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  1. Hussein MA, Guan TS, Haque RA, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Abdul Majid AM
    Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 2015 Feb 05;136 Pt C:1335-48.
    PMID: 25456676 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2014.10.021
    Four dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes were synthesized by reacting [MoO2(acac)2] with N-ethyl-2-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (1), N-ethyl-2-(5-allyl-3-methoxy-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (2), N-methyl-2-(3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (3), and N-ethyl-2-(3-methyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene) hydrazinecarbothioamide (4). The molecular structures of 1, 2, and all the synthesized complexes were determined using single crystal X-ray crystallography. The binding properties of the ligand and complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were investigated via UV, fluorescence titrations, and viscosity measurement. Gel electrophoresis revealed that all the complexes cleave pBR 322 plasmid DNA. The cytotoxicity of the complexes were studied against the HCT 116 human colorectal cell line. All the complexes exhibited more pronounced activity than the standard reference drug 5-fluorouracil (IC50 7.3μM). These studies show that dioxomolybdenum(VI) complexes could be potentially useful in chemotherapy.
  2. Iqbal MA, Haque RA, Ahamed SA, Jafari SF, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Abdul Majid AM
    Med Chem, 2015;11(5):473-81.
    PMID: 25553509
    Azolium (imidazolium and benzimidazolium) salts are known as stable precursors for the synthesis of Metal-N-Heterocyclic Carbene (M-NHC) complexes. Recently, some reports have been compiled indicating that benzimidazolium salts have anticarcinogenic properties. The current research is the further investigation of this phenomenon. Three ortho-xylene linked bis-benzimidazolium salts (1-3) with octyl, nonyl and decyl terminal chain lengths have been synthesized. Each of the compounds was characterized using FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic techniques. The molecular geometries of two of the salts (1-2) have been established using X-ray crystallographic technique. The compounds were tested for their cytotoxic properties against three cancerous cell lines namely, human colon cancer (HCT 116), human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT- 29) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7). Mouse embryonic fibroblast (3T3-L1) was used as the model cell line of normal cells. The compounds showed selective anti-proliferative activities against the colorectal carcinoma cells. For HCT 116 and HT-29 cells, the IC50 values ranged 0.9-2.6 µM and 4.0-10.0 µM, respectively. The salts 1 and 3 displayed moderate cytotoxicity against the breast cancer (MCF-7) cells with IC50 58.2 and 13.3 µM, respectively. However, the salt 2 produced strong cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells with IC50 4.4 µM. Interestingly, the compounds demonstrated poor cytotoxic effects towards the normal cells (3T3-L1) as the IC50 was found to be as high as 48.0 µM. Salts 2 and 3 demonstrated more pronounced anti-proliferative effect than the standard drugs used (5-Flourouracil and Tamoxifen).
  3. Ali AQ, Teoh SG, Salhin A, Eltayeb NE, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Abdul Majid AM
    PMID: 24607427 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2014.01.086
    New derivatives of thiosemicarbazone Schiff base with isatin moiety were synthesized L1-L6. The structures of these compounds were characterized based on the spectroscopic techniques. Compound L6 was further characterized by XRD single crystal. The interaction of these compounds with calf thymus (CT-DNA) exhibited high intrinsic binding constant (k(b)=5.03-33.00×10(5) M(-1)) for L1-L3 and L5 and (6.14-9.47×10(4) M(-1)) for L4 and L6 which reflect intercalative activity of these compounds toward CT-DNA. This result was also confirmed by the viscosity data. The electrophoresis studies reveal the higher cleavage activity of L1-L3 than L4-L6. The in vitro anti-proliferative activity of these compounds against human colon cancer cell line (HCT 116) revealed that the synthesized compounds (L3, L6 and L2) exhibited good anticancer potency.
  4. Farsi E, Ahmad M, Hor SY, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Yam MF, Khoo BY, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2018 09 27;18(1):262.
