Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 66 in total

  1. Olutoye MA, Lee SC, Hameed BH
    Bioresour Technol, 2011 Dec;102(23):10777-83.
    PMID: 21983406 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2011.09.033
    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were produced from palm oil using eggshell modified with magnesium and potassium nitrates to form a composite, low-cost heterogeneous catalyst for transesterification. The catalyst, prepared by the combination of impregnation/co-precipitation was calcined at 830 °C for 4 h. Transesterification was conducted at a constant temperature of 65 °C in a batch reactor. Design of experiment (DOE) was used to optimize the reaction parameters, and the conditions that gave highest yield of FAME (85.8%) was 5.35 wt.% catalyst loading at 4.5 h with 16:1 methanol/oil molar ratio. The results revealed that eggshell, a solid waste, can be utilized as low-cost catalyst after modification with magnesium and potassium nitrates for biodiesel production.
  2. Tang IP, Lee SC, Shashinder S, Raman R
    Med J Malaysia, 2009 Jun;64(2):155-8.
    PMID: 20058577
    This is a retrospective study. The objective of this study is to review the factors influencing the outcome of treatment for the patients presented with idiopathic facial nerve paralysis. The demographic data, clinical presentation and management of 84 patients with idiopathic facial nerve paralysis (Bell's palsy) were collected from the medical record office, reviewed and analyzed from 2000 to 2005. Thirty-four (72.3%) out of 47 patients who were treated with oral prednisolone alone, fully recovered from Bell's palsy meanwhile 36 (97%) out of 37 patients who were treated with combination of oral prednisolone and acyclovir fully recovered. The difference was statistically significant. 42 (93.3%) out of 45 patients who presented within three days to our clinic, fully recovered while 28 (71.8%) out of 39 patients presented later then three days had full recovery from Bell's palsy. The difference was statistically significant. The outcome of full recovery is better with the patients treated with combined acyclovir and prednisolone compared with prednisolone alone. The patients who were treated after three days of clinical presentation, who were more than 50 years of age, who had concurrent chronic medical illness and facial nerve paralysis HB Grade IV to VI during initial presentation have reduced chance of full recovery of facial nerve paralysis.
  3. Lee SC, Hairi NN, Moy FM
    J Epidemiol, 2017 Mar;27(3):130-134.
    PMID: 28142038 DOI: 10.1016/j.je.2016.10.006
    BACKGROUND: Non-obese individuals could have metabolic disorders that are typically associated with elevated body mass index (BMI), placing them at elevated risk for chronic diseases. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and distribution of metabolically obese, non-obese (MONO) individuals in Malaysia.

    METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving teachers recruited via multi-stage sampling from the state of Melaka, Malaysia. MONO was defined as individuals with BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m(2) and metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed based on the Harmonization criteria. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires that assessed alcohol intake, sleep duration, smoking, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption.

    RESULTS: A total of 1168 teachers were included in the analysis. The prevalence of MONO was 17.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.3-20.4). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the normal weight and overweight participants was 8.3% (95% CI, 5.8-11.8) and 29.9% (95% CI, 26.3-33.7), respectively. MONO prevalence was higher among males, Indians, and older participants and inversely associated with sleep duration. Metabolic syndrome was also more prevalent among those with central obesity, regardless of whether they were normal or overweight. The odds of metabolic syndrome increased exponentially from 1.9 (for those with BMI 23.0-24.9 kg/m(2)) to 11.5 (for those with BMI 27.5-29.9 kg/m(2)) compared to those with BMI 18.5-22.9 kg/m(2) after adjustment for confounders.

    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of MONO was high, and participants with BMI ≥23.0 kg/m(2) had significantly higher odds of metabolic syndrome. Healthcare professionals and physicians should start to screen non-obese individuals for metabolic risk factors to facilitate early targeted intervention.

  4. Lee SC, Moy FM, Hairi NN
    Qual Life Res, 2017 01;26(1):221-227.
