Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 83 in total

  1. Liu J, Tan CSY, Scherman OA
    Angew Chem Int Ed Engl, 2018 07 16;57(29):8854-8858.
    PMID: 29663607 DOI: 10.1002/anie.201800775
    Supramolecular building blocks, such as cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n])-based host-guest complexes, have been extensively studied at the nano- and microscale as adhesion promoters. Herein, we exploit a new class of CB[n]-threaded highly branched polyrotaxanes (HBP-CB[n]) as aqueous adhesives to macroscopically bond two wet surfaces, including biological tissue, through the formation of CB[8] heteroternary complexes. The dynamic nature of these complexes gives rise to adhesion with remarkable toughness, displaying recovery and reversible adhesion upon mechanical failure at the interface. Incorporation of functional guests, such as azobenzene moieties, allows for stimuli-activated on-demand adhesion/de-adhesion. Macroscopic interfacial adhesion through dynamic host-guest molecular recognition represents an innovative strategy for designing the next generation of functional interfaces, biomedical devices, tissue adhesives, and wound dressings.
  2. Zhou M, Liu J, Liang Y, Li D
    Plant Divers, 2017 Jun;39(3):135-139.
    PMID: 30159503 DOI: 10.1016/j.pld.2017.05.001
    Holttumochloa has previously only been recorded from Malaysia. Here we describe and illustrate a new species, Holttumochloa hainanensis sp. nov., from the lowland montane forests of Diaoluo Mountain on the Island of Hainan, South China. Morphologically, H. hainanensis is similar to Holttumochloa korbuensis, but can be clearly distinguished from it in having larger culms covered by white wax, longer leaf blades, larger pseudospikelets and anthers. Furthermore, molecular phylogeny based on the nuclear gene GBSSI corroborates the identification of the new species and its affinity. The biogeographical significance of the new record of Holttumochloa in South China is also highlighted in this study.
  3. Liu Y, Gan Y, Song Y, Liu J
    Sensors (Basel), 2021 Mar 13;21(6).
    PMID: 33805702 DOI: 10.3390/s21062037
    Contemporarily, almost all the global IT giants have aimed at the smart home industry and made an active strategic business layout. As the early-stage and entry-level product of the voice-enabled smart home industry, the smart speakers have been going through rapid development and rising fierce market competition globally in recent years. China, one of the most populous and largest markets in the world, has tremendous business potential in the smart home industry. The market sales of smart speakers in China have gone through rapid growth in the past three years. However, the market penetration rate of related smart home devices and equipment still stays extremely low and far from mass adoption. Moreover, the market sales of smart speakers have also entered a significant slowdown and adjustment period since 2020. Chinese consumers have moved from early impulsive consumption to a rational consumption phase about this early-stage smart home product. Trust in the marketing field is considered an indispensable component of all business transactions, which plays a crucial role in adopting new technologies. This study explores the influencing factors of Chinese users' perceived trust in the voice-enabled smart home systems, uses structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze the interaction mechanism between different variables, and establishes a perceived trust model through 475 valid samples. The model includes six variables: system quality, familiarity, subjective norm, technology optimism, perceived enjoyment, and perceived trust. The result shows that system quality is the essential influence factor that impacts all other variables and could significantly affect the perceived trust. Perceived enjoyment is the most direct influence variable affected by system quality, subjective norm, and technology optimism, and it positively affects the perceived trust in the end. The subjective norm is one of the most distinguishing variables for Chinese users, since China has a collectivist consumption culture. People always expect their behavior to meet social expectations and standards to avoid criticism and acquire social integration. Therefore, policy guidance, authoritative opinions, and people with important reference roles will significantly affect consumers' perceived trust and purchase intention. Familiarity and technology optimism are important influential factors that will have an indirect impact on the perceived trust. The related results of this study can help designers, practitioners, and researchers of the smart home industry produce products and services with higher perceived trust to improve consumers' adoption and acceptance so that the market penetration rate of related products and enterprises could be increased, and the maturity and development of the voice-enabled smart home industry could be promoted.
