Quinoxalines, a class of N-heterocyclic compounds, are important biological agents, and a significant amount of research activity has been directed towards this class. They have several prominent pharmacological effects like antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and antimicrobial. Quinoxaline derivatives have diverse therapeutic uses and have become the crucial component in drugs used to treat cancerous cells, AIDS, plant viruses, schizophrenia, certifying them a great future in medicinal chemistry. Due to the current pandemic situation caused by SARS-COVID 19, it has become essential to synthesize drugs to combat deadly pathogens (bacteria, fungi, viruses) for now and near future. Since quinoxalines is an essential moiety to treat infectious diseases, numerous synthetic routes have been developed by researchers, with a prime focus on green chemistry and cost-effective methods. This review paper highlights the various synthetic routes to prepare quinoxaline and its derivatives, covering the literature for the last two decades. A total of 31 schemes have been explained using the green chemistry approach, cost-effective methods, and quinoxaline derivatives' therapeutic uses.
Microalgae are the major photosynthesizers on earth and produce important pigments that include chlorophyll a, b and c, β-carotene, astaxanthin, xanthophylls, and phycobiliproteins. Presently, synthetic colorants are used in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. However, due to problems associated with the harmful effects of synthetic colorants, exploitation of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors becomes an attractive option. There are various factors such as nutrient availability, salinity, pH, temperature, light wavelength, and light intensity that affect pigment production in microalgae. This paper reviews the availability and characteristics of microalgal pigments, factors affecting pigment production, and the application of pigments produced from microalgae. The potential of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors is enormous as an alternative to synthetic coloring agents, which has limited applications due to regulatory practice for health reasons.
Salmonella and Vibrio species were isolated and identified from Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in shrimp farms. Shrimp samples showed occurrence of 3.3% of Salmonella and 48.3% of Vibrio. The isolates were also screened for antibiotic resistance to oxolinic acid, sulphonamides, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin, ampicillin, doxycycline hydrochloride, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin. Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis isolated from shrimp showed individual and multiple antibiotic resistance patterns. Five Vibrio species having individual and multiple antibiotic resistance were also identified. They were Vibrio cholerae (18.3%), V. mimicus (16.7%), V. parahaemolyticus (10%), V. vulnificus (6.7%), and V. alginolyticus (1.7%). Farm owners should be concerned about the presence of these pathogenic bacteria which also contributes to human health risk and should adopt best management practices for responsible aquaculture to ensure the quality of shrimp.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different light sources and media (wastewater and BBM) on the growth of Pseudanabaena mucicola and its phycobiliprotein production. Results showed that P. mucicola grown in white light using wastewater as medium attributed higher biomass (0.55 g L-1) and when extracted with water, also showed significantly higher (P
Antioxidants found in microalgae play an essential role in both animals and humans, against various diseases and aging processes by protecting cells from oxidative damage. In this study, 26 indigenous tropical marine microalgae were screened. Out of the 26 screened strains, 10 were selected and were further investigated for their natural antioxidant compounds which include carotenoids, phenolics, and fatty acids collected in their exponential and stationary phases. The antioxidant capacity was also evaluated by a total of four assays, which include ABTS, DPPH, superoxide radical (O2•-) scavenging capacity, and nitric oxide (•NO-) scavenging capacity. This study revealed that the antioxidant capacity of the microalgae varied between divisions, strains, and growth phase and was also related to the content of antioxidant compounds present in the cells. Carotenoids and phenolics were found to be the major contributors to the antioxidant capacity, followed by polyunsaturated fatty acids linoleic acid (LA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), arachidonic acid (ARA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) compared to other fatty acids. The antioxidant capacity of the selected bacillariophytes and haptophytes was found to be positively correlated to phenolic (R2-value = 0.623, 0.714, and 0.786 with ABTS, DPPH, and •NO-) under exponential phase, and to carotenoid fucoxanthin and β-carotene (R2 value = 0.530, 0.581 with ABTS, and 0.710, 0.795 with O2•-) under stationary phase. Meanwhile, antioxidant capacity of chlorophyte strains was positively correlated with lutein, β-carotene and zeaxanthin under the exponential phase (R2 value = 0.615, 0.615, 0.507 with ABTS, and R2 value = 0.794, 0.659, and 0.509 with •NO-). In the stationary phase, chlorophyte strains were positively correlated with violaxanthin (0.755 with •NO-), neoxanthin (0.623 with DPPH, 0.610 with •NO-), and lutein (0.582 with •NO-). This study showed that antioxidant capacity and related antioxidant compound production of tropical microalgae strains are growth phase-dependent. The results can be used to improve the microalgal antioxidant compound production for application in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, food, and feed industry.
