Supramolecular building blocks, such as cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n])-based host-guest complexes, have been extensively studied at the nano- and microscale as adhesion promoters. Herein, we exploit a new class of CB[n]-threaded highly branched polyrotaxanes (HBP-CB[n]) as aqueous adhesives to macroscopically bond two wet surfaces, including biological tissue, through the formation of CB heteroternary complexes. The dynamic nature of these complexes gives rise to adhesion with remarkable toughness, displaying recovery and reversible adhesion upon mechanical failure at the interface. Incorporation of functional guests, such as azobenzene moieties, allows for stimuli-activated on-demand adhesion/de-adhesion. Macroscopic interfacial adhesion through dynamic host-guest molecular recognition represents an innovative strategy for designing the next generation of functional interfaces, biomedical devices, tissue adhesives, and wound dressings.
Holttumochloa has previously only been recorded from Malaysia. Here we describe and illustrate a new species, Holttumochloa hainanensis sp. nov., from the lowland montane forests of Diaoluo Mountain on the Island of Hainan, South China. Morphologically, H. hainanensis is similar to Holttumochloa korbuensis, but can be clearly distinguished from it in having larger culms covered by white wax, longer leaf blades, larger pseudospikelets and anthers. Furthermore, molecular phylogeny based on the nuclear gene GBSSI corroborates the identification of the new species and its affinity. The biogeographical significance of the new record of Holttumochloa in South China is also highlighted in this study.
Currently MedImmune manufactures cold-adapted (ca) live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) from specific-pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. Difficulties in production scale-up and potential exposure of chicken flocks to avian influenza viruses especially in the event of a pandemic influenza outbreak have prompted evaluation and development of alternative non-egg based influenza vaccine manufacturing technologies. As part of MedImmune's effort to develop the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) using cell culture production technologies we have investigated the use of high yielding, cloned MDCK cells as a substrate for vaccine production by assessing host range and virus replication of influenza virus produced from both SPF egg and MDCK cell production technologies. In addition to cloned MDCK cells the indicator cell lines used to evaluate the impact of producing LAIV in cells on host range and replication included two human cell lines: human lung carcinoma (A549) cells and human muco-epidermoid bronchiolar carcinoma (NCI H292) cells. The influenza viruses used to infect the indicators cell lines represented both the egg and cell culture manufacturing processes and included virus strains that composed the 2006-2007 influenza seasonal trivalent vaccine (A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2) and B/Malaysia/2506/04). Results from this study demonstrate remarkable similarity between influenza viruses representing the current commercial egg produced and developmental MDCK cell produced vaccine production platforms. MedImmune's high yielding cloned MDCK cells used for the cell culture based vaccine production were highly permissive to both egg and cell produced ca attenuated influenza viruses. Both the A549 and NCI H292 cells regardless of production system were less permissive to influenza A and B viruses than the MDCK cells. Irrespective of the indicator cell line used the replication properties were similar between egg and the cell produced influenza viruses. Based on these study results we conclude that the MDCK cell produced and egg produced vaccine strains are highly comparable.
Purified sodium montmorillonite (SWy-2) gels of a few percent solids displayed pronounced time-dependent rheological or aging behavior with a long time scale. The aging behavior was characterized by an increasing yield stress with rest time. This increase continued even after a week of rest. An open sponge-like cellular microstructure of the aged gels was captured by cryo-SEM with samples prepared at high pressure. The size of the openings of the cellular structure is small, generally less than 1 μm formed by thin flexible platelet with curling edges. This structure was formed by strong attractive and repulsive forces. The rapid yield stress increase in the early stage of aging is due to rapid bond formation occurring between network platelets and free individual platelet, isolated aggregates, and platelet particles in network with free edges. Over time, all platelets are bonded in the network. During aging, the platelets in the structure would have to adjust continually in response to a net force acting on it by its neighbors. The high concentration of platelets responding to this force imbalance is the cause of the long aging time scale. The operation of the attractive and repulsive forces, and the shape and charge properties of the platelets are responsible for the cellular structure being built. At complete structural recovery, the structure should attain the state of lowest free energy. The repulsive force regulates the development of the microstructure. The aging data of the 3.3 wt % gel were fitted by different aging models.
