Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 56 in total

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  1. Hussain M
    Curr Drug Deliv, 2019;16(7):618-627.
    PMID: 30868954 DOI: 10.2174/1567201816666190313155117
    BACKGROUND: Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is a glycoside that has shown considerable promise as a penetration enhancer and drug carrier to improve the absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. The aggregation behavior of GA and its ability to form large micelles at higher solution concentrations are thought to contribute to these bioavailability enhancing properties. The oral absorption of Paclitaxel (PTX) for example, an anti-cancer agent which exhibits poor oral bioavailability, has been found to significantly increase in the presence of GA.

    METHODS: In an attempt to visualize the aggregation behavior of GA and its subsequent association with PTX, 100 ns molecular dynamics simulation of a 5 mM aqueous solution of GA with 10 molecules of PTX was conducted using GROMACS and an all-atom forcefield.

    RESULTS: Aggregation of GA molecules was found to occur quickly at this level of saturation leading to two stable aggregates of 13 and 17 GA molecules with an effective radius of 10.17 nm to 10.92 nm. These aggregates form not in isolation, but together with PTX molecule embedded within the structures, which reduces the number of interactions and hydrogen-bonding with water.

    CONCLUSION: GA aggregation occurs around PTX molecules in solution, forming co-joined GA-PTX cluster units at a ratio of 3:1. These clusters remain stable for the remainder of the 100ns simulation and serve to isolate and protect PTX from the aqueous environment.