    PMID: 30261874 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-018-2333-3
    After the publication of this article [1] it came to our attention that one author, Boon Yin Khoo, was erroneously omitted from the authorship list.
  5. Iqbal MA, Umar MI, Haque RA, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Asmawi MZ, Majid AM
    J Inorg Biochem, 2015 May;146:1-13.
    PMID: 25699476 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2015.02.001
    Chronic inflammation intensifies the risk for malignant neoplasm, indicating that curbing inflammation could be a valid strategy to prevent or cure cancer. Cancer and inflammation are inter-related diseases and many anti-inflammatory agents are also used in chemotherapy. Earlier, we have reported a series of novel ligands and respective binuclear Ag(I)-NHC complexes (NHC=N-heterocyclic carbene) with potential anticancer activity. In the present study, a newly synthesized salt (II) and respective Ag(I)-NHC complex (III) of comparable molecular framework were prepared for a further detailed study. Preliminarily, II and III were screened against HCT-116 and PC-3 cells, wherein III showed better results than II. Both the compounds showed negligible toxicity against normal CCD-18Co cells. In FAM-FLICA caspase assay, III remarkably induced caspase-3/7 in HCT-116 cells most probably by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) independent intrinsic pathway and significantly inhibited in vitro synthesis of cytokines, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and TNF-α in human macrophages (U937 cells). In a cell-free system, both the compounds inhibited cyclooxygenase (COX) activities, with III being more selective towards COX-2. The results revealed that III has strong antiproliferative property selectively against colorectal tumor cells which could be attributed to its pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory abilities.
  6. Asif M, Iqbal MA, Hussein MA, Oon CE, Haque RA, Khadeer Ahamed MB, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2016 Jan 27;108:177-187.
    PMID: 26649905 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.11.034
    The current mechanistic study was conducted to explore the effects of increased lipophilicity of binuclear silver(I)-NHC complexes on cytotoxicity. Two new silver(I)-N-Heterocyclic Carbene (NHC) complexes (3 and 4), having lypophilic terminal alkyl chains (Octyl and Decyl), were derived from meta-xylyl linked bis-benzimidazolium salts (1 and 2). Each of the synthesized compounds was characterized by microanalysis and spectroscopic techniques. The complexes were tested for their cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer c as well normal cell lines using MTT assay. Based on MTT assay results, complex 4 was found to be selectively toxic towards human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT 116). Complex 4 was further studied in detail to explore the mechanism of cell death and findings of the study revealed that complex 4 has promising pro-apoptotic and anti-metastatic activities against HCT 116 cells. Furthermore, it showed pronounced cytostatic effects in HCT 116 multicellular spheroid model. Hence, binuclear silver(I)-NHC complexes with longer terminal aliphatic chains have worth to be further studied against human colon cancer for the purpose of drug development.
  7. Umar MI, Asmawi MZ, Sadikun A, Abdul Majid AM, Atangwho IJ, Khadeer Ahamed MB, et al.
    Pharm Biol, 2014 Nov;52(11):1411-22.
    PMID: 25026347 DOI: 10.3109/13880209.2014.895017
    Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceaes) leaves have been used traditionally to treat swelling and rheumatism in Indian cultures.
  8. Nassar ZD, Aisha AF, Idris N, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Ismail Z, Abu-Salah KM, et al.
    Oncol Rep, 2012 Mar;27(3):727-33.
    PMID: 22134768 DOI: 10.3892/or.2011.1569
    Deregulated cell signaling pathways result in cancer development. More than one signal transduction pathway is involved in colorectal cancer pathogenesis and progression. Koetjapic acid (KA) is a naturally occurring seco-A-ring oleanene triterpene isolated from the Sandoricum koetjape stem bark. We report the cellular and molecular mechanisms of anticancer activity of KA towards human colorectal cancer. The results showed that KA induces apoptosis in HCT 116 colorectal carcinoma cells by inducing the activation of extrinsic and intrinsic caspases. We confirmed that KA-induced apoptosis was mediated by DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation and disruption in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Further studies on the effect of KA on cancer pathways show that the compound causes down-regulation of Wnt, HIF-1α, MAP/ERK/JNK and Myc/Max signaling pathways and up-regulates the NF-κB signaling pathway. The result of this study highlights the anticancer potential of KA against colorectal cancer.
