Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 57 in total

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  1. Lim YY, Lim KH
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 1997 Dec 01;196(1):116-9.
    PMID: 9441659
    Micellar properties of binary mixed surfactants of a surface active mixed copper(II) chelate, [Cu(C12-tmed)(acac)Cl] (where C12-tmed is N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-dodecylethylenediamine) with three common surfactants, viz. sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12E8), were investigated by surface tensiometry, ESR, and UV-visible absorption techniques. The surface tension data were treated with Rubingh's method for mixed micelle formation and Rosen's method for mixed monolayer formation at the aqueous solution/air interface. It was found that in the mixed micelle there is strong attractive interaction between cationic copper surfactant and anonic dodecyl sulfate while there is almost ideal mixing between copper surfactant and CTAB and C12E8. From the ESR and UV-visible studies, a mixed block-type arrangement of head groups is proposed. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press
  2. Ship CP, Zainudin A, Lim YY
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 1999 Sep 1;217(1):211-213.
    PMID: 10441432
    The rate of hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyldiphenylphosphate in the presence of micellized [Cu(C(12)tmed)(L)](+) where C(12)tmed is N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-dodecylethylenediamine and L is the anion part of the amino acid has been investigated. It was found that the observed maximum rate obtained under the excess surfactant over the substrate condition depends very much on the ability of the amino acid ligand to form a mixed-chelate complex with the [Cu(C(12)tmed)](2+) moiety. In general, a chelating ligand with better coordination ability gives a slower rate because of the reduction in the supply of Cu-OH nucleophile in the micelle. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
  3. Tan JB, Lim YY
    Food Chem, 2015 Apr 1;172:814-22.
    PMID: 25442625 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.09.141
    Natural product research is an active branch of science, driven by the increased value placed on individual health and well-being. Many naturally-occurring phytochemicals in plants, fruits and vegetables have been reported to exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial activity; often touted as being beneficial for human health. In vitro screening is a common practice in many research laboratories as a means of rapidly assessing these properties. However, the methods used by many are not necessarily optimal; a result of poor standardization, redundant assays and/or outdated methodology. This review primarily aims to give a better understanding in the selection of in vitro assays, with emphasis placed on some common assays such as the total phenolic content assay, free radical scavenging activity, disc-diffusion and broth microdilution. This includes a discussion on the reasons for choosing a particular assay, its strengths and weaknesses, ways to improve the accuracy of results and alternative assays.
  4. Tan JB, Lim YY
    BMC Res Notes, 2015;8:468.
    PMID: 26395256 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-015-1414-3
    For generations, the rhizomes of Drynaria ferns have been used as traditional medicine in Asia. Despite this, the bioactivities of Drynaria rhizomes and leaves have rarely been studied scientifically.
  5. Lim YY, Liew LP
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 2002 Nov 15;255(2):425-7.
    PMID: 12505092
    The rate of autooxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) in the presence of micelles formed from mixing equal concentrations of [Cu(C(12)-tmed)Br(2)] (where C(12)-tmed is N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-dodecylethylenediamine) and several amino acids has been investigated. It was found that the rate in air-saturated solution is very much dependent on pH, which affects the availability of copper(II) coordination site for the catechol and the degree of micellization. At a given pH, the rates in [Cu(C(12)-tmed)Br(2)] micellar media are greatly enhanced in the presence sodium halide.
  6. Tan KE, Lim YY
    FEBS J, 2021 08;288(15):4488-4502.
    PMID: 33236482 DOI: 10.1111/febs.15639
    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a recently discovered class of noncoding RNAs found in many species across the eukaryotic kingdom. These intriguing RNA species are formed through a unique mechanism that is known as back splicing in which the 5' and 3' termini are covalently joined. Recent research has revealed that viruses also encode a repertoire of circRNAs. Some of these viral circRNAs are abundantly expressed and are reported to play a role in disease pathogenesis. A growing number of studies also indicate that host circRNAs are involved in immune responses against virus infections with either an antiviral or proviral role. In this review, we briefly introduce circRNA, its biogenesis, and mechanism of action. We go on to summarize the latest research on the expression, regulation, and functions of viral and host-encoded circRNAs during the host-virus interaction, with the aim of highlighting the potential of viral and host circRNAs as a suitable target for diagnostic biomarker development and therapeutic treatment of viral-associated diseases. We conclude by discussing the current limitations in knowledge and significance of elucidating the roles of circRNAs in host-virus interactions, as well as future directions for this emerging field.
  7. Chen AH, Bleything W, Lim YY
    Optometry, 2011 May;82(5):267-73.
    PMID: 21524597 DOI: 10.1016/j.optm.2011.02.004
    Vision affects daily activities, but of particular importance is the impact upon the learning process. Many studies have been conducted to establish the relationship between vision problems and academic performance. The results are varied, however, and suggest additional research is needed with particular care given to study design.
  8. Lai HY, Lim YY, Kim KH
    PMID: 21835039 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-62
    Blechnum orientale Linn. (Blechnaceae) is used ethnomedicinally to treat wounds, boils, blisters or abscesses and sores, stomach pain and urinary bladder complaints. The aim of the study was to validate the ethnotherapeutic claim and to evaluate the effects of B. orientale water extract on wound healing activity.
  9. Lai HY, Lim YY, Kim KH
    PMID: 20429956 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-10-15
    Blechnum orientale Linn. (Blechnaceae) is used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of various skin diseases, stomach pain, urinary bladder complaints and sterilization of women. The aim of the study was to evaluate antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial activity of five solvent fractions obtained from the methanol extract of the leaves of Blechnum orientale Linn.
  10. Lai HY, Lim YY, Kim KH
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2017 2 22;13(49):31-37.
    PMID: 28216880 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.197659
    BACKGROUND: Blechnum orientale Linn. (Blechnaceae), a fern, is traditionally used in the treatment of various ailments, such as skin diseases, stomach pain, urinary bladder complaints, and also as a female contraceptive. Previously, we reported a strong radical scavenging activity, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity against HT29 colon cancer cells by aqueous extract of B. orientale.