  4. Liu J, Kamarudin KM, Liu Y, Zou J
    PMID: 33800764 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18052653
    BACKGROUND: An infectious disease can affect human beings at an alarming speed in modern society, where Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to a worldwide pandemic, posing grave threats to public security and the social economies. However, as one of the closest attachments of urban dwellers, urban furniture hardly contributes to pandemic prevention and control.

    METHODS: Given this critical challenge, this article aims to propose a feasible solution to coping with pandemic situations through urban furniture design, using an integrated method of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Analytic Network Process (ANP). Eight communities in China are selected as the research sites, since people working and living in these places have successful experience preventing and containing pandemics.

    RESULTS: Three user requirements (URs), namely, usability and easy access, sanitation, and health and emotional pleasure, are determined. Meanwhile, seven design requirements (DRs) are identified, including contact reduction, effective disinfection, good appearance, social and cultural symbols, ergonomics, smart system and technology and sustainability. The overall priorities of URs and DRs and their inner dependencies are subsequently determined through the ANP-QFD method, comprising the House of Quality (HQQ). According to the theoretical results, we propose five design strategies for pandemic prevention and control.

    CONCLUSION: It is demonstrated that the incorporated method of ANP-QFD has applicability and effectiveness in the conceptual product design process. This article can also provide a new perspective for pandemic prevention and control in densely populated communities in terms of product design and development.

  5. Shi L, Liu J, Gao B, Sillanpää M
    Sci Total Environ, 2022 Mar 20;813:152397.
    PMID: 34923007 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152397
    The generation of free radicals is the key to the photocatalytic efficiency. In this study, the degradation mechanism of photoelectrocatalysis (PEC) membrane could be adequately explained by exploring the generation pathway of different free radicals. The PEC membrane was prepared by gas phase polymerization of poly (3, 4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) on non-woven fabric, industrial filter cloth, ceramic membrane and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane, respectively. Three-dimensional fluorescence test showed that the optimal degradation of mixed or monomer contamination (bovine serum protein, sodium humate, and sodium alginate) was achieved by modified ceramic membrane under PEC condition. As for self-cleaning experiment, the membrane resistance decreased 65.7% when the reaction conditions changed from dark to PEC for 30 min. Combined with the characterization results, PEDOT as photocapacitance extended electron lifetime and promoted free radical generation. This system was mainly dependent on superoxide free radicals (0.01 mmol/L) and singlet oxygen (0.10 mmol/L), which came from energy and electron transfer. Oxygen vacancy could adsorb oxygen to produce superoxide radicals, which was further oxidized to singlet oxygen. In addition, the π-electron conjugated system of PEDOT accelerated the hole transfer and the separation of electrons and holes. Also, this study provided a new view of reactive oxygen species generation mechanism from PEDOT modified membrane.
  6. Liu J, Long J, Zhang S, Fang X, Luo Y
    J Pediatr (Rio J), 2013 07 11;89(5):434-43.
    PMID: 23850112 DOI: 10.1016/j.jped.2013.01.008
    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether three variants (388 G>A, 521 T>C, and 463 C>A) of the solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1) are associated with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

    DATA SOURCE: The China National Knowledge Infrastructure and MEDLINE databases were searched. The systematic review with meta-analysis included genetic studies which assessed the association between neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and 388 G>A, 521 T>C, and 463 C>A variants of SLCO1B1 between January of 1980 and December of 2012. Data selection and extraction were performed independently by two reviewers.

    SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Ten articles were included in the study. The results revealed that SLCO1B1 388 G>A is associated with an increased risk of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.07-1.82) in Chinese neonates, but not in white, Thai, Latin American, or Malaysian neonates. The SLCO1B1 521 T>C mutation showed a low risk of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in Chinese neonates, while no significant associations were found in Brazilian, white, Asian, Thai, and Malaysian neonates. There were no significant differences in SLCO1B1 463 C>A between the hyperbilirubinemia and the control group.

    CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the 388 G>A mutation of the SLCO1B1 gene is a risk factor for developing neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in Chinese neonates, but not in white, Thai, Brazilian, or Malaysian populations; the SLCO1B1 521 T>C mutation provides protection for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in Chinese neonates, but not in white, Thai, Brazilian, or Malaysian populations.

  7. Hussain AI, Cordeiro M, Sevilla E, Liu J
    Vaccine, 2010 May 14;28(22):3848-55.
    PMID: 20307595 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.03.005
    Currently MedImmune manufactures cold-adapted (ca) live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) from specific-pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. Difficulties in production scale-up and potential exposure of chicken flocks to avian influenza viruses especially in the event of a pandemic influenza outbreak have prompted evaluation and development of alternative non-egg based influenza vaccine manufacturing technologies. As part of MedImmune's effort to develop the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) using cell culture production technologies we have investigated the use of high yielding, cloned MDCK cells as a substrate for vaccine production by assessing host range and virus replication of influenza virus produced from both SPF egg and MDCK cell production technologies. In addition to cloned MDCK cells the indicator cell lines used to evaluate the impact of producing LAIV in cells on host range and replication included two human cell lines: human lung carcinoma (A549) cells and human muco-epidermoid bronchiolar carcinoma (NCI H292) cells. The influenza viruses used to infect the indicators cell lines represented both the egg and cell culture manufacturing processes and included virus strains that composed the 2006-2007 influenza seasonal trivalent vaccine (A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2) and B/Malaysia/2506/04). Results from this study demonstrate remarkable similarity between influenza viruses representing the current commercial egg produced and developmental MDCK cell produced vaccine production platforms. MedImmune's high yielding cloned MDCK cells used for the cell culture based vaccine production were highly permissive to both egg and cell produced ca attenuated influenza viruses. Both the A549 and NCI H292 cells regardless of production system were less permissive to influenza A and B viruses than the MDCK cells. Irrespective of the indicator cell line used the replication properties were similar between egg and the cell produced influenza viruses. Based on these study results we conclude that the MDCK cell produced and egg produced vaccine strains are highly comparable.
  8. Leong YK, Du M, Au PI, Clode P, Liu J
    Langmuir, 2018 08 21;34(33):9673-9682.
    PMID: 30053778 DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b00213
    Purified sodium montmorillonite (SWy-2) gels of a few percent solids displayed pronounced time-dependent rheological or aging behavior with a long time scale. The aging behavior was characterized by an increasing yield stress with rest time. This increase continued even after a week of rest. An open sponge-like cellular microstructure of the aged gels was captured by cryo-SEM with samples prepared at high pressure. The size of the openings of the cellular structure is small, generally less than 1 μm formed by thin flexible platelet with curling edges. This structure was formed by strong attractive and repulsive forces. The rapid yield stress increase in the early stage of aging is due to rapid bond formation occurring between network platelets and free individual platelet, isolated aggregates, and platelet particles in network with free edges. Over time, all platelets are bonded in the network. During aging, the platelets in the structure would have to adjust continually in response to a net force acting on it by its neighbors. The high concentration of platelets responding to this force imbalance is the cause of the long aging time scale. The operation of the attractive and repulsive forces, and the shape and charge properties of the platelets are responsible for the cellular structure being built. At complete structural recovery, the structure should attain the state of lowest free energy. The repulsive force regulates the development of the microstructure. The aging data of the 3.3 wt % gel were fitted by different aging models.
  9. Li H, Liu L, Dang M, Zhang W, Liu J
    Int J Neurosci, 2020 Jun;130(6):533-540.