Aim of the Study: This study was designed to explore the relative susceptibility of in vitro fertilization (IVF)-conceived mice to global cerebral ischemic injury with the possible role of hydrogen sulphide and enzymes responsible for its production.Materials and Methods: IVF was carried to obtain pups, which were allowed to grow to the age of eight weeks. Thereafter, male mice were subjected to 20 min of global ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. The mice obtained from other groups including normal mating, superovulation but normal mating and normal mating but embryo implantation were also subjected to global ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury.Results: IVF-derived mice exhibited significant more injury in response to I/R injury in comparison to other groups assessed in terms of impairment in locomotor activity, development of motor in coordination, neurological severity score, cerebral infarction and apoptosis markers (caspase-3 activity and Bcl-2 expression). Moreover, there was a relative decrease in the brain levels of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and its biosynthetic enzymes viz. cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase. Interestingly, the levels of H2S and cystathionine-γ-lyase were significantly low in IVF-derived mice in basal conditions also, i.e. before subjecting to I/R injury and these biochemical alterations were associated with the behavioural deficits in mice, even before subjecting to I/R injury.Conclusion: It is concluded that in vitro fertilization-derived mice are more susceptible to global cerebral I/R injury, which may be possibly due to decreased levels of hydrogen sulphide and its biosynthetic enzymes viz., cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase.
Pogostemon cablin, originating in Malaysia and India, is cultivated in southern China including Guangdong and Hainan Province, which was called GuangHuoXiang to differentiate it from the HuoXiang of the north, the species Agastache rugosa, that it resembles. Essential oil of P. cablin mainly contributes to the pharmacological activities and the therapeutic properties of the essential oils are directly correlated with their qualitative and quantitative composition. For controlling the quality, standard fingerprint of P. cablin collected from different regions was developed by using GC-MS. Nine compounds including beta-patchoulene, caryophyllene, alpha-guaiene, seychellene, beta-guaiene, delta-guaiene, spathulenol, patchouli alcohol and pogostone were identified among 10 main peaks in P. cablin. Hierarchical clustering analysis based on characteristics of 10 investigated peaks in GC profiles showed that 18 samples were divided into three main clusters, patchouliol-type, pogostone-type and an interim-type, which was the one between the two chemotypes. The simulative mean chromatogram for the three types P. cablin was generated using the Computer Aided Similarity Evaluation System. The fingerprint can help to distinguish the substitute or adulterant, and further assess the differences of P. cablin grown in various areas of China.
Boldine is a potent natural antioxidant present in the leaves and bark of the Chilean boldo tree. Here we assessed the protective effects of boldine on endothelium in a range of models of diabetes, ex vivo and in vitro.
Nineteen pairs of gaseous and surface seawater samples were collected along the cruise from Malaysia to the south of Bay of Bengal passing by Sri Lanka between April 12 and May 4, 2011 on the Chinese research vessel Shiyan I to investigate the latest OCP pollution status over the equatorial Indian Ocean. Significant decrease of α-HCH and γ-HCH was found in the air and dissolved water phase owing to global restriction for decades. Substantially high levels of p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, trans-chlordane (TC), and cis-chlordane (CC) were observed in the water samples collected near Sri Lanka, indicating fresh continental riverine input of these compounds. Fugacity fractions suggest equilibrium of α-HCH at most sampling sites, while net volatilization for DDT isomers, TC and CC in most cases. Enantiomer fractions (EFs) of α-HCH and o,p'-DDT in the air and water samples were determined to trace the source of these compounds in the air. Racemic or close to racemic composition was found for atmospheric α-HCH and o,p'-DDT, while significant depletion of (+) enantiomer was found in the water phase, especially for o,p'-DDT (EFs = 0.310 ± 0.178). 24% of α-HCH in the lower air over the open sea of the equatorial Indian Ocean is estimated to be volatilized from local seawater, indicating that long-range transport is the main source.