    OBJECTIVE: In this study, we attempted to isolate and identify the active compound from the aqueous extract of B. orientale.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous extract of B. orientale was subjected to repeated MCI gel chromatography, Sephadex-LH-20, Chromatorex C18 and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography and was characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass-spectrometry spectroscopic methods. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Antibacterial assays were conducted using disc diffusion whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined using the broth microdilution assay. Cytotoxicity was assessed using thiazolylblue tetrazoliumbromide.

    RESULTS: A polymeric proanthocyanidin consisting of 2-12 epicatechin extension units and epigallocathecin terminal units linked at C4-C8 was elucidated. Bioactivity studies showed strong radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 5.6 ± 0.1 µg/mL), antibacterial activity (MIC = 31.3-62.5 µg/mL) against five gram-positive bacteria and selective cytotoxicity against HT29 colon cancer cells (IC50 = 7.0 ± 0.3 µg/mL).

    CONCLUSION: According to our results, the proanthocyanidin of B. orientale demonstrated its potential as a natural source of antioxidant with antibacterial and anti-cancer properties.

    SUMMARY: A bioactive proanthocyanidin was isolated from the aqueous extract of medicinal fern Blechnum orientale Linn and the structure was elucidated using NMR and ESI-MS spectral studies.The proanthocyanidin compound possessed strong radical scavenging activity (IC50 5.6 ± 0.1 µg/mL)The proanthocyaniding compound showed bactericidal activity against five gram-positive bacteria inclusive of MRSA (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration, MBC 31.3-62.5 µg/mL).The proanthocyanidin compound is strongly cytotoxic towards cancer cells HT29 (IC50 7.0 ± 0.3 µg/mL), HepG2 (IC50 16 µg/mL) and HCT116 (IC50 20 µg/mL) while weakly cytotoxic towards the non-malignant Chang cells (IC50 48 µg/mL). Abbreviation used: CC: Column chromatography, DP: degree of polymerization, DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, ESI-MS: electronsprayionisation mass-spectrometry, MBC: Minimum bactericidal concentration, MIC: Minimum inhibitory concentration, MTT: Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide, MRSA: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, NMR: nuclear magnetic resonance, TLC: thin layer chromatography, PD: prodelphinidin.

  11. Yule CM, Lim YY, Lim TY
    Carbon Balance Manag, 2018 Feb 07;13(1):3.
    PMID: 29417248 DOI: 10.1186/s13021-018-0092-6
    BACKGROUND: Tropical peat swamp forests (TPSF) are globally significant carbon stores, sequestering carbon mainly as phenolic polymers and phenolic compounds (particularly as lignin and its derivatives) in peat layers, in plants, and in the acidic blackwaters. Previous studies show that TPSF plants have particularly high levels of phenolic compounds which inhibit the decomposition of organic matter and thus promote peat accumulation. The studies of phenolic compounds are thus crucial to further understand how TPSF function with respect to carbon sequestration. Here we present a study of cycling of phenolic compounds in five forests in Borneo differing in flooding and acidity, leaching of phenolic compounds from senescent Macaranga pruinosa leaves, and absorption of phenolics by M. pruinosa seedlings.