    PMID: 31516045 DOI: 10.1080/00207454.2019.1667797
    Aim of the Study: This study was designed to explore the relative susceptibility of in vitro fertilization (IVF)-conceived mice to global cerebral ischemic injury with the possible role of hydrogen sulphide and enzymes responsible for its production.Materials and Methods: IVF was carried to obtain pups, which were allowed to grow to the age of eight weeks. Thereafter, male mice were subjected to 20 min of global ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. The mice obtained from other groups including normal mating, superovulation but normal mating and normal mating but embryo implantation were also subjected to global ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury.Results: IVF-derived mice exhibited significant more injury in response to I/R injury in comparison to other groups assessed in terms of impairment in locomotor activity, development of motor in coordination, neurological severity score, cerebral infarction and apoptosis markers (caspase-3 activity and Bcl-2 expression). Moreover, there was a relative decrease in the brain levels of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and its biosynthetic enzymes viz. cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase. Interestingly, the levels of H2S and cystathionine-γ-lyase were significantly low in IVF-derived mice in basal conditions also, i.e. before subjecting to I/R injury and these biochemical alterations were associated with the behavioural deficits in mice, even before subjecting to I/R injury.Conclusion: It is concluded that in vitro fertilization-derived mice are more susceptible to global cerebral I/R injury, which may be possibly due to decreased levels of hydrogen sulphide and its biosynthetic enzymes viz., cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase.
  10. Liu J, Zheng C, Liu ZY, Niu YF
    Mitochondrial DNA B Resour, 2021 Feb 09;6(2):485-487.
    PMID: 33628898 DOI: 10.1080/23802359.2021.1872449
    Nephelium lappaceum is a popular tropical fruit belonging to the Sapindaceae family. The plant originated in Malaysia and Indonesia and is commonly called rambutan. Because of its refreshing flavor and exotic appearance, rambutan is widely accepted in the World. Due to its significant medicinal properties, the fruit has also been employed in traditional medicine for centuries. The chloroplast genome of rambutan was sequenced, assembled, and annotated in the present study. The chloroplast genome length was 161,356 bp and contained 132 genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and 8 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. It possessed the typical quadripartite circle structure with a large single-copy region (86,009 bp), a small single-copy region (18,153 bp), and two inverted repeat regions (28,597 bp). A total of 35 SSR markers were found in the chloroplast genome of Nephelium lappaceum, of which 33 were monomer, 1 was dimer and 1 was tetramer. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete chloroplast genome sequences of 21 plant species showed that rambutan was closely related to Pometia tomentosa. These results provide a foundation for further phylogenetic and evolutionary studies of the Sapindaceae family.
  11. Yi C, Jiang F, Yang C, Chen Z, Ding Z, Liu J
    Sensors (Basel), 2021 Mar 05;21(5).
    PMID: 33807746 DOI: 10.3390/s21051813
    Inertial measurement unit (IMU)-based joint angle estimation is an increasingly mature technique that has a broad range of applications in clinics, biomechanics and robotics. However, the deviations of different IMUs' reference frames, referring to IMUs' individual orientations estimating errors, is still a challenge for improving the angle estimation accuracy due to conceptual confusion, relatively simple metrics and the lack of systematical investigation. In this paper, we clarify the determination of reference frame unification, experimentally study the time-varying characteristics of reference frames' deviations and accordingly propose a novel method with a comprehensive metric to unify reference frames. To be specific, we firstly define the reference frame unification (RFU) and distinguish it with drift correction that has always been confused with the term RFU. Secondly, we design a mechanical gimbal-based experiment to study the deviations, where sensor-to-body alignment and rotation-caused differences of orientations are excluded. Thirdly, based on the findings of the experiment, we propose a novel method to utilize the consistency of the joint axis under the hinge-joint constraint, gravity acceleration and local magnetic field to comprehensively unify reference frames, which meets the nonlinear time-varying characteristics of the deviations. The results on ten human subjects reveal the feasibility of our proposed method and the improvement from previous methods. This work contributes to a relatively new perspective of considering and improving the accuracy of IMU-based joint angle estimation.
  12. Liu J, Soo Yun Tan C, Lan Y, Scherman OA
    J Polym Sci A Polym Chem, 2017 09 15;55(18):3105-3109.
