Objective: This study investigated the effects of prophylactic administration of zerumbone on allodynia and hyperalgesia in a mouse model of chronic constriction injury (CCI)-induced neuropathic pain.
Methods: Intraperitoneal administration of Zer (5-50 mg/kg) from day 1 post-surgery was carried out to identify the onset and progression of the pain condition. Responses toward mechanical and cold allodynia, and mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia were assessed on days 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 14 post-surgery. Blood plasma and spinal cord levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-10 were screened using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on day 15.
Results: Zer (10 and 50 mg/kg) attenuated pain symptoms on all days of behavioral testing without any signs of sedation in the rotarod test. ED50 values for mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia, and mechanical hyperalgesia were 9.25, 9.507, 8.289, and 9.801 mg/kg, respectively. Blood plasma and spinal levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α but not IL-10 were significantly (p<0.05) suppressed by zer treatment.
Discussion and conclusion: Zer exhibits its antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic properties via reduced sensitization at nociceptor neurons possibly through the suppression of inflammatory mediators. Zer may prove to be a novel and beneficial alternative for the management of neuropathic pain.
Methods: Open field tests, elevated plus maze and Morris water maze were performed to assess general locomotor activity, anxiety-like behaviours and learning and memory processes respectively in rats pretreated with scopolamine.
Results: Scopolamine-treated rats showed high total activity, stereotype, and total distance travelled in the open field arena, reduced number of entries to open arms, decreased the percentage of time spent in open arms and higher escape latency time in the Morris water maze test. Interestingly, single administration of zerumbone (1 and 10 mg/kg) reversed the hyperactivity, anxiety-like behaviours, and learning impairment effects of scopolamine in the three experimental model studied respectively.
Discussion: Our findings demonstrated that the scopolamine-induced impairment of learning and memory was reversed by the administration of zerumbone. As a conclusion, our findings presented the positive effects of zerumbone on dementia-like behaviours in the animal model used and could possibly contribute for future research to manage hyperactivity, anxiety, and learning disabilities.