    PMID: 27349250 DOI: 10.1007/s11136-016-1348-9
    PURPOSE: The multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS) was developed to measure perceived social support. It has been translated and culturally adapted among natives literate in the Malay language. However, its psychometric properties for teachers who are majority females and married have not been assessed.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among the public secondary school teachers in the central region of Peninsular Malaysia from May to July 2013. A total of 150 and 203 teachers were recruited to perform exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), respectively. Reliability testing was evaluated on 141 teachers via internal consistency and two-week interval test-retest.

    RESULTS: The 12-item three-factor structure of MSPSS-M was revised to 8-item two-factor structure. The revised MSPSS-M demonstrated excellent fit in CFA with adequate divergent and convergent validity and good factor loadings (0.80-0.90). The revised MSPSS-M also displayed good internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha of 0.91, 0.93 and 0.92 and good test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation of 0.89, 0.88 and 0.88 in the total scale, family and friends factors, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The revised 8-item MSPSS-M is a reliable and valid tool for assessment of perceived social support among teachers.

  5. Lee SC, Lintang HO, Yuliati L
    Chem Asian J, 2012 Sep;7(9):2139-44.
    PMID: 22733646 DOI: 10.1002/asia.201200383
    A urea precursor was used for the first time to prepare mesoporous carbon nitride (MCN) by a thermal polymerization process with silica nanospheres as a hard template. Although the prepared MCN samples have similar structures and optical properties, it was revealed that the specific surface area, pore-size distribution, and morphology of the MCN samples depend on the initial mass ratio of urea to silica. Compared to the bulk carbon nitride (BCN) that only gave 20% phenol removal (6 h of irradiation), the activities can be enhanced up to 74% on MCN samples for photocatalytic removal of phenol under visible-light irradiation. The highest conversion was obtained on MCN with an initial mass ratio of urea to silica of 5, which has high surface area of 191 m(2) g(-1) and a nanoporous structure with uniform pore-size distribution of 7 nm. In addition to the high activity, the MCN sample also showed high photocatalytic stability.
  6. Lee SC, Hashim R, Motamedi S, Song KI
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:494020.
    PMID: 24955408 DOI: 10.1155/2014/494020
    Threats to beaches have accelerated the coastal destruction. In recent decades, geotextile tubes were used around the world to prevent coastal erosion, to encourage beach nourishment, and to assist mangrove rehabilitation. However, the applications of geotextile tube in sandy and muddy coasts have different concerns as the geological settings are different. Applications of geotextile tubes in sandy beaches were mainly to prevent coastline from further erosion and to nourish the beach. However, for the muddy coasts, mangrove rehabilitation and conservation were additional concerns in coastal management schemes. The mangrove forests are natural barriers which can be found on the muddy coasts of many tropical countries. In this paper, the viability of geotextile tubes in sandy and muddy beaches was analysed. The advantages and disadvantages of the utilization of geotextile tubes in coastal management were discussed based on the experiences from the tropical countries such as Mexico, Malaysia, and Thailand. From the case studies, impressive improvements in coastal restoration after installation of geotextile tubes were shown. Based on the discussion, several recommendations to improve the application of geotextile tubes were suggested in this paper.
  7. Tang ML, Lee SC, Phoon MP
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Dec;66(5):501-3.
    PMID: 22390112
    A 10 year-old Iban girl presented with severe odynophagia for 4 days and subcutaneous emphysema. Clinically, her neck was tender with crepitus. Lateral neck radiograph showed multiple linear radiolucent shadows at retropharyngeal space. Flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscope revealed a tunnel behind upper oesophagus with slough and there was pooling of saliva at pyriform sinus. Feeding via nasogastric tube was started and empirical treatment for fungal and bacterial infection was commenced. Subsequent computed tomography of neck and thorax showed a 15-long blind tract at subglottic region posterior to oesophagus (prevertebral region), extending to superior mediastinum just before carina at T3/T4 level, represent abscess. Hourly suctioning of the remaining abscess in the blind tract with 10ml-syringe was done.
  8. Rohaizam J, Doris EJ, Tang PI, Lee SC, Uchang J
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Jun;65(2):160-1.
