Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 50 in total

  1. Rashid Ali MR, Kannan KK
    J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol, 2015 Jan;22(1):66-8.
    PMID: 25590487 DOI: 10.1097/LBR.0000000000000128
    We report a case of a 52-year-old patient who had undergone a bladder resection and an ileal conduit for a transitional cell carcinoma. He then presented with a short history of hemoptysis 3 months later. Rigid bronchoscopy was performed revealing an endobronchial lesion, which was removed via laser and debulking method without complications. Histopathologic examination confirmed it to be a benign endobronchial glomus tumor. On the basis of our literature search, this is the 34th reported case of glomus tumor arising from the respiratory tract, seventh reported case of an endobronchial glomus tumor treated bronchoscopically, and the first possibly coincidental finding in relation to a patient with primary transitional bladder cell carcinoma.
  2. Rafidah Bahari, Muhammad N Mohamad Alwi, Muhammad R Ahmad, Ismail Mohd Saiboon
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2015;16(2):203-211.
    There are a number of validated questionnaires available for the screening of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and the PTSD Checklist for Civilians is one of them. However, none was translated into the Malay Language and validated for use in the Malaysian population. The aim of this study is to translate and validate the Malay PTSD Checklist for Civilians (MPCL-C). Methods: The PCL-C was translated into the Malay Language and back-translated. The reliability and validity of the MPCL-C were then determined by administering them to those who presented at the emergency department for motor vehicle accident at least one month before. Results: The MPCL-C has good face and content validity. In terms of reliability, it is also good, with Chronbach’s alpha values of 0.90, 0.77, 0.75 and 0.74 for the full scale, re-experiencing, avoidance and arousal domains respectively. Conclusions: The MPCL-C is a valid and reliable instrument to screen for PTSD in motor vehicle accident victims for the studied population.
  3. Anwar A, Siddiqui R, Hameed A, Shah MR, Khan NA
    Med Chem, 2020;16(7):841-847.
    PMID: 31544702 DOI: 10.2174/1573406415666190722113412
    BACKGROUND: Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic pathogen widely spread in the environment. Acanthamoeba causes excruciating keratitis which can lead to blindness. The lack of effective drugs and its ability to form highly resistant cyst are one of the foremost limitations against successful prognosis. Current treatment involves mixture of drugs at high doses but still recurrence of infection can occur due to ineffectiveness of drugs against the cyst form. Pyridine and its natural and synthetic derivatives are potential chemotherapeutic agents due to their diverse biological activities.

    OBJECTIVE: To study the antiamoebic effects of four novel synthetic dihydropyridine (DHP) compounds against Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype. Furthermore, to evaluate their activity against amoeba-mediated host cells cytopathogenicity as well as their cytotoxicity against human cells.

    METHODS: Dihydropyridines were synthesized by cyclic dimerization of alkylidene malononitrile derivatives. Four analogues of functionally diverse DHPs were tested against Acanthamoeba castellanii by using amoebicidal, encystation and excystation assays. Moreover, Lactate dehydrogenase assays were carried out to study cytopathogenicity and cytotoxicity against human cells.

    RESULTS: These compounds showed significant amoebicidal and cysticidal effects at 50 μM concentration, whereas, two of the DHP derivatives also significantly reduced Acanthamoebamediated host cell cytotoxicity. Moreover, these DHPs were found to have low cytotoxicity against human cells suggesting a good safety profile.

    CONCLUSION: The results suggest that DHPs have potential against Acanthamoeba especially against the more resistant cyst stage and can be assessed further for drug development.

  4. Aripin YM, Ibrahim N, Muhammad R
    Asian J Surg, 2013 Oct;36(4):150-3.
    PMID: 23726827 DOI: 10.1016/j.asjsur.2013.04.008
    The anatomical orientation of structures in the axilla has not been well studied, although it is essential for a neat and safe dissection. The objective of this study was to determine the relations between neurovascular structures in the axilla as they were encountered during axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for breast cancer.
  5. Wong YP, Tan GC, Muhammad R, Rajadurai P
    Malays J Pathol, 2020 Apr;42(1):151-155.
    PMID: 32342946
    INTRODUCTION: Occult primary breast carcinoma (OBC) manifesting as axillary nodal metastasis without an identifiable breast primary is exceptionally rare. It continues to pose a diagnostic challenge to pathologists. Here, we report a case of OBC with emphasis on the usefulness of immunohistochemistry to determine the primary site of tumour.

