Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 84 in total

  1. Dzulkifli, F.A., Mashor, M.Y., Jaafar, H.
    Ki67, a nuclear protein presents in cells that is usually associated
    with tumor cell proliferation. Therefore, physical quantification of Ki67 is a direct
    measure cell proliferation activity. Immunohistochemical staining is known to be
    an effective method of assessing the proportion of tumor cells. Currently, there
    are various techniques for counting Ki67 in different types of cancer. This paper
    provides an overview of recent scoring methods of Ki67, which includes ‘eyeballing’ estimation, vision counting with a microscope or viewer software,
    manual counting of the camera-captured or digital image and automated
  2. Jaafar H
    PMID: 22589584
    Intra-operative frozen section plays an important role in the management of surgical patients and yet it must be used prudently to avoid the indiscriminate usage of this important technique. As it is subjected to many limitations in comparison to the paraffin embedded tissue sections, this review aims to highlight the important concepts and principle of intra-operative frozen section consultation as well as discussing the limitations of this technique. This will then allow the endusers of this technique to be more informed and more selective in their decisions when requesting for a frozen section report.
  3. Yunus, N.A.M., Jaafar, H., Halin, I.A., Green, N.G.
    ASM Science Journal, 2014;8(1):29-35.
    This paper presents a suitable and unique system for observing dielectrophoretic particle separation in a microfluidic device. Details presented on the experimental setup used will enable real time examination, monitoring and analysis of carboxylate-modified latex sphere particles in a colloidal mixture. Observations of the particles were made possible through an optical setup that illuminates the particles that went through the microelectrode array in the microchannel that was controlled by two analog signal generators. Through the setup, it was easily observed that the latex sphere particles move at a flow rate of 0.2 μl/s without colliding or overlapping on each other and successfully separated in two bands left and right. The new separation of one finest particles size for finest purification with respect to frequency was also observed, obtained and analysed.
  4. Syafiqah, H.N., Umar, R., Kamarudin, M.K.A., Hazmin, S.N., Dianah, A.R.S.N., Jaafar, H., et al.
    ASM Science Journal, 2018;11(101):183-194.
    Nowadays, the wireless technology has become a lifestyle; even the children have their own
    mobile phones, although they are categorized as high risk susceptible to health problems
    due to radiation. Thus, the public exposure that stemmed from electromagnetic radiations
    become public concern since studies have been done and the finding showed that the repetitive
    and long term exposure may have adverse health effect. This study was conducted to
    evaluate the exposure level at UMT and UniSZA campuses by measuring the electric field
    strength. This measurement was conducted using omni-directional antenna below 4 GHz,
    connected to spectrum analyzer. In this paper, the measured values are compared with
    the previous study from several locations and then the spatial maps of exposure level are
    developed. The result shows that high exposure level was recorded at UMT and UniSZA.
    From this study, the findings may assist the Ministry of Health to monitor the public health
    due to non-ionizing radiation (NIR) exposure. This is crucial to make sure the international
    commission of non-ionizing radiation protection (ICNIRP) limit is complied. Moreover, the
    development of public NIR exposure policy can be initiated to the Malaysia government for
    health concern. For future study, the investigation of the suitable material used as antenna
    and casing or exposure reduction tool can be done to reduce NIR exposure rate on human
  5. Abdullah B, Hassan S, Sidek D, Jaafar H
    J Laryngol Otol, 2006 Jul;120(7):556-60.
    PMID: 16834804 DOI: 10.1017/S002221510
    INTRODUCTION: Otitis media with effusion (OME) is an inflammation of the middle ear in which a collection of liquid is present in the middle-ear space while the tympanic membrane is intact. The association between adenoid inflammation and OME has long been noted but the exact mechanism is still much debated. We studied the role of adenoid mast cells in the causation of OME.
    OBJECTIVE: To study the distribution and role of adenoid mast cells in the causation of OME.
    METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional, prospective study was carried out in the otorhinolaryngologic clinic, department of otorhinolaryngology (ORL), Science University of Malaysia, from June 1999 to September 2001. A total number of 50 cases were studied. Twenty-five of these patients underwent adenoidectomy, while another 25 patients underwent adenoidectomy and myringotomy with ventilation tube insertion. The adenoid specimens from all patients were examined for the number of adenoid mast cells present, using light microscopy and toluidine blue as the staining agent. The results were analysed using SPSS version 10.0 computer software.
    RESULT: The population of adenoid mast cells in children with OME was significantly greater than that in children without OME (p=0.000).
    CONCLUSION: The increased number of adenoid mast cells in patients with OME suggests that inflammation may play a role in this condition.
  6. Jaafar H, Ibrahim S, Ramli DA
    Comput Intell Neurosci, 2015;2015:360217.
    PMID: 26113861 DOI: 10.1155/2015/360217
    Mobile implementation is a current trend in biometric design. This paper proposes a new approach to palm print recognition, in which smart phones are used to capture palm print images at a distance. A touchless system was developed because of public demand for privacy and sanitation. Robust hand tracking, image enhancement, and fast computation processing algorithms are required for effective touchless and mobile-based recognition. In this project, hand tracking and the region of interest (ROI) extraction method were discussed. A sliding neighborhood operation with local histogram equalization, followed by a local adaptive thresholding or LHEAT approach, was proposed in the image enhancement stage to manage low-quality palm print images. To accelerate the recognition process, a new classifier, improved fuzzy-based k nearest centroid neighbor (IFkNCN), was implemented. By removing outliers and reducing the amount of training data, this classifier exhibited faster computation. Our experimental results demonstrate that a touchless palm print system using LHEAT and IFkNCN achieves a promising recognition rate of 98.64%.
  7. Win TT, Jaafar H, Yusuf Y
    South Asian J Cancer, 2014 Jul;3(3):171-4.
    PMID: 25136525 DOI: 10.4103/2278-330X.136799
    Angiogenesis and apoptosis play an essential role in tumor development and progression. Previous studies on apoptosis and angiogenesis of soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) were done separately. This is the first study of the relationship between apoptotic and angiogenic activity. Correlation of expression of anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2) and pro-apoptotic protein (Bax) in the tumor cells (TCs) with their expression in endothelial cell (EC) of the tumor blood vessels in STS were also carried out.
  8. Win TT, Yusuf Y, Jaafar H
    PMID: 23983572 MyJurnal
    Many studies on the role of apoptosis in cancer development and management have been undertaken. Apoptotic activity depends partly on the balance between anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) and pro-apoptotic (Bax) activities. This study compared Bcl-2 and Bax expression in the tumour cells and endothelial cells of tumour blood vessels in soft tissue sarcoma, and examined the association of these with tumour characteristics.
  9. Mohamed M, Sulaiman SA, Jaafar H
    PMID: 23983363
    The effect of cigarette smoke (CS) on histology of male accessory reproductive organs and the possible protective effect of honey supplementation in rats were investigated in this study. Rats received distilled water, honey, CS exposure or honey plus CS exposure. Honey (1.2 g/kg body weight/day) was administered by gavage and CS exposure (3 times per day) was done in a chamber for 13 weeks. CS exposure significantly increased relative weight of epididymis and ventral prostate. There were also significantly increased number of clear cells and epithelial height of cauda epididymis as well as severe interstitial oedema and decreased epithelial height of prostate gland. However, with the supplementation of honey, these histological changes were significantly reversed suggesting the protective effect of honey against the toxic effect of CS on male accessory reproductive organs in rats.
  10. Mohamed M, Sulaiman SA, Jaafar H, Sirajudeen KN
    Andrologia, 2012 May;44 Suppl 1:182-6.