  2. Hussain M, Hisham AN
    Asian J Surg, 2008 Apr;31(2):59-62.
    PMID: 18490216 DOI: 10.1016/S1015-9584(08)60059-7
    Over the years, subtotal thyroidectomy has been the mainstay of treatment for toxic goitre; however, total thyroidectomy is increasingly being considered as the procedure of choice. This study aimed to review our experience with total thyroidectomy in toxic goitre and evaluate the outcome of this procedure.
  3. Hussain M, Thambidorai CR
    Med J Malaysia, 2000 Jun;55(2):271-2.
    PMID: 19839160
    A neurologically impaired child who had fundoplication and gastrostomy done for gastroesophageal at the age of three, presented two years later with intestinal obstruction. She underwent laparotomy and was found to have antegrade jejuno-jejunal intussusception. Intussusception is an unusual but recognised complication of gastrostomy tube placement.
  4. Raez MB, Hussain MS, Mohd-Yasin F
    Biol Proced Online, 2006;8:11-35.
    PMID: 16799694
    Electromyography (EMG) signals can be used for clinical/biomedical applications, Evolvable Hardware Chip (EHW) development, and modern human computer interaction. EMG signals acquired from muscles require advanced methods for detection, decomposition, processing, and classification. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the various methodologies and algorithms for EMG signal analysis to provide efficient and effective ways of understanding the signal and its nature. We further point up some of the hardware implementations using EMG focusing on applications related to prosthetic hand control, grasp recognition, and human computer interaction. A comparison study is also given to show performance of various EMG signal analysis methods. This paper provides researchers a good understanding of EMG signal and its analysis procedures. This knowledge will help them develop more powerful, flexible, and efficient applications.
  5. Reaz MB, Hussain MS, Mohd-Yasin F
    Biol Proced Online, 2006;8:163.
    PMID: 19565309 DOI: 10.1251/bpo124
    This paper was originally published in Biological Procedures Online (BPO) on March 23, 2006. It was brought to the attention of the journal and authors that reference 74 was incorrect. The original citation for reference 74, "Stanford V. Biosignals offer potential for direct interfaces and health monitoring. Pervasive Computing, IEEE 2004; 3(1):99-103." should read "Costanza E, Inverso SA, Allen R. 'Toward Subtle Intimate Interfaces for Mobile Devices Using an EMG Controller' in Proc CHI2005, April 2005, Portland, OR, USA."
  6. Amin HU, Malik AS, Kamel N, Hussain M
    Brain Topogr, 2016 Mar;29(2):207-17.
    PMID: 26613724 DOI: 10.1007/s10548-015-0462-2
    Feature extraction and classification for electroencephalogram (EEG) in medical applications is a challenging task. The EEG signals produce a huge amount of redundant data or repeating information. This redundancy causes potential hurdles in EEG analysis. Hence, we propose to use this redundant information of EEG as a feature to discriminate and classify different EEG datasets. In this study, we have proposed a JPEG2000 based approach for computing data redundancy from multi-channels EEG signals and have used the redundancy as a feature for classification of EEG signals by applying support vector machine, multi-layer perceptron and k-nearest neighbors classifiers. The approach is validated on three EEG datasets and achieved high accuracy rate (95-99 %) in the classification. Dataset-1 includes the EEG signals recorded during fluid intelligence test, dataset-2 consists of EEG signals recorded during memory recall test, and dataset-3 has epileptic seizure and non-seizure EEG. The findings demonstrate that the approach has the ability to extract robust feature and classify the EEG signals in various applications including clinical as well as normal EEG patterns.
  7. Ahmed S, Hussain M, Akhter S, Islam T, Ahmed SU, Kabir ML
    Mymensingh Med J, 2012 Jul;21(3):497-502.
    PMID: 22828550
    Globally, rotaviruses are the single most important etiologic agents of severe childhood dehydrating diarrhea that accounts for more than 125 million of cases, 25-55% of all hospital admissions for diarrhea and ≈600,000 deaths every year. In Bangladesh, while overall diarrhea related deaths are declining, the proportion of diarrhea deaths due to rotavirus is increasing. This study was aimed at estimating the burden of rotavirus diarrhea and isolating the genotypes of rotavirus in a children hospital of Bangladesh; thereby endorsing a logical search for an appropriate rotavirus vaccine. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Institute of Child and Mother Health, Matuail, Dhaka, Bangladesh during 2006-2007. Children aged between one month and five years suffering form diarrhea were enrolled in the study. Stool samples were analyzed by ELISA for rotavirus antigen. The rotavirus-positive samples were further analyzed for genotype determination. Among 656 stool samples, 39.5% samples were positive for rotavirus antigen. The mean age of the children studied was 12±9.9 months; the peak being in the second half of infancy. G2 was identified as the most dominant genotype (45.5%) followed by G1 (24.8%), G12 (9.6%), G9 (8.5%) and G4 (2.1%) genotypes. Since G2 were found to be the predominant circulating rotavirus strain in this study and some other studies in Bangladesh, the recommended vaccine for prevention of rotavirus infection in Bangladesh should cover this strain to have maximum effectiveness.