    CASE REPORT: A 58-year-old female presented with a 3-cm painless right axillary mass. Extensive radiological investigations that include mammography, ultrasonography of the breasts and positron emission tomography (PET) scan failed to conclude the primary site of the tumour. Histological examination of the lymph node revealed loosely cohesive sheets of poorly differentiated malignant cells, without discernible glandular or squamous differentiation. Immunohistochemically, the malignant cells exhibited diffuse immunoreactivity toward pan-cytokeratin and CK7, while leukocyte common antigen, S100 and CK20 were negative. A second panel of immunomarkers was carried out. The malignant cells expressed breast-specific markers (GATA-3, GCDFP-15 and mammaglobin), and were negative for ER, PR and TTF-1 immunohistochemistry. A diagnosis of OBC was rendered.

    DISCUSSION: Breast primary must always be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with sole presentation of axillary lymphadenopathy. The breast-specific immunomarkers play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of ER, PR-negative occult breast cancer.

  6. Hassan MR, Vijayalakshmi N, Pani SP, Peng NP, Mehenderkar R, Voralu K, et al.
    PMID: 24974653
    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality particularly among diabetics. We evaluated 228 isolates of B. pseudomallei for antimicrobial sensitivity during 2005-2010 using the disc diffusion technique, of which 144 were obtained from blood culture. More than 90% of the strains were susceptible to cefoperazone, ceftazidime, chloramphenicol and imipenem. Eighty-two percent of the isolates were susceptible to tetracycline and amoxicillin/clavulanate. The susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin was 78% and to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxezole was 47%. The susceptibilities to aminoglycoside antibiotics were low (21% to gentamicin and 6% to amikacin). The susceptibilities were similar between isolates from females and males, bacteremic and abacteremic cases, diabetics and non-diabetics, pneumonia and non-pneumonia cases and between those who died and those who survived. Our findings show antibiotic susceptibility patterns are not a major factor in determining outcomes of B. pseudomallei infection. Monitoring the drug susceptibilities among B. pseudomallei isolates needs to be conducted regularly to guide empiric therapy for melioidosis, as it causes high mortality, especially among diabetic cases.
  7. Ten Bosch QA, Singh BK, Hassan MR, Chadee DD, Michael E
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2016 05;10(5):e0004680.
    PMID: 27159023 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004680
    The epidemiology of dengue fever is characterized by highly seasonal, multi-annual fluctuations, and the irregular circulation of its four serotypes. It is believed that this behaviour arises from the interplay between environmental drivers and serotype interactions. The exact mechanism, however, is uncertain. Constraining mathematical models to patterns characteristic to dengue epidemiology offers a means for detecting such mechanisms. Here, we used a pattern-oriented modelling (POM) strategy to fit and assess a range of dengue models, driven by combinations of temporary cross protective-immunity, cross-enhancement, and seasonal forcing, on their ability to capture the main characteristics of dengue dynamics. We show that all proposed models reproduce the observed dengue patterns across some part of the parameter space. Which model best supports the dengue dynamics is determined by the level of seasonal forcing. Further, when tertiary and quaternary infections are allowed, the inclusion of temporary cross-immunity alone is strongly supported, but the addition of cross-enhancement markedly reduces the parameter range at which dengue dynamics are produced, irrespective of the strength of seasonal forcing. The implication of these structural uncertainties on predicted vulnerability to control is also discussed. With ever expanding spread of dengue, greater understanding of dengue dynamics and control efforts (e.g. a near-future vaccine introduction) has become critically important. This study highlights the capacity of multi-level pattern-matching modelling approaches to offer an analytic tool for deeper insights into dengue epidemiology and control.
  8. Iqbal SZ, Ullah Z, Asi MR, Jinap S, Ahmad MN, Sultan MT, et al.
    J Food Prot, 2018 May;81(5):806-809.
    PMID: 29637809 DOI: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-17-256
    Two hundred ten samples of selected vegetables (okra, pumpkin, tomato, potato, eggplant, spinach, and cabbage) from Faisalabad, Pakistan, were analyzed for the analysis of heavy metals: cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg). Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was used for the analysis of heavy metals. The mean levels of Cd, Pb, As, and Hg were 0.24, 2.23, 0.58, and 7.98 mg/kg, respectively. The samples with Cd (27%), Pb (50%), and Hg (63%) exceeded the maximum residual levels set by the European Commission. The mean levels of heavy metals found in the current study are high and may pose significant health concerns for consumers. Furthermore, considerable attention should be paid to implement comprehensive monitoring and regulations.
  9. Latar NH, Phang KS, Yaakub JA, Muhammad R
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Jun;66(2):142-3.
    PMID: 22106696 MyJurnal
    Haemorrhage arising from gastric arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is rare and normally occurs in the elderly. Bleeding gastric AVM presenting in the younger age group is even rarer. We report a case of a 14 year old boy who presented with recurrent episodes of haematemesis. He subsequently underwent a proximal gastrectomy and the histological examination confirmed a gastric AVM. After reviewing the literature we believe this is the youngest ever reported case of bleeding gastric AVM reported in English literature.
  10. Saad-Ilyas M, Zehra U, Khan UU, Mohammad I, Muhammad R, Aziz A
    Malays Orthop J, 2021 Mar;15(1):72-78.
    PMID: 33880151 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.2103.011
    Introduction: The study aimed to target the current practices of the orthopaedic community in outpatient (OPD), emergency (ER) and surgical services (OT) during COVID-19.