    PMID: 21592175 DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0272.2010.01159.x
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of Malaysian honey on male reproductive parameters in adult rats. Thirty-two healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (eight rats per group). Group 1 (control group) was given 0.5 ml of distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were given 0.2, 1.2 and 2.4 g kg(-1) body weight of honey respectively. The rats were treated orally by gavage once daily for 4 weeks. Honey did not significantly alter body and male reproductive organs weights. The rats in Group 3 which received honey at 1.2 g kg(-1) had significantly higher epididymal sperm count than those in Groups 1, 2 and 4. No significant differences were found for the percentage of abnormal sperm, elongated spermatid count, reproductive hormonal levels as well as the histology of the testis among the groups. In conclusion, Malaysian honey at a dose of 1.2 g kg(-1) daily significantly increased epididymal sperm count without affecting spermatid count and reproductive hormones. These findings might suggest that oral administration of honey at this dose for 4 weeks may enhance spermiogenesis in adult rats.
  11. Ch'ng ES, Jaafar H, Tuan Sharif SE
    Patholog Res Int, 2011;2011:572706.
    PMID: 21747968 DOI: 10.4061/2011/572706
    Much progress has been made since the conceptualization of tumor angiogenesis-the induction of growth of new blood vessels by tumor-as a salient feature of clinically significant primary or metastatic cancers. From a practicing histopathologist's point of view, we appraise the application of this concept in breast cancer with particular reference to the evaluation of proangiogenic factors and the assessment of new microvessels in histopathological examination. Recently, much focus has also been centered on the active roles played by tumor-associated macrophages in relation to tumor angiogenesis. We review the literature; many data supporting this facet of tumor angiogenesis were derived from the breast cancer models. We scrutinize the large body of clinical evidence exploring the link between the tumor-associated macrophages and breast tumor angiogenesis and discuss particularly the methodology and limitations of incorporating such an assessment in histopathological examination.
  12. Ismaeel OM, Jaafar H, Ibrahim M
    Int J Ophthalmol, 2010;3(3):245-8.
    PMID: 22553564 DOI: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2010.03.15
    To detect the presence of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine enzyme (8-OHdG) in recurrent pterygium and its role on recurrence.
  13. Naik VR, Jaafar H, Seng CE
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2010 Jan-Mar;53(1):12-4.
    PMID: 20090214 DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.59175
    The purpose of this study was to count the number of lymphatic channels present in colorectal adenocarcinoma and correlate it with site, size, and stage of tumor, lymph node metastasis.
  14. Mohd Nafi SN, Idris F, Jaafar H
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2017 Dec 28;18(12):3231-3238.
    PMID: 29281877
    Background: Angiogenic activity has been considered to reflect important molecular events during breast tumour
    development. The present study concerned cellular and molecular changes of MNU-induced breast tumours subjected
    to promotion and suppression of angiogenesis. Methods: Female Sprague Dawley rats at the age of 21 days received
    MNU at the dose 70 mg/kg of body weight by intraperitoneal injection. Three months post-carcinogen initiation,
    mammary tumours were palpated and their growth was monitored. When the tumour diameter reached 1.0 ± 0.05 cm,
    rats were given bFGF or PF4 intratumourally at a dose of 10 μg/tumour. Entire palpable tumour were subsequently
    excised and subjected to histology examination, IHC staining, and RT-PCR. Results: No critical morphological changes
    were observed between pro-angiogenic factor, bFGF, and control groups. However, increase of tumour size with more
    necrotic and diffuse areas was notable in tumours after anti-angiogenic PF4 intervention. ER and PR mRNA expression
    was significantly up- and down-regulated in bFGF and PF4 groups, respectively. The trends were significantly associated
    with peri- and intratumoural MVD counts. However, irrespective of whether we promoted or inhibited angiogenesis,
    the expression of EGFR and ERBB2 continued to be significantly increased but this was not significantly associated
    with the MVD score. No significant differences in E-cadherin and LR gene expression were noted between intervention
    and control groups. Conclusion: ER and PR receptor expression shows consistent responses when tumour angiogenesis
    is manipulated either positively or negatively. Our study adds to current understanding that not only do we need to
    target hormonal receptors, as presently practiced, but we also need to target endothelial receptors to successfully treat
    breast cancer.