  8. Asaduzzaman K, Reaz MB, Mohd-Yasin F, Sim KS, Hussain MS
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2010;680:593-9.
    PMID: 20865544 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4419-5913-3_65
    Electroencephalogram (EEG) serves as an extremely valuable tool for clinicians and researchers to study the activity of the brain in a non-invasive manner. It has long been used for the diagnosis of various central nervous system disorders like seizures, epilepsy, and brain damage and for categorizing sleep stages in patients. The artifacts caused by various factors such as Electrooculogram (EOG), eye blink, and Electromyogram (EMG) in EEG signal increases the difficulty in analyzing them. Discrete wavelet transform has been applied in this research for removing noise from the EEG signal. The effectiveness of the noise removal is quantitatively measured using Root Mean Square (RMS) Difference. This paper reports on the effectiveness of wavelet transform applied to the EEG signal as a means of removing noise to retrieve important information related to both healthy and epileptic patients. Wavelet-based noise removal on the EEG signal of both healthy and epileptic subjects was performed using four discrete wavelet functions. With the appropriate choice of the wavelet function (WF), it is possible to remove noise effectively to analyze EEG significantly. Result of this study shows that WF Daubechies 8 (db8) provides the best noise removal from the raw EEG signal of healthy patients, while WF orthogonal Meyer does the same for epileptic patients. This algorithm is intended for FPGA implementation of portable biomedical equipments to detect different brain state in different circumstances.
  9. Lau CK, Heng YS, Hussain MA, Mohamad Nor MI
    ISA Trans, 2010 Oct;49(4):559-66.
    PMID: 20667537 DOI: 10.1016/j.isatra.2010.06.007
    The performance of a chemical process plant can gradually degrade due to deterioration of the process equipment and unpermitted deviation of the characteristic variables of the system. Hence, advanced supervision is required for early detection, isolation and correction of abnormal conditions. This work presents the use of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for online fault diagnosis of a gas-phase polypropylene production process with emphasis on fast and accurate diagnosis, multiple fault identification and adaptability. The most influential inputs are selected from the raw measured data sets and fed to multiple ANFIS classifiers to identify faults occurring in the process, eliminating the requirement of a detailed process model. Simulation results illustrated that the proposed method effectively diagnosed different fault types and severities, and that it has a better performance compared to a conventional multivariate statistical approach based on principal component analysis (PCA). The proposed method is shown to be simple to apply, robust to measurement noise and able to rapidly discriminate between multiple faults occurring simultaneously. This method is applicable for plant-wide monitoring and can serve as an early warning system to identify process upsets that could threaten the process operation ahead of time.
  10. Jakir Hossain Khan M, Azlan Hussain M, Mujtaba IM
    Polymers (Basel), 2016 Jun 14;8(6).
    PMID: 30979325 DOI: 10.3390/polym8060220
    In this study, a novel multiphasic model for the calculation of the polypropylene production in a complicated hydrodynamic and the physiochemical environments has been formulated, confirmed and validated. This is a first research attempt that describes the development of the dual-phasic phenomena, the impact of the optimal process conditions on the production rate of polypropylene and the fluidized bed dynamic details which could be concurrently obtained after solving the model coupled with the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) model, the basic mathematical model and the moment equations. Furthermore, we have established the quantitative relationship between the operational condition and the dynamic gas⁻solid behavior in actual reaction environments. Our results state that the proposed model could be applied for generalizing the production rate of the polymer from a chemical procedure to pilot-scale chemical reaction engineering. However, it was assumed that the solids present in the bubble phase and the reactant gas present in the emulsion phase improved the multiphasic model, thus