    RESULTS: The results of the study show that total phenolic content (TPC) in soil and leaves of three species of Macaranga were highest in TPSF followed by freshwater swamp forest and flooded limestone forest, then dry land sites. Highest TPC values were associated with acidity (in TPSF) and waterlogging (in flooded forests). Moreover, phenolic compounds are rapidly leached from fallen senescent leaves, and could be reabsorbed by tree roots and converted into more complex phenolics within the leaves.

    CONCLUSIONS: Extreme conditions-waterlogging and acidity-may facilitate uptake and synthesis of protective phenolic compounds which are essential for impeded decomposition of organic matter in TPSF. Conversely, the ongoing drainage and degradation of TPSF, particularly for conversion to oil palm plantations, reverses the conditions necessary for peat accretion and carbon sequestration.

  12. Yew PN, Lee WL, Lim YY
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2017 Oct-Dec;9(4):366-371.
    PMID: 29263630 DOI: 10.4103/pr.pr_145_16
    Background: Porcupine dates are phytobezoar stones that are used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) treatments against cancer, postsurgical recovery, dengue fever, etc. The medicinal values have not been scientifically investigated due to the availability and high pricing of the dates.

    Objectives: This paper represents the first report on the phytochemical content, in vitro antioxidant and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) scavenging properties of the extracts of three porcupine dates: grassy date (GD), black date (BD), and powdery date (PD).

    Materials and Methods: Dried samples were extracted with methanol and lyophilized. Samples were screened for phytochemical constituents, in vitro antioxidant assays based on total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging, and ferric reducing power (FRP) as well as intracellular ROS and RNS scavenging properties.

    Results: Phytochemical screening and total tannins assay revealed that tannins, cardiac glycosides, and terpenoids were found in all porcupine dates with tannins forming the major portion of the TPC. In comparison to GD, BD and PD were found to contain significantly high TPC, radical scavenging activity, and FRP. At 200 μg/ml, BD and PD remarkably scavenged 2, 2-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride-induced ROS in RAW264.7 cells and significantly reduced nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cells.

    Conclusion: Overall, BD and PD exhibited promising in vitro antioxidant as well as intracellular ROS/RNS scavenging properties.