    PMID: 23756807 MyJurnal
    Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma is an exceedingly rare tumor in adult. We report an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the ethmoid in a 59-year-old Iban lady who presented with proptosis and complete ptosis of her left eye for two months. Imaging investigations showed left ethmoidal and left orbital soft tissue mass with extradura and dura involvement. The patient was planned for chemotherapy. Unfortunately, in such an advanced disease, she succumbed before treatment.
  9. Lee SC, Tang IP, Singh A, Kumar SS, Singh S
    Auris Nasus Larynx, 2009 Dec;36(6):709-11.
    PMID: 19304419 DOI: 10.1016/j.anl.2009.02.002
    Choanal stenosis has recently been recognized as a late complication of radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The management of velopharyngeal stenosis is challenging with high risk of restenosis. We report a case of velopharyngeal stenosis post-radiotherapy and illustrated the use of mitomycin-C to prevent restenosis. Mitomycin-C application has being shown useful adjunct to surgical technique in managing nasopharyngeal stenosis for surgeons.
  10. Lee SC, Sidi H, Zakaria H, Loo JL, Yahaya R
    Exhibitionism is a distressing condition which may have a link with the increasing availability and usage of online sexual activities (OSA). We highlight a 42-year-old man who presented with a constant craving for OSA to achieve his sexual satisfaction which included exposing his genitalia to virtual partners, unsuspected strangers, and colleagues in public areas. His sexual behaviours were further reinforced by an online video chatting with genitalia exposure, which ended commonly with an exchange of masturbatory acts. He denied any problem with his erection and able to achieve orgasm via common sexual acts. There was no past psychiatric history nor family history of mental disorder. He volunteered to seek psychiatric help and subsequently given a psycho education on his illness and how to cope with the distress associated with his sexual acts. He was scheduled for an intensive psychotherapy to instil insight and hope to deal with his sexual difficulties.
  11. Lee SC, Ng M, Tan CL, Ting SL
    Malays Fam Physician, 2020;15(1):54-57.
    PMID: 32284807
    Chickenpox may lead to several neurological complications. Optic neuritis is one of the complications which has rarely been described, especially in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of an 11-year-old immunocompetent girl who presented with sudden onset bilateral vision loss three weeks after varicella eruption. Ophthalmic examination revealed bilateral optic disc edema. Diagnosis of bilateral optic neuritis secondary to varicella was established based upon the preceding medical history, supported with clinical and radiological findings.
  12. Tang CL, Lee SC, Mohamad Lal A, Thomas RA, Ngui LX, Lim LY
    Med J Malaysia, 2014 Oct;69(5):241-3.
    PMID: 25638243 MyJurnal
    A 6 years old girl accidentally aspirated a plastic whistle while playing. Computed Tomography of thorax showed foreign body at carina level. Rigid bronchoscope under general anesthesia was attempted but unable to extract the whistle through vocal cord. Tracheostomy was later performed and foreign body was removed.
  13. Teh CS, Chua KH, Lim YA, Lee SC, Thong KL
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:457839.
    PMID: 24967435 DOI: 10.1155/2014/457839
    We have successfully developed a Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay that could specifically detect generic Escherichia coli (E. coli). This assay was tested on 85 bacterial strains and successfully identified 54 E. coli strains (average threshold time, Tt = 21.26). The sensitivity of this assay was evaluated on serial dilutions of bacterial cultures and spiked faeces. The assay could detect 10(2) CFU/mL for bacterial culture with Tt = 33.30 while the detection limit for spiked faeces was 10(3) CFU/mL (Tt = 31.12). We have also detected 46 generic E. coli from 50 faecal samples obtained from indigenous individuals with 16% of the positive samples being verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) positive. VT1/VT2 allele was present in one faecal sample while the ratio of VT1 to VT2 was 6 : 1. Overall, our study had demonstrated high risk of VTEC infection among the indigenous community and most of the asymptomatic infection occurred among those aged below 15 years. The role of asymptomatic human carriers as a source of dissemination should not be underestimated. Large scale screening of the VTEC infection among indigenous populations and the potential contamination sources will be possible and easy with the aid of this newly developed rapid and simple LAMP assay.
  14. Lee SC, Ngui R, Tan TK, Muhammad Aidil R, Lim YA
    PLoS One, 2014;9(9):e107980.