taking into account that the polymerization took place mutually in the emulsion besides the bubble phase. It was observed that with respect to the experimental extent of the superficial gas velocity and the Ziegler-Natta feed rate, the ratio of the polymer produced as compared to the overall rate of production was approximately in the range of 9%⁻11%. This is a significant amount and it should not be ignored. We also carried out the simulation studies for comparing the data of the CFD-dependent dual-phasic model, the emulsion phase model, the dynamic bubble model and the experimental results. It was noted that the improved dual-phasic model and the CFD model were able to predict more constricted and safer windows at similar conditions as compared to the experimental results. Our work is unique, as the integrated developed model is able to offer clearer ideas related to the dynamic bed parameters for the separate phases and is also capable of computing the chemical reaction rate for every phase in the reaction. Our improved mutiphasic model revealed similar dynamic behaviour as the conventional model in the initial stages of the polymerization reaction; however, it diverged as time progressed.
  11. Ayumi NS, Sahudin S, Hussain Z, Hussain M, Samah NHA
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):482-496.
    PMID: 29569027 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0508-6
    To investigate the use of chitosan nanoparticles (CS-TPP-NPs) as carriers for α- and β-arbutin. In this study, CS-TPP-NPs containing α- and β-arbutin were prepared via the ionic cross-linking of CS and TPP and characterized for particle size, zeta potential, and dispersity index. The entrapment efficiency and loading capacity of various β-arbutin concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6%) were also investigated. SEM, TEM FTIR, DSC and TGA analyses of the nanoparticles were performed to further characterize the nanoparticles. Finally, stability and release studies were undertaken to ascertain further the suitability of the nanoparticles as a carrier system for α- and β-arbutin. Data obtained clearly indicates the potential for use of CS-TPP-NPs as a carrier for the delivery of α- and β-arbutin. The size obtained for the alpha nanoparticles (α-arbutin CSNPs) ranges from 147 to 274 d.nm, with an increase in size with increasing alpha arbutin concentration. β-arbutin nanoparticles (β-arbutin CSNPs) size range was from 211.1 to 284 dn.m. PdI for all nanoparticles remained between 0.2-0.3 while the zeta potential was between 41.6-52.1 mV. The optimum encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity for 0.4% α-arbutin CSNPs were 71 and 77%, respectively. As for β-arbutin, CSNP optimum encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity for 0.4% concentration were 68 and 74%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy for α-arbutin CSNPs showed a more spherical shape compared to β-arbutin CSNPs where rod-shaped particles were observed. However, under transmission electron microscopy, the shapes of both α- and β-arbutin CSNP nanoparticles were spherical. The crystal phase identification of the studied samples was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the XRD of both α and β-arbutin CSNPs showed to be more crystalline in comparison to their free form. FTIR spectra showed intense characteristic peaks of chitosan appearing at 3438.3 cm-1 (-OH stretching), 2912 cm-1 (-CH stretching), represented 1598.01 cm-1 (-NH2) for both nanoparticles. Stability studies conducted for 90 days revealed that both α- and β-arbutin CSNPs were stable in solution. Finally, release studies of both α- and β-arbutin CSNPs showed a significantly higher percentage release in comparison to α- and β-arbutin in their free form. Chitosan nanoparticles demonstrate considerable promise as a carrier system for α- and β-arbutin, the use of which is anticipated to improve delivery of arbutin through the skin, in order to improve its efficacy as a whitening agent.
  12. Naseer MM, Hussain M, Bauzá A, Lo KM, Frontera A
    Chempluschem, 2018 Sep;83(9):881-885.
    PMID: 31950685 DOI: 10.1002/cplu.201800329
    Noncovalent carbon bonding, a recently explored σ-hole interaction, was hitherto supposed to be a weak and structure-guided interaction. Here, its role in the intramolecular stabilization of the cis conformation of the amide moiety in acylhydrazones is described. The calculations reveal an electron donation from the lone pair of the nitrogen atom to the empty antibonding C-N orbital [LP(N)→BD*(C-N)] with a concomitant stabilization energy of E(2) =1.2 kcal mol-1 .
  13. Hussain M, Sahudin S, Abu Samah NH, Anuar NK
    Saudi Pharm J, 2019 Feb;27(2):274-282.
    PMID: 30766440 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsps.2018.11.009
    Objective: To investigate students perception of an industry based approach problem based learning (PBL) and their performance in drug delivery courses in pharmaceutics.