  15. Islam MN, Khan J, Jaafar H
    Leg Med (Tokyo), 2009 Apr;11 Suppl 1:S143-6.
    PMID: 19345604 DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2009.02.045
    Series of experiments have been completed with Methamphetamine (MA). Some were with the higher, medium or lower duration of MA administration and some were with acute or chronic doses. Whatever may be the dose or duration the ultimate result came out with the further establishment of cardio-toxic effect of this drug. Cardiovascular symptoms related to MA toxicity include chest pain, palpitations, dyspnoea, hypertension, tachycardia, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, and myocardial ischemia. MA abusers often go through a repeated pattern of frequent drug administrations followed by a period of abstinence. Previous studies have focused largely upon the chronic effect of MA intake to major organs, such as the brains and the heart, by using animal experiments. However, there is a lack of research into the effects of acute dose of MA, especially pertaining to the heart. To clarify the effect of MA on myocardium, 22 male Wister rats aged six weeks were divided into MA, Placebo (P) and Control (C) group were examined following single intraperitoneal administration of MA at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Normal saline was similarly injected in P group. Light microscopic changes was seen in the myocardium of MA treated group including cellular infiltration, with clusters of macrophage-like cells having large nuclei and little cytoplasm evident in the sub-endocardium region. There were presence of few macrophages, leucocytes, and spindle-like fibroblasts. Bringing in to account of cardiac changes by a single dose of MA, slogan should be voiced out to leave methamphetamine.
  16. Jaafar H, Sharif SE, Murtey MD
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2012;13(4):1305-10.
    PMID: 22799323
    Breast cancer cells undergo transformation when they spread into surrounding tissues. Studies have shown that cancer cells undergo surface alterations and interact with the surrounding microenvironment during the invasion process. The aim of the present study was to analyse these cancer cell surface alterations and interactions of cancer cells and stroma. Twenty 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea-induced breast cancer samples taken from five rats were fixed in McDowell-Trump fixative and then washed in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. The samples were then treated with osmium tetroxide before being washed in distilled water and subsequently dehydrated through graded ethanols. The dehydrated samples were immersed in hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), then following removal of excess HMDS, the samples were air dried at room temperature in a dessicator. The dried samples were mounted onto specimen stubs and coated with gold coater before being viewed under a scanning electron microscope. We detected the presence of membrane ruffles on the surface of cancer cells and the formation of unique surface membrane protrusions to enhance movement and adhesion to the surrounding stroma during the process of invasion. Advancing cancer cells demonstrated formation of lamellipodia and invadopodia. The stroma at the advancing edge was desmoplastic with many collagen fibres laid down near the cancer cells. Our data suggest that all of these abnormalities could act as hallmarks of invasiveness for breast cancer.
  17. Zainuddin N, Jaafar H, Isa MN, Abdullah JM
    PMID: 16124450
    Frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and mutations of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted from chromosome 10) have been found in sporadic gliomas. The most documented regions of allelic losses include 9p21, 10q23-25 and 17p1 3 whereas PTEN aberrations are preferentially found in glioblastoma multiformes. This research aimed to detect the incidence of allelic losses on chromosomes 10q, 9p, 17p and 13q and mutations on exons 5, 6 and 8 of PTEN in malignant gliomas. Malignant glioma specimens obtained were classified histopathologically according to the WHO criteria. Each tumor was then subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-LOH analysis using microsatellite markers and single-stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Twelve of 23 (52%) malignant glioma cases showed allelic losses whereas 7 of 23 (30%) samples showed aberrant band patterns and mutations of PTEN. Four of these cases showed LOH in 10q23 and mutations of PTEN. The data on LOH indicated the involvement of different genes in the genesis of glioma whereas mutations of PTEN indicated the role of PTEN tumor suppressor gene in the progression of glioma in Malay population.
