohol-co-itaconic acid) hydrogels with optimal elasticity, and prepared them in formations of single chain, single chain with joint segment, dual chain with joint segment, and branched-type chain. Oligopeptide sequences were selected from integrin- and glycosaminoglycan-binding domains of the extracellular matrix. The hydrogels grafted with vitronectin-derived oligopeptides having a joint segment or a dual chain, which has a storage modulus of 25 kPa, supported the long-term culture of human ES and iPS cells for over 10 passages. The dual chain and/or joint segment with cell adhesion molecules on the hydrogels facilitated the proliferation and pluripotency of human ES and iPS cells.
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