The data collection was initiated to evaluate the effects of supplementary phospholipid to non-fishmeal based diet in order to make functional diets for the Malaysian Mahseer, Tor tambroides. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic diets were formulated to consist 100% fishmeal (FM100), 0% fishmeal or full fishmeal replacement (FM0), and 0% fishmeal supplemented with 4% phospholipids (FM0+4%PL), 6% phospholipids (FM0+6%PL). A 60-day feeding trial was conducted and data collection was carried out for the following parameters; growth indices, somatic parameters, whole body nutrient composition, muscle fatty acid composition, haematocrit value and serum lysozyme activity. Fish fed FM0 diets showed significantly poor performance (P
This study determined the effect of growth media and culture concentration on the growth, proximate, and microelement composition of Ankistrodesmus falcatus. The culture of A. falcatus was done using three media, namely Modified COMBO Medium (COMBO), Bold's Basal Medium (BBM), and Bristol, at two concentrations (50% and 100%). The results obtained show that the cell density (>3.5 × 107 cells/mL), optical density (>0.24), and specific growth rate (>0.429%/day) were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in BBM and COMBO than in Bristol (<3.1 × 107 cells/mL; <0.23; <0.416%/day, respectively) at both concentrations. However, biomass was higher in BBM (>2.20 g/L) than in COMBO (1.87-2.13 g/L), while Bristol had the lowest value observed (1.70-1.73 g/L). Biochemical and microelement composition showed variations between media and at the different concentrations, with higher values observed in BBM and COMBO. Based on the growth parameters and nutritional composition, it was concluded that BBM and COMBO were better media for the propagation of A. falcatus growth than Bristol. The study also demonstrated that the microalgae can be cultured using half of the media's concentration to lower production costs.
We isolated fifty-two strains from the marine aquaculture ponds in Malaysia that were evaluated for their lipid production and ammonium tolerance and four isolates were selected as new ammonium tolerant microalgae with high-lipid production: TRG10-p102 Oocystis heteromucosa (Chlorophyceae); TRG10-p103 and TRG10-p105 Thalassiosira weissflogii (Bacillariophyceae); and TRG10-p201 Amphora coffeiformis (Bacillariophyceae). Eicosapentenoic acid (EPA) in three diatom strain was between 2.6 and 18.6 % of total fatty acids, which were higher than in O. heteromucosa. Only A. coffeiformi possessed arachidonic acid. Oocystis heteromucosa naturally grew at high ammonium concentrations (1.4-10 mM), whereas the growth of the other strains, T. weissflogii and A. coffeiformi, were visibly inhibited at high ammonium concentrations (>1.4 mM-NH4). However, two strains of T. weissflogii were able to grow at up to 10 mM-NH4 by gradually acclimating to higher ammonium concentrations. The ammonium tolerant strains, especially T. weissflogii which have high EPA contents, were identified as a valuable candidate for biomass production utilizing NH4-N media, such as ammonium-rich wastewater.
Removal of nitrogenous and phosphorus compounds from aquaculture wastewater by green microalgae (Tetraselmis sp.) was investigated using a novel method of algal cell immobilization. Immobilized microalgae removed nitrogenous and phosphorous compounds efficiently from aquaculture wastewater. Results showed that Tetraselmis beads reduced significantly (p h compared to other treatments. Removal rate of total ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorous were 99.2, 99.2 and 94.3% respectively, for the artificial wastewater within 24 h. For the shrimp pond wastewater, total ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorous were reduced 98.9, 97.7 and 91.1% respectively within 48 h. It is concluded that Tetraselmis sp. beads is an effective means to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus levels in aquaculture wastewater.