    PMID: 28931970 DOI: 10.1002/pola.28667
    The success of exploiting cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n])-based molecular recognition in self-assembled systems has sparked a tremendous interest in polymer and materials chemistry. In this study, polymerization in the presence of host-guest complexes is applied as a modular synthetic approach toward a diverse set of CB[8]-based supramolecular hydrogels with desirable properties, such as mechanical strength, toughness, energy dissipation, self-healing, and shear-thinning. A range of vinyl monomers, including acrylamide-, acrylate-, and imidazolium-based hydrophilic monomers, could be easily incorporated as the polymer backbones, leading to a library of CB[8] hydrogel networks. This versatile strategy explores new horizons for the construction of supramolecular hydrogel networks and materials with emergent properties in wearable and self-healable electronic devices, sensors, and structural biomaterials. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2017, 55, 3105-3109.
  13. Huang Y, Xu Y, Li J, Xu W, Zhang G, Cheng Z, et al.
    Environ Sci Technol, 2013;47(23):13395-403.
    PMID: 24251554 DOI: 10.1021/es403138p
    Nineteen pairs of gaseous and surface seawater samples were collected along the cruise from Malaysia to the south of Bay of Bengal passing by Sri Lanka between April 12 and May 4, 2011 on the Chinese research vessel Shiyan I to investigate the latest OCP pollution status over the equatorial Indian Ocean. Significant decrease of α-HCH and γ-HCH was found in the air and dissolved water phase owing to global restriction for decades. Substantially high levels of p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, trans-chlordane (TC), and cis-chlordane (CC) were observed in the water samples collected near Sri Lanka, indicating fresh continental riverine input of these compounds. Fugacity fractions suggest equilibrium of α-HCH at most sampling sites, while net volatilization for DDT isomers, TC and CC in most cases. Enantiomer fractions (EFs) of α-HCH and o,p'-DDT in the air and water samples were determined to trace the source of these compounds in the air. Racemic or close to racemic composition was found for atmospheric α-HCH and o,p'-DDT, while significant depletion of (+) enantiomer was found in the water phase, especially for o,p'-DDT (EFs = 0.310 ± 0.178). 24% of α-HCH in the lower air over the open sea of the equatorial Indian Ocean is estimated to be volatilized from local seawater, indicating that long-range transport is the main source.
  14. Hu LF, Li SP, Cao H, Liu JJ, Gao JL, Yang FQ, et al.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2006 Sep 18;42(2):200-6.
    PMID: 16242880
    Pogostemon cablin, originating in Malaysia and India, is cultivated in southern China including Guangdong and Hainan Province, which was called GuangHuoXiang to differentiate it from the HuoXiang of the north, the species Agastache rugosa, that it resembles. Essential oil of P. cablin mainly contributes to the pharmacological activities and the therapeutic properties of the essential oils are directly correlated with their qualitative and quantitative composition. For controlling the quality, standard fingerprint of P. cablin collected from different regions was developed by using GC-MS. Nine compounds including beta-patchoulene, caryophyllene, alpha-guaiene, seychellene, beta-guaiene, delta-guaiene, spathulenol, patchouli alcohol and pogostone were identified among 10 main peaks in P. cablin. Hierarchical clustering analysis based on characteristics of 10 investigated peaks in GC profiles showed that 18 samples were divided into three main clusters, patchouliol-type, pogostone-type and an interim-type, which was the one between the two chemotypes. The simulative mean chromatogram for the three types P. cablin was generated using the Computer Aided Similarity Evaluation System. The fingerprint can help to distinguish the substitute or adulterant, and further assess the differences of P. cablin grown in various areas of China.
  15. Liu J, Tan CSY, Yu Z, Li N, Abell C, Scherman OA
    Adv. Mater. Weinheim, 2017 Jun;29(22).