    PMID: 25248116 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0107980
    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have been documented among these minority groups since 1938. However the prevalence of STH is still high among these communities. Most studies tend to consider the Orang Asli (indigenous) as a homogenous group. In contrary, different subtribes have their own cultural practices. To understand this variation better, we studied the prevalence and associated factors of STH and other gut parasitic infections among two common subtribes (i.e. Temuan and Temiar). Results showed that the prevalence of the overall STH infections was higher in the Temuan subtribe (53.2% of 171) compared to the Temiar subtribe (52.7% of 98). Trichuris trichiura (46.2%) was the most prevalent parasite in the Temuan subtribe, followed by Ascaris spp. (25.7%) and hookworm (4.1%). In contrast, Ascaris spp. (39.8%) was more prevalent among the Temiar subtribe, preceded by T. trichiura (35.7%) and finally hookworm (8.3%). There were also co-infections of helminthiasis and intestinal protozoa among both Temuan and Temiar subtribes with rates being three times higher among the Temiar compared to Temuan. The most common co-infection was with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (n = 24; 24.5%, 16.0-33.0), followed by Giardia spp. (n = 3; 3.1%, -0.3-6.5). In Temuan, STH infection individuals were also infected with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (n = 11; 6.4%, 5.0-13.8), Cryptosporidium spp. (n = 3, 1.8%, -0.2-3.8) and Giardia spp. (n = 2, 1.2%, -0.4-2.8). In comparison, there was no Cryptosporidium spp. detected among the Temiar. However, it was interesting to note that there was an occurrence of co-infection of intestinal helminthiasis and sarcocystosis (intestinal) in a Temiar individual. The last report of sarcocystosis (muscular) among the Orang Asli was in 1978. The present study highlighted the importance of understanding the variation of infections amongst the different Orang Asli subtribes. It is vital to note these differences and use this knowledge to customise effective control measures for the various subtribes.
  15. Tan TK, Panchadcharam C, Low VL, Lee SC, Ngui R, Sharma RS, et al.
    BMC Vet Res, 2014;10:38.
    PMID: 24502557 DOI: 10.1186/1746-6148-10-38
    Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus spp. are reported to be the most prevalent and highly pathogenic parasites in livestock, particularly in small ruminants. However, the routine conventional tool used in Malaysia could not differentiate the species accurately and therefore limiting the understanding of the co-infections between these two genera among livestock in Malaysia. This study is the first attempt to identify the strongylids of veterinary importance in Malaysia (i.e., H. contortus and Trichostrongylus spp.) by amplification and sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer II DNA region.
  16. Lee SC, Ngui R, Tan TK, Roslan MA, Ithoi I, Lim YA
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2014 Jan;21(1):445-53.
    PMID: 23794081 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-013-1925-1
    An aquatic biomonitoring of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in river water corresponding to five villages situated in three states in peninsular Malaysia was determined. There were 51.3% (20/39) and 23.1% (9/39) samples positive for Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts, respectively. Overall mean concentration between villages for Giardia cysts ranged from 0.10 to 25.80 cysts/l whilst Cryptosporidium oocysts ranged from 0.10 to 0.90 oocysts/l. Detailed results of the river samples from five villages indicated that Kuala Pangsun 100% (9/9), Kemensah 77.8% (7/9), Pos Piah 33.3% (3/9) and Paya Lebar 33.3% (1/3) were contaminated with Giardia cysts whilst Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts were only detected in Kemensah (100 %; 9/9) and Kuala Pangsun (66.6%; 6/9). However, the water samples from Bentong were all negative for these waterborne parasites. Samples were collected from lower point, midpoint and upper point. Midpoint refers to the section of the river where the studied communities are highly populated. Meanwhile, the position of the lower point is at least 2 km southward of the midpoint and upper point is at least 2 km northward of the midpoint. The highest mean concentration for (oo)cysts was found at the lower points [3.15 ± 6.09 (oo)cysts/l], followed by midpoints [0.66 ± 1.10 (oo)cysts/l] and upper points [0.66 ± 0.92 (oo)cysts/l]. The mean concentration of Giardia cysts was highest at Kuala Pangsun (i.e. 5.97 ± 7.0 cysts/l), followed by Kemensah (0.83 ± 0.81 cysts/l), Pos Piah (0.20 ± 0.35 cysts/l) and Paya Lebar (0.10 ± 0.19 cysts/l). On the other hand, the mean concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts was higher at Kemensah (0.31 ± 0.19 cysts/l) compared to Kuala Pangsun (0.03 ± 0.03cysts/l). All the physical and chemical parameters did not show significant correlation with both protozoa. In future, viability status and molecular characterisation of Giardia and Cryptosporidium should be applied to identify species and genotypes/subgenotypes for better understanding of the epidemiology of these waterborne parasites.
