METHODS: 240 extracted human teeth were sectioned to obtain 6 mm of the middle third of the root. The root canal was enlarged to an internal diameter of 0.9 mm. The specimens were inoculated with E. faecalis for 21 days. Following this, specimens were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 30) according to the intracanal medicament placed: group I: saline, group II: chitosan, group III: propolis100 µg/ml (P100), group IV: propolis 250 µg/ml (P250), group V: chitosan-propolis nanoparticle 100 µg/ml (CPN100), group VI: chitosan-propolis nanoparticle 250 µg/ml (CPN250), group VII: calcium hydroxide(CH) and group VIII: 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel. Dentine shavings were collected at 200 and 400 μm depths, and total numbers of CFUs were determined at the end of day one, three and seven. The non-parametric Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the differences in reduction of CFUs between all groups and probability values of p
METHODS: An observational controlled study comparing neonatal respiratory morbidities before and after the single dose 12mg dexamethasone was implemented in our obstetrics and gynaecology centre for term elective caesarean section deliveries. We included singleton pregnancies from 37+0 to 38+6 weeks undergoing elective caesarean section into our study. A total of 674 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were recruited. We compared the rates and duration of admission to neonatal intensive care unit, the need for mechanical ventilation and the rate of transient tachypnoea of the newborn in the first half of 2019 without IM dexamethasone injections against the second half of the year when a single dose IM dexamethasone was given.
RESULTS: IM dexamethasone injection did not show any significant benefit with regards to reducing the admission to neonatal care (OR 0.97, p- value 0.69), admission to neonatal intensive care unit (OR 0.91, p- value 0.80), the need for mechanical ventilation (OR 0.98, p- value 0.95), and the incidence of transient tachypnoea of the newborn (OR1.01, p- value 0.96). There was also no significant difference for the duration of admission in the neonatal intensive care unit for both groups (p- value 0.17).
CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that there was no significant benefit gained from the lower dose antenatal corticosteroids for term elective caesarean section deliveries and considering that there have been long term harmful consequences demonstrated from the higher dose of antenatal corticosteroids at term, this practice should therefore be discontinued until a larger study is done to refute these findings. The use of such dexamethasone should only be a viable option in a research setting.
METHOD: Kind of therapeutics like low molecular weight drugs can be delivered to the CNS via this route. In this review, we have outlined the anatomy and physiological aspect of nasal mucosa, certain hurdles, various strategies including importance of muco-adhesive polymers to increase the drug delivery and possible clinical prospects that partly contribute in intranasal drug delivery.
RESULTS: Exhaustive literature survey related to intranasal drug delivery system revealed the new strategy that circumvents the BBB, based on non-invasive concept for treating various CNS disorders. Numerous advantages like prompt effects, self-medication through wide-ranging devices, and the frequent as well protracted dosing are associated with this novel route.
CONCLUSION: Recently few reports have proven that nasal to brain drug delivery system bypasses the BBB. This novel route is associated with targeting efficiency and less exposure of therapeutic substances to non-target site. Nevertheless, this route desires much more research into the safe transferring of therapeutics to the brain. Role of muco-adhesive polymer and surface modification with specific ligands are area of interest of researcher to explore more about this.
METHODS: Polymeric nanocarriers are among one of the effective delivery systems, which has given promising results in the treatment of breast cancers. Nanocarriers does exert their anticancer effect either through active or passive targeting mode.
RESULTS: The use of nanocarriers has been resolute about the adverse effects of chemotherapeutic drugs such as poor solubility and less penetrability in tumor cells.
CONCLUSION: The present review is focused on recent developments regarding polymeric nanocarriers, such as polymeric micelles, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, liposomes, nanoshells, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and quantum dots, etc. for their recent advancements in breast cancer therapy.