    PMID: 28370560 DOI: 10.1002/adma.201605325
    Recent progress on highly tough and stretchable polymer networks has highlighted the potential of wearable electronic devices and structural biomaterials such as cartilage. For some given applications, a combination of desirable mechanical properties including stiffness, strength, toughness, damping, fatigue resistance, and self-healing ability is required. However, integrating such a rigorous set of requirements imposes substantial complexity and difficulty in the design and fabrication of these polymer networks, and has rarely been realized. Here, we describe the construction of supramolecular polymer networks through an in situ copolymerization of acrylamide and functional monomers, which are dynamically complexed with the host molecule cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]). High molecular weight, thus sufficient chain entanglement, combined with a small-amount dynamic CB[8]-mediated non-covalent crosslinking (2.5 mol%), yields extremely stretchable and tough supramolecular polymer networks, exhibiting remarkable self-healing capability at room temperature. These supramolecular polymer networks can be stretched more than 100× their original length and are able to lift objects 2000× their weight. The reversible association/dissociation of the host-guest complexes bestows the networks with remarkable energy dissipation capability, but also facile complete self-healing at room temperature. In addition to their outstanding mechanical properties, the networks are ionically conductive and transparent. The CB[8]-based supramolecular networks are synthetically accessible in large scale and exhibit outstanding mechanical properties. They could readily lead to the promising use as wearable and self-healable electronic devices, sensors and structural biomaterials.
  16. Liu J, Tan CS, Yu Z, Lan Y, Abell C, Scherman OA
    Adv. Mater. Weinheim, 2017 Mar;29(10).
    PMID: 28092128 DOI: 10.1002/adma.201604951
    Biomimetic supramolecular dual networks: By mimicking the structure/function model of titin, integration of dynamic cucurbit[8]uril mediated host-guest interactions with a trace amount of covalent cross-linking leads to hierarchical dual networks with intriguing toughness, strength, elasticity, and energy dissipation properties. Dynamic host-guest interactions can be dissociated as sacrificial bonds and their facile reformation results in self-recovery of the dual network structure as well as its mechanical properties.
  17. Liu J, Lan Y, Yu Z, Tan CS, Parker RM, Abell C, et al.
    Acc. Chem. Res., 2017 02 21;50(2):208-217.
    PMID: 28075551 DOI: 10.1021/acs.accounts.6b00429
    Microencapsulation is a fundamental concept behind a wide range of daily applications ranging from paints, adhesives, and pesticides to targeted drug delivery, transport of vaccines, and self-healing concretes. The beauty of microfluidics to generate microcapsules arises from the capability of fabricating monodisperse and micrometer-scale droplets, which can lead to microcapsules/particles with fine-tuned control over size, shape, and hierarchical structure, as well as high reproducibility, efficient material usage, and high-throughput manipulation. The introduction of supramolecular chemistry, such as host-guest interactions, endows the resultant microcapsules with stimuli-responsiveness and self-adjusting capabilities, and facilitates hierarchical microstructures with tunable stability and porosity, leading to the maturity of current microencapsulation industry. Supramolecular architectures and materials have attracted immense attention over the past decade, as they open the possibility to obtain a large variety of aesthetically pleasing structures, with myriad applications in biomedicine, energy, sensing, catalysis, and biomimicry, on account of the inherent reversible and adaptive nature of supramolecular interactions. As a subset of supramolecular interactions, host-guest molecular recognition involves the formation of inclusion complexes between two or more moieties, with specific three-dimensional structures and spatial arrangements, in a highly controllable and cooperative manner. Such highly selective, strong yet dynamic interactions could be exploited as an alternative methodology for programmable and controllable engineering of supramolecular architectures and materials, exploiting reversible interactions between complementary components. Through the engineering of molecular structures, assemblies can be readily functionalized based on host-guest interactions, with desirable physicochemical characteristics. In this Account, we summarize the current state of development in the field of monodisperse supramolecular microcapsules, fabricated through the integration of traditional microfluidic techniques and interfacial host-guest chemistry, specifically cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n])-mediated host-guest interactions. Three different strategies, colloidal particle-driven assembly, interfacial condensation-driven assembly and electrostatic interaction-driven assembly, are classified and discussed in detail, presenting the methodology involved in each microcapsule formation process. We highlight the state-of-the-art in design and control over structural complexity with desirable functionality, as well as promising applications, such as cargo delivery stemming from the assembled microcapsules. On account of its dynamic nature, the CB[n]-mediated host-guest complexation has demonstrated efficient response toward various external stimuli such as UV light, pH change, redox chemistry, and competitive guests. Herein, we also demonstrate different microcapsule modalities, which are engineered with CB[n] host-guest chemistry and also can be disrupted with the aid of external stimuli, for triggered release of payloads. In addition to the overview of recent achievements and current limitations of these microcapsules, we finally summarize several perspectives on tunable cargo loading and triggered release, directions, and challenges for this technology, as well as possible strategies for further improvement, which will lead to substainitial progress of host-guest chemistry in supramolecular architectures and materials.