    Methods: PBL was implemented within two drug delivery courses in 2015, in anticipation that the use of formulation or industrial instead of clinical or pharmacy practice based triggers, would open up student interest and understanding towards learning pharmaceutics in relation to industrial pharmacy. Two cohorts were monitored through final year examination results and PBL feedback to evaluate student perception and acceptance of the use of PBL. Previous cohorts were only exposed to conventional tutorials.

    Results: Both cohorts showed better performance in their final examination results (2015 & 2016) compared to the previous year (2014) when students were only exposed to tutorials. The maximum and average marks obtained were also higher. There was significant difference between the maximum marks for Drug Delivery Systems 2 and the average marks for Drug Delivery Systems 1 with P 

  14. Khan RU, Salamzadeh Y, Shah SZA, Hussain M
    J Innov Entrep, 2021;10(1):11.
    PMID: 33686362 DOI: 10.1186/s13731-021-00145-9
    In the present era, women are recognized as successful entrepreneurs through their strong desire, qualities, and capabilities for robust economic development. Due to such an important contribution of women in economic development, we propose to investigate the factors which affect women entrepreneur's success in Pakistan. Data were collected through structured questionnaires from 181 registered SMEs operating in Pakistan. A conceptual model is developed, while SPSS and AMOS software's are used for analysis. The results indicate that the internal factors including the need for achievements, risk-taking, and self-confidence and external factors including economic factors and socio-cultural factors have a positive and significant influence on the success of women-owned enterprises. This research recommends Small and Medium Enterprises Development Authority (SMEDA), policymakers, and practitioners to encourage women entrepreneurs to run their businesses for the long term by providing a variety of incentives and supports related to those internal and external factors. Numerous studies have been conducted to test the different factors' effects on women's entrepreneurial success, but our study investigated some psychological, cultural, and religious factors that are still almost untouched especially in Pakistan. The current study also contributes to the existing literature through empirical shreds of evidence.
  15. Chakraborty PK, Chaudhury S, Chaudhari B, Hussain M, How SL
    Ind Psychiatry J, 2023 Nov;32(Suppl 1):S42-S47.
    PMID: 38370974 DOI: 10.4103/ipj.ipj_215_23
    BACKGROUND: Almost all over the world, psychiatry training of undergraduate medical students has been criticized to be deficient in imparting required knowledge and improving the perception of students towards psychiatry and psychiatric treatment. Considering the large mental health need gap in the community, it is essential to improve undergraduate students' attitude toward psychiatry.

    AIM: Hence, this study was planned to study the impact of psychiatry clinical posting on attitude toward psychiatry of undergraduate medical students.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Undergraduate medical students undergoing psychiatry posting were assessed on the first and last day of clinical posting with the help of semi-structured proforma consisting of sociodemographic information, favored future career choice, the relevance of psychiatry to their future careers, the usefulness of particular knowledge and skills, the value of knowledge of psychiatric specialties and the utility of different settings for learning psychiatry.

    RESULTS: After their clinical posting, students had a more positive attitude towards the usefulness of psychiatry knowledge in future general practice and the usefulness of psychiatry knowledge from undergraduate training in the future. Knowledge of alcohol withdrawal management, detection and management of delirium, and Mental Health Acts were perceived more essential in the future. Also, specialties such as deaddiction and child and adolescent psychiatry were felt more useful in future practice. After posting, students perceived that psychiatry can also be learned at medical and surgical wards as well as during home visits. However, despite some positive changes in attitude toward psychiatry, there was no significant change in choosing psychiatry as a career by the students after posting.

    CONCLUSION: Undergraduate psychiatry training during clinical posting was able to make some positive changes in the knowledge and attitude of students. However, still, there were lacunae in some areas of concern. Preference of psychiatry as a branch of specialization was not increased after posting. This indicates the need for better reforms in psychiatry education at the undergraduate level to improve the perception of undergraduate students about psychiatry.