The majority of influenza vaccines are manufactured using embryonated hens' eggs. The potential occurrence of a pandemic outbreak of avian influenza might reduce or even eliminate the supply of eggs, leaving the human population at risk. Also, the egg-based production technology is intrinsically cumbersome and not easily scalable to provide a rapid worldwide supply of vaccine. In this communication, the production of a cell culture (Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)) derived live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in a fully disposable platform process using a novel Single Use Bioreactor (SUB) is presented. The cell culture and virus infection was maintained in a disposable stirred tank reactor with PID control of pH, DO, agitation, and temperature, similar to traditional glass or stainless steel bioreactors. The application of this technology was tested using MDCK cells grown on microcarriers in proprietary serum free medium and infection with 2006/2007 seasonal LAIV strains at 25-30 L scale. The MDCK cell growth was optimal at the agitation rate of 100 rpm. Optimization of this parameter allowed the cells to grow at a rate similar to that achieved in the conventional 3 L glass stirred tank bioreactors. Influenza vaccine virus strains, A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1 strain), A/Wisconsin/67/05 (H3N2 strain), and B/Malaysia/2506/04 (B strain) were all successfully produced in SUB with peak virus titers > or =8.6 log(10) FFU/mL. This result demonstrated that more than 1 million doses of vaccine can be produced through one single run of a small bioreactor at the scale of 30 L and thus provided an alternative to the current vaccine production platform with fast turn-around and low upfront facility investment, features that are particularly useful for emerging and developing countries and clinical trial material production.
A recent genome wide association study in the Chinese population has implicated rs6903956 within the ADTRP gene on chromosome 6p24.1 as a novel susceptibility locus for coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we evaluated the association of rs6903956 with CAD in the different ethnic groups of Singaporean population comprising Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians.
Microencapsulation is a fundamental concept behind a wide range of daily applications ranging from paints, adhesives, and pesticides to targeted drug delivery, transport of vaccines, and self-healing concretes. The beauty of microfluidics to generate microcapsules arises from the capability of fabricating monodisperse and micrometer-scale droplets, which can lead to microcapsules/particles with fine-tuned control over size, shape, and hierarchical structure, as well as high reproducibility, efficient material usage, and high-throughput manipulation. The introduction of supramolecular chemistry, such as host-guest interactions, endows the resultant microcapsules with stimuli-responsiveness and self-adjusting capabilities, and facilitates hierarchical microstructures with tunable stability and porosity, leading to the maturity of current microencapsulation industry. Supramolecular architectures and materials have attracted immense attention over the past decade, as they open the possibility to obtain a large variety of aesthetically pleasing structures, with myriad applications in biomedicine, energy, sensing, catalysis, and biomimicry, on account of the inherent reversible and adaptive nature of supramolecular interactions. As a subset of supramolecular interactions, host-guest molecular recognition involves the formation of inclusion complexes between two or more moieties, with specific three-dimensional structures and spatial arrangements, in a highly controllable and cooperative manner. Such highly selective, strong yet dynamic interactions could be exploited as an alternative methodology for programmable and controllable engineering of supramolecular architectures and materials, exploiting reversible interactions between complementary components. Through the engineering of molecular structures, assemblies can be readily functionalized based on host-guest interactions, with desirable physicochemical characteristics. In this Account, we summarize the current state of development in the field of monodisperse supramolecular microcapsules, fabricated through the integration of traditional microfluidic techniques and interfacial host-guest chemistry, specifically cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n])-mediated host-guest interactions. Three different strategies, colloidal particle-driven assembly, interfacial condensation-driven assembly and electrostatic interaction-driven assembly, are classified and discussed in detail, presenting the methodology involved in each microcapsule formation process. We highlight the state-of-the-art in design and control over structural complexity with desirable functionality, as well as promising applications, such as cargo delivery stemming from the assembled microcapsules. On account of its dynamic nature, the CB[n]-mediated host-guest complexation has demonstrated efficient response toward various external stimuli such as UV light, pH change, redox chemistry, and competitive guests. Herein, we also demonstrate different microcapsule modalities, which are engineered with CB[n] host-guest chemistry and also can be disrupted with the aid of external stimuli, for triggered release of payloads. In addition to the overview of recent achievements and current limitations of these microcapsules, we finally summarize several perspectives on tunable cargo loading and triggered release, directions, and challenges for this technology, as well as possible strategies for further improvement, which will lead to substainitial progress of host-guest chemistry in supramolecular architectures and materials.
Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is one of the most abundant phenolic acids derived from the root of Danshen with potent anti-oxidative properties. The present study examined the vasoprotective effect of Sal B in hypertensive mice induced by angiotensin II (Ang II). Sal B (25mg/kg/day) was administered via oral gavage for 11days to Ang II (1.2mg/kg/day)-infused C57BL/6J mice (8-10weeks old). The vascular reactivity (both endothelium-dependent relaxations and contractions) in mouse arteries was examined by wire myography. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein level and localization of angiotensin AT1 receptors and the proteins involved in ROS formation were evaluated using dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence, lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, respectively. The changes of ROS generating proteins were also assessed in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to Ang II with and without co-treatment with Sal B (0.1-10nM). Oral administration of Sal B reversed the Ang II-induced elevation of arterial systolic blood pressure in mice, augmented the impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations and attenuated the exaggerated endothelium-dependent contractions in both aortas and renal arteries of Ang II-infused mice. In addition, Sal B treatment normalized the elevated levels of AT1 receptors, NADPH oxidase subunits (NOx-2 and NOx-4) and nitrotyrosine in arteries of Ang II-infused mice or in Ang II-treated HUVECs. In summary, the present study provided additional evidence demonstrating that Sal B treatment for 11days reverses the impaired endothelial function and with a marked inhibition of AT1 receptor-dependent vascular oxidative stress. This vasoprotective and anti-oxidative action of Sal B most likely contributes to the anti-hypertensive action of the plant-derived compound.
Biomimetic supramolecular dual networks: By mimicking the structure/function model of titin, integration of dynamic cucurbituril mediated host-guest interactions with a trace amount of covalent cross-linking leads to hierarchical dual networks with intriguing toughness, strength, elasticity, and energy dissipation properties. Dynamic host-guest interactions can be dissociated as sacrificial bonds and their facile reformation results in self-recovery of the dual network structure as well as its mechanical properties.
Recent progress on highly tough and stretchable polymer networks has highlighted the potential of wearable electronic devices and structural biomaterials such as cartilage. For some given applications, a combination of desirable mechanical properties including stiffness, strength, toughness, damping, fatigue resistance, and self-healing ability is required. However, integrating such a rigorous set of requirements imposes substantial complexity and difficulty in the design and fabrication of these polymer networks, and has rarely been realized. Here, we describe the construction of supramolecular polymer networks through an in situ copolymerization of acrylamide and functional monomers, which are dynamically complexed with the host molecule cucurbituril (CB). High molecular weight, thus sufficient chain entanglement, combined with a small-amount dynamic CB-mediated non-covalent crosslinking (2.5 mol%), yields extremely stretchable and tough supramolecular polymer networks, exhibiting remarkable self-healing capability at room temperature. These supramolecular polymer networks can be stretched more than 100× their original length and are able to lift objects 2000× their weight. The reversible association/dissociation of the host-guest complexes bestows the networks with remarkable energy dissipation capability, but also facile complete self-healing at room temperature. In addition to their outstanding mechanical properties, the networks are ionically conductive and transparent. The CB-based supramolecular networks are synthetically accessible in large scale and exhibit outstanding mechanical properties. They could readily lead to the promising use as wearable and self-healable electronic devices, sensors and structural biomaterials.
Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) causes substantial egg drop disease. DTMUV was first identified in China and rapidly spread to Malaysia and Thailand. The antigenicity of the DTMUV E protein has not yet been characterized. Here, we investigated antigenic sites on the E protein using the non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 1F3 and 1A5. Two minimal epitopes were mapped to (221)LD/NLPW(225) and (87)YAEYI(91) by using phage display and mutagenesis. DTMUV-positive duck sera reacted with the epitopes, thus indicating the importance of the minimal amino acids of the epitopes for antibody-epitope binding. The performance of the dot blotting assay with the corresponding positive sera indicated that YAEYI was DTMUV type-specific, whereas (221)LD/NLPW(225) was a cross-reactive epitope for West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and corresponded to conserved and variable amino acid sequences among these strains. The structure model of the E protein revealed that YAEYI and LD/NLPW were located on domain (D) II, which confirmed that DII might contain a type-specific non-neutralizing epitope. The YAEYI epitope-based antigen demonstrated its diagnostic potential by reacting with high specificity to serum samples obtained from DTMUV-infected ducks. Based on these observations, a YAEYI-based serological test could be used for DTMUV surveillance and could differentiate DTMUV infections from JEV or WNV infections. These findings provide new insights into the organization of epitopes on flavivirus E proteins that might be valuable for the development of epitope-based serological diagnostic tests for DTMUV.
Chalocomoracin (CMR), one of the major secondary metabolites found in fungus-infected mulberry leaves, is a potent anticancer agent. However, its anticancer mechanism remains elusive. Here, we demonstrated the potent anti-tumor activity and molecular mechanism of CMR both in vitro and in vivo. We showed for the first time that CMR treatment markedly promoted paraptosis along with extensive cytoplasmic vacuolation derived from the endoplasmic reticulum, rather than apoptosis, in PC-3 and MDA-MB-231cell lines. Additional studies revealed that ectopic expression of Myc-PINK1 (PTEN-induced kinase 1), a key regulator of mitophagy, rendered LNCap cells susceptible to CMR-induced paraptosis, suggesting that the mitophagy-dependent pathway plays a crucial role in inducing paraptosis by activating PINK1. CMR treatment directly upregulated PINK1 and downregulated Alix genes in MDA-MB-231 and PC-3 cell lines. Furthermore, mitophagy signaling and paraptosis with cytoplasmic vacuolation could be blocked by antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), indicating the novel pathway was triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. An in vivo MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumor model revealed that CMR suppressed tumor growth by inducing vacuolation production through the same signal changes as those observed in vitro. These data suggest that CMR is a potential therapeutic entity for cancer treatment through a non-apoptotic pathway.
The ability to construct self-healing scaffolds that are injectable and capable of forming a designed morphology offers the possibility to engineer sustainable materials. Herein, we introduce supramolecular nested microbeads that can be used as building blocks to construct macroscopic self-healing scaffolds. The core-shell microbeads remain in an "inert" state owing to the isolation of a pair of complementary polymers in a form that can be stored as an aqueous suspension. An annealing process after injection effectively induces the re-construction of the microbead units, leading to supramolecular gelation in a preconfigured shape. The resulting macroscopic scaffold is dynamically stable, displaying self-recovery in a self-healing electronic conductor. This strategy of using the supramolecular assembled nested microbeads as building blocks represents an alternative to injectable hydrogel systems, and shows promise in the field of structural biomaterials and flexible electronics.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the combined use of afatinib and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) testing versus gemcitabine-cisplatin as the first-line treatment for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in China.
Methods: A decision-analytic model, based on clinical phase III trials, was developed to simulate patient transitions. Direct costs were estimated from the perspective of the Chinese healthcare system. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated over a 5-year lifetime horizon. Model robustness was conducted in sensitivity analyses.
Results: For the base case, EGFR mutation testing followed by afatinib treatment for advanced NSCLC increased 0.15 QALYs compared with standard chemotherapy at an additional cost of $5069.12. The ICER for afatinib maintenance was $33,416.39 per QALY gained. The utility of PFS and the cost of afatinib had the most important impact on the ICER. Scenario analyses suggested that when a patient assistance program (PAP) was available, ICER decreased to $22,972.52/QALY lower than the willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of China ($26,508/QALY).
Conclusion: Our results suggest that gene-guided maintenance therapy with afatinib with the PAP might be a cost-effective treatment option compared with gemcitabine - cisplatin in China.