  17. Lee SC, Tang IP, Avatar SP, Ahmad N, Selva KS, Tay KK, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Jun;66(2):101-4.
    PMID: 22106686 MyJurnal
    To explore the possible causes for delay in diagnosis and treatment of head and neck cancer at Sarawak General Hospital (SGH).
  18. Chan SL, Suo C, Lee SC, Goh BC, Chia KS, Teo YY
    Pharmacogenomics J, 2012 Aug;12(4):312-8.
    PMID: 21383771 DOI: 10.1038/tpj.2011.7
    Genetic markers displaying highly significant statistical associations with complex phenotypes may not necessarily possess sufficient clinical validity to be useful. Understanding the contribution of these markers beyond readily available clinical biomarkers is particularly important in pharmacogenetics. We demonstrate the utility of genetic testing using the example of warfarin in a multi-ethnic setting comprising of three Asian populations that are broadly representative of the genetic diversity for half of the population in the world, especially as distinct interethnic differences in warfarin dose requirements have been previously established. We confirmed the roles of three well-established loci (CYP2C9, VKORC1 and CYP4F2) in explaining warfarin dosage variation in the three Asian populations. In addition, we assessed the relationship between ethnicity and the genotypes of these loci, observing strong correlations at VKORC1 and CYP4F2. Subsequently, we established the additional utility of these genetic factors in predicting warfarin dose beyond ethnicity and clinical biomarkers through performing a series of systematic cross-validation analyses of the relative predictive accuracies of various fixed-dose regimen, clinical and genetic models. Through a pharmacogenetics model for warfarin, we show the importance of genetic testing beyond readily available clinical biomarkers in predicting dose requirements, confirming the role of genetic profiling in personalized medicine.
  19. Jada SR, Lim R, Wong CI, Shu X, Lee SC, Zhou Q, et al.
    Cancer Sci, 2007 Sep;98(9):1461-7.
    PMID: 17627617
    The objectives of the present study were (i) to study the pharmacogenetics of UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*28 and ABCG2 c.421C>A in three distinct healthy Asian populations (Chinese, Malays and Indians), and (ii) to investigate the polygenic influence of these polymorphic variants in irinotecan-induced neutropenia in Asian cancer patients. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic analyses were done after administration of irinotecan as a 90-min intravenous infusion of 375 mg/m(2) once every 3 weeks (n = 45). Genotypic-phenotypic correlates showed a non-significant influence of UGT1A1*28 and ABCG2 c.421C>A polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of SN-38 (P > 0.05), as well as severity of neutropenia (P > 0.05). Significantly higher exposure levels to SN-38 (P = 0.018), lower relative extent of glucuronidation (REG; P = 0.006) and higher biliary index (BI; P = 0.003) were found in cancer patients homozygous for the UGT1A1*6 allele compared with patients harboring the reference genotype. The mean absolute neutrophil count (ANC) was 85% lower and the prevalence of grade 4 neutropenia (ANC < or = 500/microL) was 27% in patients homozygous for UGT1A1*6 compared with the reference group. Furthermore, the presence of the UGT1A1*6 allele was associated with an approximately 3-fold increased risk of developing severe grade 4 neutropenia compared with patients harboring the reference genotype. These exploratory findings suggest that homozygosity for UGT1A1*6 allele may be associated with altered SN-38 disposition and may increase the risk of severe neutropenia in Asian cancer patients, particularly in the Chinese cancer patients who comprised 80% (n = 36) of the patient population in the present study.
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