    SUMMARY: Tannins, cardiac glycoside, and terpenoids were found in all three types of porcupine dates with tannins being the major compoundsAntioxidant contents and properties of three dates were in the order black date (BD) > powdery date (PD) > grassy dateBD and PD extracts showed significant intracellular reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species scavenging properties. Abbreviations Used: TCM: Traditional Chinese Medicine, BD: Black date, GD: Grassy date, PD: Powdery date, TPC: Total phenolic content, FRS: Free radical scavenging, FRP: Ferric reducing power, NO: Nitric oxide, ROS: Reactive oxygen species, RNS: Reactive nitrogen species, GAE: Gallic acid equivalent, AAE: Ascorbic acid equivalent, PVPP: Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone, DCFH-DA: Dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate, AAPH: 2, 2-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride, LPS: Lipopolysaccharide.
  13. Lim YY, Lim TS, Choong YS
    J Mol Model, 2019 Sep 05;25(10):301.
    PMID: 31486892 DOI: 10.1007/s00894-019-4192-3
    The sigma-E transcription factor (σETF) can be found in most of the bacteria cells including Bacillus thuringiensis. However, the cellular regulatory mechanisms of these transcription factors in the mass production of δ-endotoxins during sporulation stage are yet to be revealed. In addition, the recognition of DNA towards σETF DNA binding motifs that led to the transcription activities is also being poorly studied. Therefore, this work studied the possible DNA binding motifs of σETF by utilising in silico approaches. The structure of σETF was first built via three different computational methods. A cognate DNA sequence was then docked to the predicted σETF DNA-binding motifs. The binding free energy calculated using molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) for triplicate 50 ns simulation of σETF-DNA complex revealed favourable binding energy of DNA to σETF (average ∆Gbind = -34.57 kcal/mol) mainly driven by non-polar interactions. This study revealed that σETF LYS131, ARG133, PHE138, TRP146, ARG222, LYS225 and ARG226 are most likely the key residues upon the binding and recognition of DNA prior to transcription actives. Since determination of genome-regulating protein which recognises specific DNA sequence is important to discriminate between the proteins preferences for different genes, this study might provide some understanding on the possible σETF-DNA recognition prior to transcription initiated for the δ-endotoxins production.
  14. Chew YL, Khor MA, Lim YY
    Heliyon, 2021 Mar;7(3):e06553.
    PMID: 33855234 DOI: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06553
    Stability indicating assay describes a technique which is used to analyse the stability of drug substance or active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in bulk drug and pharmaceutical products. Stability indicating assay must be properly validated as per ICH guidelines. The important components in a stability indicating assay include sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, reliability, reproducibility and robustness. A validated assay is able to measure the concentration changes of drug substance/API with time and make reliable estimation of the quantity of the degradation impurities. The drug substance is separated and resolved from the impurities. Pros and cons of HPLC, GC, HPTLC, CE and SFC were discussed and reviewed. Stability indicating assay may consist of the combination of chromatographic separation and spectroscopic detection techniques. Hyphenated system could demonstrate parallel quantitative and qualitative analysis of drug substances and impurities. Examples are HPLC-DAD, HPLC-FL, GC-MS, LC-MS and LC-NMR. The analytes in the samples are separated in the chromatography while the impurities are chemically characterised by the spectroscopy in the system. In this review, various chromatographic methods which had been employed as stability indicating assays for drug substance and pharmaceutical formulation were systematically reviewed, and the application of hyphenated techniques in impurities characterisation and identification were also discussed with supporting literatures.
  15. Jeyaraj EJ, Lim YY, Choo WS
    J Food Sci Technol, 2021 Jun;58(6):2054-2067.
    PMID: 33967304 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-020-04745-3
    Clitoria ternatea or commonly known as 'Butterfly pea' has been used traditionally in Ayurvedic medicine in which various parts of the plants are used to treat health issues such as indigestion, constipation, arthritis, skin diseases, liver and intestinal problems. The flowers of C. ternatea are used worldwide as ornamental flowers and traditionally used as a food colorant. This paper reviews the recent advances in the extraction and biological activities of phytochemicals from C. ternatea flowers. The application of maceration or ultrasound assisted extraction greatly increased the yield (16-247% of increase) of phytochemicals from C. ternatea flowers. Various phytochemicals such as kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin glycosides as well as anthocyanins have been isolated from C. ternatea flowers. Clitoria ternatea flower extracts were found to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and antidiabetic activities which are beneficial to human health. Clitoria ternatea flower is a promising candidate for functional food applications owing to its wide range of pharmacotherapeutic properties as well as its safety and effectiveness.
  16. Lai HY, Lim YY, Tan SP
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 2009 Jun;73(6):1362-6.
    PMID: 19502733
    Leaf extracts of five medicinal ferns, Acrostichum aureum L. (Pteridaceae), Asplenium nidus L. (Aspleniaceae), Blechnum orientale L. (Blechnaceae), Cibotium barometz (L.) J. Sm. (Cyatheaceae) and Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.) underwood var. linearis (Gleicheniaceae), were investigated for their total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidative, tyrosinase inhibiting and antibacterial activities. The antioxidative activity was measured by assays for radical scavenging against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric ion reducing power (FRP), beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) and ferrous ion chelating (FIC). The results revealed B. orientale to possess the highest amount of total polyphenols and strongest potential as a natural antioxidative, tyrosinase inhibiting and antibacterial agent as demonstrated by its strong activities in all related bioassays. The other ferns with antioxidative potential were C. barometz and D. linearis. Except for A. aureum, all ferns showed antibacterial activity which may justify their usage in traditional medicines.
  17. Wong SK, Lim YY, Ling SK, Chiang Chan EW
    Pharmacogn Mag, 2014 Apr;10(Suppl 2):S232-9.
    PMID: 24991097 DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.133238
    Our earlier study on the antiproliferative (APF) activity of leaf extracts of ten Apocynaceae species showed that leaves of Vallaris glabra possessed strong and broad-spectrum properties.
  18. Wong SK, Lim YY, Ling SK, Chan EW
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2014 Jan;6(1):67-72.
    PMID: 24497746 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.122921
    Three compounds isolated from the methanol (MeOH) leaf extract of Vallaris glabra (Apocynaceae) were those of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs). This prompted a quantitative analysis of their contents in leaves of V. glabra in comparison with those of five other Apocynaceae species (Alstonia angustiloba, Dyera costulata, Kopsia fruticosa, Nerium oleander, and Plumeria obtusa), including flowers of Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle), the commercial source of chlorogenic acid (CGA).
  19. Chan EW, Lim YY, Tan SP
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2011 Jul;3(3):178-84.
    PMID: 22022166 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.85003
    Chlorogenic acid (CGA) or 5-caffeoylquinic acid, was found to be the dominant phenolic compound in leaves of Etlingera elatior (Zingiberaceae). The CGA content of E. elatior leaves was significantly higher than flowers of Lonicera japonica (honeysuckle), the commercial source. In this study, a protocol to produce a standardised herbal CGA extract from leaves of E. elatior using column chromatography was developed.
  20. Wong SK, Lim YY, Abdullah NR, Nordin FJ
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2011 Apr;3(2):100-6.
    PMID: 21772753 DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.81957
    The anticancer properties of Apocynaceae species are well known in barks and roots but less so in leaves.
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