  16. Amin HU, Malik AS, Ahmad RF, Badruddin N, Kamel N, Hussain M, et al.
    Australas Phys Eng Sci Med, 2015 Mar;38(1):139-49.
    PMID: 25649845 DOI: 10.1007/s13246-015-0333-x
    This paper describes a discrete wavelet transform-based feature extraction scheme for the classification of EEG signals. In this scheme, the discrete wavelet transform is applied on EEG signals and the relative wavelet energy is calculated in terms of detailed coefficients and the approximation coefficients of the last decomposition level. The extracted relative wavelet energy features are passed to classifiers for the classification purpose. The EEG dataset employed for the validation of the proposed method consisted of two classes: (1) the EEG signals recorded during the complex cognitive task--Raven's advance progressive metric test and (2) the EEG signals recorded in rest condition--eyes open. The performance of four different classifiers was evaluated with four performance measures, i.e., accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and precision values. The accuracy was achieved above 98 % by the support vector machine, multi-layer perceptron and the K-nearest neighbor classifiers with approximation (A4) and detailed coefficients (D4), which represent the frequency range of 0.53-3.06 and 3.06-6.12 Hz, respectively. The findings of this study demonstrated that the proposed feature extraction approach has the potential to classify the EEG signals recorded during a complex cognitive task by achieving a high accuracy rate.
  17. Zaidan AA, Zaidan BB, Al-Haiqi A, Kiah ML, Hussain M, Abdulnabi M
    J Biomed Inform, 2015 Feb;53:390-404.
    PMID: 25483886 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbi.2014.11.012
    Evaluating and selecting software packages that meet the requirements of an organization are difficult aspects of software engineering process. Selecting the wrong open-source EMR software package can be costly and may adversely affect business processes and functioning of the organization. This study aims to evaluate and select open-source EMR software packages based on multi-criteria decision-making. A hands-on study was performed and a set of open-source EMR software packages were implemented locally on separate virtual machines to examine the systems more closely. Several measures as evaluation basis were specified, and the systems were selected based a set of metric outcomes using Integrated Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and TOPSIS. The experimental results showed that GNUmed and OpenEMR software can provide better basis on ranking score records than other open-source EMR software packages.
  18. Imran S, Taha M, Ismail NH, Khan KM, Naz F, Hussain M, et al.
    Molecules, 2014;19(8):11722-40.
    PMID: 25102118 DOI: 10.3390/molecules190811722
    In an effort to develop new antibacterial drugs, some novel bisindolylmethane derivatives containing Schiff base moieties were prepared and screened for their antibacterial activity. The synthesis of the bisindolylmethane Schiff base derivatives 3-26 was carried out in three steps. First, the nitro group of 3,3'-((4-nitrophenyl)-methylene)bis(1H-indole) (1) was reduced to give the amino substituted bisindolylmethane 2 without affecting the unsaturation of the bisindolylmethane moiety using nickel boride in situ generated. Reduction of compound 1 using various catalysts showed that combination of sodium borohydride and nickel acetate provides the highest yield for compound 2. Bisindolylmethane Schiff base derivatives were synthesized by coupling various benzaldehydes with amino substituted bisindolylmethane 2. All synthesized compounds were characterized by various spectroscopic methods. The bisindolylmethane Schiff base derivatives were evaluated against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. Derivatives having halogen and nitro substituent display weak to moderate antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi, S. paratyphi A and S. paratyphi B.
  19. Shah SA, Tan HL, Sultan S, Faridz MA, Shah MA, Nurfazilah S, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014;15(7):12027-60.
    PMID: 25003642 DOI: 10.3390/ijms150712027
    Microbial-catalyzed biotransformations have considerable potential for the generation of an enormous variety of structurally diversified organic compounds, especially natural products with complex structures like triterpenoids. They offer efficient and economical ways to produce semi-synthetic analogues and novel lead molecules. Microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi could catalyze chemo-, regio- and stereospecific hydroxylations of diverse triterpenoid substrates that are extremely difficult to produce by chemical routes. During recent years, considerable research has been performed on the microbial transformation of bioactive triterpenoids, in order to obtain biologically active molecules with diverse structures features. This article reviews the microbial modifications of tetranortriterpenoids, tetracyclic triterpenoids and pentacyclic triterpenoids.
  20. Mat Kiah ML, Al-Bakri SH, Zaidan AA, Zaidan BB, Hussain M
    J Med Syst, 2014 Oct;38(10):133.
    PMID: 25199651 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-014-0133-y
    One of the applications of modern technology in telemedicine is video conferencing. An alternative to traveling to attend a conference or meeting, video conferencing is becoming increasingly popular among hospitals. By using this technology, doctors can help patients who are unable to physically visit hospitals. Video conferencing particularly benefits patients from rural areas, where good doctors are not always available. Telemedicine has proven to be a blessing to patients who have no access to the best treatment. A telemedicine system consists of customized hardware and software at two locations, namely, at the patient's and the doctor's end. In such cases, the video streams of the conferencing parties may contain highly sensitive information. Thus, real-time data security is one of the most important requirements when designing video conferencing systems. This study proposes a secure framework for video conferencing systems and a complete management solution for secure video conferencing groups. Java Media Framework Application Programming Interface classes are used to design and test the proposed secure framework. Real-time Transport Protocol over User Datagram Protocol is used to transmit the encrypted audio and video streams, and RSA and AES algorithms are used to provide the required security services. Results show that the encryption algorithm insignificantly increases the video conferencing computation time.
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