    Material and method: This study surveyed 303 orthopaedic surgeons from all over Pakistan. The survey had 30 questions targeting the setup of outpatient, emergency and operation services in orthopaedic departments of different hospitals in Pakistan.

    Result: A total of 302 surgeons were included from 53 cities all over Pakistan. Between 35-48% of the respondents reported lack of availability of standard operating procedures in OPD, ER and in OT. Majority of the respondents noted that their OPD and surgical practice had been affected to some degree and 69% of the surgeons were only doing trauma surgery. This trend was higher in younger consultants of less than 45 years of age (p<0.001). Almost two-third of the surgeons, mostly senior (p=0.03) were using surgical masks as the only protective measure during various practices of OPD, ER and OT, while most of the setups were not assessing patients even for signs and symptoms of COVID. Almost 89% of the orthopaedic community is facing definite to mild stress during this pandemic and this has significantly affected the senior surgeons (p=0.01).

    Conclusion: Our study highlighted that COVID-19 has resulted in marked changes to the practices of the majority of Pakistani orthopaedic surgeons. Despite a sharp upsurge in the number of cases and mortality due to COVID-19, guidelines were still lacking at most of the settings and a substantial percentage of the orthopaedic community were not following adequate safety measures while attending to patients.

  11. Loo GH, Wan Mat WR, Muhammad R, Azman M
    BMJ Case Rep, 2019 Aug 04;12(8).
    PMID: 31383679 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2019-229763
    Acute airway obstruction in pregnancy remains a challenge to manage. Failure of appropriate and timely airway management may lead to maternal morbidity and mortality such as aspiration pneumonitis or worst hypoxaemic cardiopulmonary arrest. 1 As pregnancy may exacerbate asthma attacks, parturient presenting with wheezing or shortness of breath will commonly be treated as suffering from an asthmatic attack. 2 However, it is important to note other possible differential diagnoses. Thyroid disease is relatively common in women of childbearing age. The thyroid gland undergoes several changes during pregnancy, which may lead to altered function as well as gland enlargement and cause upper airway obstruction and symptoms similar to a bronchial asthma attack. 3 4 With that in mind, we report a case of a parturient with long-standing goitre in her second trimester who presented to our institution with acute respiratory symptoms and cardiopulmonary arrest.
  12. Wong YP, Affandi KA, Tan GC, Muhammad R
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2017 9 25;60(3):430-432.
    PMID: 28937391 DOI: 10.4103/IJPM.IJPM_287_16