  18. Ch'ng ES, Tuan Sharif SE, Jaafar H
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2012;13(9):4445-52.
    PMID: 23167359
    BACKGROUND: Prognosis of breast cancer depends on classic pathological factors and also tumor angiogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological factors of breast cancer in a tertiary centre with a focus on the relationship between tumor angiogenesis and clinicopathological factors.

    METHODS: Clinicopathological data were retrieved from the archived formal pathology reports for surgical specimens diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma, NOS. Microvessels were immunohistochemically stained with anti-CD34 antibody and quantified as microvessel density.

    RESULTS: At least 50% of 94 cases of invasive breast ductal carcinoma in the study were advanced stage. The majority had poor prognosis factors such as tumor size larger than 50mm (48.9%), positive lymph node metastasis (60.6%), and tumor grade III (52.1%). Higher percentages of estrogen and progesterone receptor negative cases were recorded (46.8% and 46.8% respectively). Her-2 overexpression cases and triple negative breast cancers constituted 24.5% and 22.3% respectively. Significantly higher microvessel density was observed in the younger patient age group (p=0.012). There were no significant associations between microvessel density and other clinicopathological factors (p>0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Majority of the breast cancer patients of this institution had advanced stage disease with poorer prognostic factors as compared to other local and western studies. Breast cancer in younger patients might be more proangiogenic.

  19. Ch'ng ES, Tuan Sharif SE, Jaafar H
    Virchows Arch., 2013 Mar;462(3):257-67.
    PMID: 23283409 DOI: 10.1007/s00428-012-1362-4
    Tumor-associated macrophages play a crucial role in breast cancer progression and tumor angiogenesis. However, evaluation of tumor-associated macrophages incorporating their histological locations is lacking. The aim of this study was to clarify whether macrophages in tumor stroma and macrophages in tumor cell nests have distinctive properties in relation to pertinent breast cancer clinicopathological parameters and tumor angiogenesis. In 94 human invasive breast ductal carcinomas, tumor-associated macrophages were immunostained with anti-CD68 antibody and counted or graded according to these histological locations. Microvessels were immunostained with anti-CD34 antibody and counted for microvessel density. We found that the presence of tumor stromal and tumor nest macrophages was closely correlated (p = 0.001). Both tumor stromal and tumor nest macrophages were associated with mitotic count (p = 0.001 and p = 0.037, respectively). However, only higher tumor stromal macrophage grades were associated with higher tumor grades (p = 0.004) and negative estrogen receptor status (p = 0.007). Multivariate analysis showed that tumors with a high mitotic count score (score 3 vs. scores 1 and 2) had a higher tumor stromal macrophage density (Grades III and IV) when adjusted for tumor size, tubule formation, and estrogen receptor status (odds ratio 3.41, p = 0.010). The tumor nest macrophage count significantly correlated with the microvessel density (p 
  20. Naik VR, Jaafar H, Mutum SS
    Malays J Pathol, 2005 Dec;27(2):119-21.
    PMID: 17191396
    Colonic adenocarcinoma metastasising to the skeletal muscle is rare. A-56-yr-old Malay man was diagnosed to have adenocarcinoma of the right colon [Dukes B] for which a right hemicolectomy was performed, followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Five years later the patient presented with a mass in the rectus abdominis muscle. The serum carcinoembryonic antigen was 71 ng/Ml. The mass was resected. Gross and microscopical examination showed multiple deposits of mucin-secreting adenocarcinoma with prominent heterotopic ossification in the stroma. The exact pathogenesis and significance of heterotopic ossification is not clear, but bone morphogenetic proteins may play an important role.
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