METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving teachers recruited via multi-stage sampling from the state of Melaka, Malaysia. MONO was defined as individuals with BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m(2) and metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed based on the Harmonization criteria. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires that assessed alcohol intake, sleep duration, smoking, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption.
RESULTS: A total of 1168 teachers were included in the analysis. The prevalence of MONO was 17.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.3-20.4). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the normal weight and overweight participants was 8.3% (95% CI, 5.8-11.8) and 29.9% (95% CI, 26.3-33.7), respectively. MONO prevalence was higher among males, Indians, and older participants and inversely associated with sleep duration. Metabolic syndrome was also more prevalent among those with central obesity, regardless of whether they were normal or overweight. The odds of metabolic syndrome increased exponentially from 1.9 (for those with BMI 23.0-24.9 kg/m(2)) to 11.5 (for those with BMI 27.5-29.9 kg/m(2)) compared to those with BMI 18.5-22.9 kg/m(2) after adjustment for confounders.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of MONO was high, and participants with BMI ≥23.0 kg/m(2) had significantly higher odds of metabolic syndrome. Healthcare professionals and physicians should start to screen non-obese individuals for metabolic risk factors to facilitate early targeted intervention.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among the public secondary school teachers in the central region of Peninsular Malaysia from May to July 2013. A total of 150 and 203 teachers were recruited to perform exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), respectively. Reliability testing was evaluated on 141 teachers via internal consistency and two-week interval test-retest.
RESULTS: The 12-item three-factor structure of MSPSS-M was revised to 8-item two-factor structure. The revised MSPSS-M demonstrated excellent fit in CFA with adequate divergent and convergent validity and good factor loadings (0.80-0.90). The revised MSPSS-M also displayed good internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha of 0.91, 0.93 and 0.92 and good test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation of 0.89, 0.88 and 0.88 in the total scale, family and friends factors, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The revised 8-item MSPSS-M is a reliable and valid tool for assessment of perceived social support among teachers.