    Metastatic disease involving the thyroid gland is uncommon. Solitary thyroid metastases from various primary sites particularly kidney, lung, and breast had been previously described. To the best of our knowledge, metastases from two topographically separate primary malignancies to the thyroid have never been documented hitherto. This is the first reported case of cancer-to-cancer metastasis involving an invasive breast carcinoma metastasized within a metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the nonneoplastic thyroid in a 58-year-old woman. Distinguishing a secondary thyroid metastases from a primary thyroid malignancy is utmost crucial as treatment differs. The possibility of tumor metastases from two separated primaries should always be considered in a tumor exhibiting malignant cell populations with two distinctive histomorphological appearances. The role of immunohistochemistry stains in equivocal cases cannot be overemphasized.
  13. Hassan MR, Pani SP, Peng NP, Voralu K, Vijayalakshmi N, Mehanderkar R, et al.
    BMC Infect Dis, 2010;10:302.
    PMID: 20964837 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-302
    Melioidosis, a severe and fatal infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is believed to an emerging global threat. However, data on the natural history, risk factors, and geographic epidemiology of the disease are still limited.
  14. Muhammad R, Johann KF, Saladina JJ, Mohd Latar NH, Niza ASS
    Med J Malaysia, 2013 Jun;68(3):204-7.
    PMID: 23749007 MyJurnal
    Treatment for breast cancer has improved dramatically over the decades. Nevertheless, modified radical mastectomy with axillary dissection remains the standard treatment for most patients, especially those with big tumours. The conventional technology is to use diathermy to cut and coagulate blood vessels. The Ultracision dissector has been widely used in laparoscopic surgery and is documented to be safe and fast for cutting and coagulating tissue. The aim of this study is to compare ultracision to electrocautery, looking in terms of amount of post operative drainage, duration of drain days, seroma formation and other complications.
  15. Sulaiman S, Shahril MR, Shaharudin SH, Emran NA, Muhammad R, Ismail F, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2011;12(9):2167-78.
    PMID: 22296351
    BACKGROUND: Fat intake has been shown to play a role in the etiology of breast cancer, but the findings have been inconsistent.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risk with fat and fat subtypes intake.

    METHODOLOGY: This is a population based case-control study conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from January 2006 to December 2007. Food intake pattern was collected from 382 breast cancer patients and 382 control group via an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and a broad range of potential confounders was included in analysis.

    RESULTS: This study showed that both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risk did not increase significantly with greater intake of total fat [quartile (Q) 4 versus Q1 OR=0.76, 95% CI, 0.23-2.45 and OR=1.36, 95% CI, 0.30-3.12], saturated fat (ORQ4 to Q1=1.43, 95% CI, 0.51-3.98 and ORQ4 to Q1=1.75, 95% CI, 0.62-3.40), monounsaturated fat (ORQ4 to Q1=0.96, 95% CI, 0.34-1.72 and ORQ4 to Q1=1.74, 95% CI, 0.22-2.79), polyunsaturated fat (ORQ4 to Q1=0.64, 95% CI, 0.23-1.73 and ORQ4 to Q1=0.74, 95% CI, 0.39-1.81), n-3 polyunsaturated fat (ORQ4 to Q1=1.10, 95% CI, 0.49-2.48 and ORQ4 to Q1=0.78, 95% CI, 0.28-2.18), n-6 polyunsaturated fat (ORQ4 to Q1=0.67, 95% CI, 0.24-1.84 and ORQ4 to Q1=0.71, 95% CI, 0.29-1.04) or energy intake (ORQ4 to Q1=1.52, 95% CI, 0.68-3.38 and ORQ4 to Q1=2.21, 95% CI, 0.93-3.36).