  9. Arafath MA, Al-Suede FSR, Adam F, Al-Juaid S, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Majid AMSA
    Drug Dev Res, 2019 09;80(6):778-790.
    PMID: 31215682 DOI: 10.1002/ddr.21559
    The bidentate N-cyclohexyl-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzylidene)hydrazine-1-carbothioamide Schiff base ligand (HL) was coordinated to divalent nickel, palladium and platinum ions to form square planar complexes. The nickel and palladium complexes, [NiL2 ], [PdL2 ] form square planar complexes with 2:1 ligand to metal ratio. The platinum complex, [PtL(dmso)Cl] formed a square planar complex with 1:1 ligand to metal ratio. Platinum undergoes in situ reaction with DMSO before complexing with the ligand in solution. The cytotoxicity of HL, [NiL2 ], [PdL2 ], and [PtL(dmso)Cl] were evaluated against human colon cancer cell line (HCT-116), human cervical cancer (Hela) cell line, melanoma (B16F10) cells, and human normal endothelial cell lines (Eahy926) by MTT assay. The [NiL2 ] complex displayed selective cytotoxic effect against the HCT 116 cancer cell line with IC50 of 7.9 ± 0.2 μM. However, HL, [PdL2 ], and [PtL(dmso)Cl] only exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity with IC50 = 75.9 ± 2.4, 100.0 ± 1.8, and 101.0 ± 3.6 μM, respectively. The potent cytotoxicity of [NiL2 ] was characterized using Hoechst and Rhodamine assays. The nickel complex, [NiL2 ], caused remarkable nuclear condensation and reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, molecular docking studies confirms that [NiL2 ] possesses significant binding efficiency with Tyrosine kinase. Altogether, the results revealed that [NiL2 ] exhibits cytotoxicity against the cancer cells via Tyrosine kinase-induced proapoptosis pathway. This study demonstrates that the [NiL2 ] complex could be a promising therapeutic agent against colorectal carcinoma.
  10. Al-Suede FS, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Abdul Majid AS, Baharetha HM, Hassan LE, Kadir MO, et al.
    PMID: 25276215 DOI: 10.1155/2014/396016
    Cat's whiskers (Orthosiphon stamineus) leaves extracts were prepared using supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) with full factorial design to determine the optimum extraction parameters. Nine extracts were obtained by varying pressure, temperature, and time. The extracts were analysed using FTIR, UV-Vis, and GC-MS. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated on human (colorectal, breast, and prostate) cancer and normal fibroblast cells. Moderate pressure (31.1 MPa) and temperature (60°C) were recorded as optimum extraction conditions with high yield (1.74%) of the extract (B2) at 60 min extraction time. The optimized extract (B2) displayed selective cytotoxicity against prostate cancer (PC3) cells (IC50 28 µg/mL) and significant antioxidant activity (IC50 42.8 µg/mL). Elevated levels of caspases 3/7 and 9 in B2-treated PC3 cells suggest the induction of apoptosis through nuclear and mitochondrial pathways. Hoechst and rhodamine assays confirmed the nuclear condensation and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in the cells. B2 also demonstrated inhibitory effects on motility and colonies of PC3 cells at its subcytotoxic concentrations. It is noteworthy that B2 displayed negligible toxicity against the normal cells. Chemometric analysis revealed high content of essential oils, hydrocarbon, fatty acids, esters, and aromatic sesquiterpenes in B2. This study highlights the therapeutic potentials of SC-CO2 extract of cat's whiskers in targeting prostate carcinoma.
  11. Ahmed Hassan LE, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Abdul Majid AS, Iqbal MA, Al Suede FS, Haque RA, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(6):e90806.