  18. Han H, Chou CC, Li R, Liu J, Zhang L, Zhu W, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2018 06 22;8(1):9566.
    PMID: 29934599 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-27724-3
    Chalocomoracin (CMR), one of the major secondary metabolites found in fungus-infected mulberry leaves, is a potent anticancer agent. However, its anticancer mechanism remains elusive. Here, we demonstrated the potent anti-tumor activity and molecular mechanism of CMR both in vitro and in vivo. We showed for the first time that CMR treatment markedly promoted paraptosis along with extensive cytoplasmic vacuolation derived from the endoplasmic reticulum, rather than apoptosis, in PC-3 and MDA-MB-231cell lines. Additional studies revealed that ectopic expression of Myc-PINK1 (PTEN-induced kinase 1), a key regulator of mitophagy, rendered LNCap cells susceptible to CMR-induced paraptosis, suggesting that the mitophagy-dependent pathway plays a crucial role in inducing paraptosis by activating PINK1. CMR treatment directly upregulated PINK1 and downregulated Alix genes in MDA-MB-231 and PC-3 cell lines. Furthermore, mitophagy signaling and paraptosis with cytoplasmic vacuolation could be blocked by antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), indicating the novel pathway was triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. An in vivo MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumor model revealed that CMR suppressed tumor growth by inducing vacuolation production through the same signal changes as those observed in vitro. These data suggest that CMR is a potential therapeutic entity for cancer treatment through a non-apoptotic pathway.
  19. Li C, Liu J, Shaozhou W, Bai X, Zhang Q, Hua R, et al.
    Viruses, 2016 Nov 10;8(11).
    PMID: 27834908
    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) causes substantial egg drop disease. DTMUV was first identified in China and rapidly spread to Malaysia and Thailand. The antigenicity of the DTMUV E protein has not yet been characterized. Here, we investigated antigenic sites on the E protein using the non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 1F3 and 1A5. Two minimal epitopes were mapped to (221)LD/NLPW(225) and (87)YAEYI(91) by using phage display and mutagenesis. DTMUV-positive duck sera reacted with the epitopes, thus indicating the importance of the minimal amino acids of the epitopes for antibody-epitope binding. The performance of the dot blotting assay with the corresponding positive sera indicated that YAEYI was DTMUV type-specific, whereas (221)LD/NLPW(225) was a cross-reactive epitope for West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and corresponded to conserved and variable amino acid sequences among these strains. The structure model of the E protein revealed that YAEYI and LD/NLPW were located on domain (D) II, which confirmed that DII might contain a type-specific non-neutralizing epitope. The YAEYI epitope-based antigen demonstrated its diagnostic potential by reacting with high specificity to serum samples obtained from DTMUV-infected ducks. Based on these observations, a YAEYI-based serological test could be used for DTMUV surveillance and could differentiate DTMUV infections from JEV or WNV infections. These findings provide new insights into the organization of epitopes on flavivirus E proteins that might be valuable for the development of epitope-based serological diagnostic tests for DTMUV.
  20. Lau YS, Tian XY, Mustafa MR, Murugan D, Liu J, Zhang Y, et al.
    Br J Pharmacol, 2013 Nov;170(6):1190-8.
    PMID: 23992296 DOI: 10.1111/bph.12350
    Boldine is a potent natural antioxidant present in the leaves and bark of the Chilean boldo tree. Here we assessed the protective effects of boldine on endothelium in a range of models of diabetes, ex vivo and in vitro.
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