    CONCLUSION: Total fat and fat subtypes were not associated with pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk after controlling for age, other breast cancer risk factors and energy intake. Despite the lack of association, the effects of total fat and fat subtypes intake during premenopausal years towards postmenopausal breast cancer risk still warrant investigation.

  16. Bong PN, Zakaria Z, Muhammad R, Abdullah N, Ibrahim N, Emran NA, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2010 Dec;32(2):117-22.
    PMID: 21329183 MyJurnal
    The GATA3 gene is a potential tumour marker and putative tumour suppressor gene in breast cancer. Its expression is associated with better prognosis and disease free survival in breast cancer patients. We aimed to evaluate GATA3 transcriptome expression and mutation in breast carcinomas and correlate its expression with oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), lymph node (LN) status, tumour grade and c-erbB-2 expression. Twenty-two breast infiltrating ductal carcinomas and paired normal tissues were used in Branch DNA assay to detect GATA3 mRNA expression. Normalized data for GATA3 mRNA expression were grouped according to the ER, PR and LN status, tumour grade and c-erbB-2 expression of the tumours. Statistical significance was tested using t-test and ANOVA at 95% confidence interval level. Mutational analysis of GATA3 was performed by direct sequencing of the coding regions of GATA3 mRNA. Our findings showed that GATA3 gene were over-expressed and under-expressed by > 2 fold change in 12 and 4 tested samples, respectively. Eighty per cent of ER positive breast carcinomas were GATA3 positive. There was a statistically significant correlation between GATA3 expression and ER at 95% confidence interval level between the study groups. On the contrary, GATA3 expression was not statistically significant with PR, LN, tumour grade and c-erbB-2 expression in our study. In addition, we observed that there was no mutation in mRNA coding region in 16 breast carcinomas that showed GATA3 differential gene expression. Our preliminary results suggested that GATA3 is linked to the ER. This scenario suggests that GATA3 may play a crucial role in oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients. Whether GATA3 expression is involved in regulating tumour cell growth in oestrogen responsive breast cancer is a key question that remains to be answered.
  17. Hamid HA, Gee KY, Muhammad R, Abd Rahman ZA, Das S
    Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove), 2009;52(1):19-22.
    PMID: 19754003
    Dural metastasis is a rare entity in clinical practice. We report a case of dural metastasis secondary to thyroid carcinoma, which on both preoperative CT and MRI and at surgery had the typical appearance of a meningioma. Histopathological findings confirmed metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma as a primary site. Although rare, dural metastases can mimic a meningioma. Our experience in this case has led us to consider metastasis as a differential diagnosis even when a meningioma is suspected. We believe that reporting of the case of dural metastasis mimicking a meningioma may help clinicians in future.
  18. Munawer NH, Md Zin R, Md Ali SA, Muhammad R, Ali J, Das S
    Biomed J, 2012 Nov-Dec;35(6):486-92.
    PMID: 23442362 DOI: 10.4103/2319-4170.104414
    Fibroadenomas (FA) are common while phyllodes tumors (PT) are rare and both tumors are composed of epithelial and stromal components. We evaluated the expression status of ER, Bc12, p53, and MIB-1 protein in these tumors.
  19. Mutalib NS, Yusof AM, Mokhtar NM, Harun R, Muhammad R, Jamal R
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2016;17(1):25-35.
    PMID: 26838219
    Lymph node metastasis (LNM) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has been shown to be associated with increased risk of locoregional recurrence, poor prognosis and decreased survival, especially in older patients. Hence, there is a need for a reliable biomarker for the prediction of LNM in this cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene translation or degradation and play key roles in numerous cellular functions including cell-cycle regulation, differentiation, apoptosis, invasion and migration. Various studies have demonstrated deregulation of miRNA levels in many diseases including cancers. While a large number of miRNAs have been identified from PTCs using various means, association of miRNAs with LNM in such cases is still controversial. Furthermore, studies linking most of the identified miRNAs to the mechanism of LNM have not been well documented. The aim of this review is to update readers on the current knowledge of miRNAs in relation to LNM in PTC.
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