    PMID: 24608571 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090806
    Tephrosia apollinea is a perennial shrublet widely distributed in Africa and is known to have medicinal properties. The current study describes the bio-assay (cytotoxicity) guided isolation of (-)-pseudosemiglabrin from the aerial parts of T. apollinea. The structural and stereochemical features have been described using spectral and x-ray crystallographic techniques. The cytotoxicity of isolated compound was evaluated against nine cancer cell lines. In addition, human fibroblast was used as a model cell line for normal cells. The results showed that (-)-pseudosemiglabrin exhibited dose-dependent antiproliferative effect on most of the tested cancer cell lines. Selectively, the compound showed significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation of leukemia, prostate and breast cancer cell lines. Further studies revealed that, the compound exhibited proapoptotic phenomenon of cytotoxicity. Interestingly, the compound did not display toxicity against the normal human fibroblast. It can be concluded that (-)-pseudosemiglabrin is worthy for further investigation as a potential chemotherapeutic agent.
  12. Ghalib RM, Hashim R, Sulaiman O, Mehdi SH, Valkonen A, Rissanen K, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2012 Jan;47(1):601-7.
    PMID: 22074984 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2011.10.037
    In this study the novel caryophyllene type sesquiterpene lactone (aspfalcolide) has been isolated from the leaves of Asparagus falcatus (Linn.) and characterized by IR, 1D NMR, 2D NMR, EI-MS, HR-ESI-MS and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The aspfalcolide crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with a = 6.37360(10), b = 7.6890(2), c = 27.3281(6) Å, α = β = γ = 90(°) and Z = 4. One intermolecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond enforces these natural molecules to form infinite chains through the crystal. Aspfalcolide was screened for its anti-angiogenic activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the result showed the remarkable inhibitory effect of aspfalcolide on the proliferation (IC(50) 1.82 μM), migration and tube formation of HUVECs.
  13. Farsi E, Esmailli K, Shafaei A, Moradi Khaniabadi P, Al Hindi B, Khadeer Ahamed MB, et al.
    Drug Chem Toxicol, 2016 Oct;39(4):461-73.
    PMID: 27033971 DOI: 10.3109/01480545.2016.1157810
    CONTEXT: Clinacanthus nutans (CN) is used traditionally for treating various illnesses. Robust safety data to support its use is lacking.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the adverse effects of aqueous extract of CN leaves (AECNL).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The oral toxicity of the AECNL was tested following Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines. Mutagenicity (Ames test) of AECNL was evaluated using TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium strains.

    RESULTS: No mortality or morbidity was found in the animals upon single and repeated dose administration. However, significant body weight loss was observed at 2000 mg/kg during sub-chronic (90 d) exposure. In addition, increased eosinophil at 500 mg/kg and decreased serum alkaline phosphatase levels at 2000 mg/kg were observed in male rats. Variations in glucose and lipid profiles in treated groups were also observed compared to control. Ames test revealed no evidence of mutagenic or carcinogenic effects at 500 μg/well of AECNL.

    CONCLUSION: The median lethal dose (LD50) of the AECNL is >5000 mg/kg and the no-observed-adverse-effect level is identified to be greater than 2000 mg/kg/day in 90-d study.

  14. Jafari SF, Khadeer Ahamed MB, Iqbal MA, Al Suede FS, Khalid SH, Haque RA, et al.
    J Pharm Pharmacol, 2014 Oct;66(10):1394-409.
    PMID: 25039905 DOI: 10.1111/jphp.12272
    Recently, we have isolated koetjapic acid (KA) from Sandoricum koetjape and identified its selective anticancer potentiality against colorectal carcinoma. KA is quite likely to be useful as a systemic anticancer agent against colorectal malignancy. However, with extremely low solubility, KA has to be converted into a biocompatible solubilized form without compromising the bioefficacy. Objective of this study is to enhance solubility of KA and to evaluate anticancer efficacy of potassium koetjapate in human colorectal cancer cells.
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