Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 57 in total

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  1. Shahar S, Earland J, Rahman SA
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2000 Jun;9(2):122-9.
    PMID: 24394398
    A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out on 350 elderly Malays aged 60 and above from 11 randomly selected villages in a rural area on the east coast of Malaysia. The findings indicated that the mean intakes of energy and of all of the nutrients investigated were below the Malaysian Recommended Dietary Allowances, except for protein and vitamin C. With respect to dietary habits, almost all of the subjects reported that they had breakfast (99.3%), lunch (97.9%) and dinner (90.4%) daily or almost daily (5-6 times/week). However, approximately half of the subjects, especially women, had particular beliefs and prohibitions about specific foods. Most of the subjects usually ate their meals at home, particularly dinner, with 99.3% always having dinner in their own home. Thus, although the rural elderly Malays studied had regular meal intakes, the dietary intake was inadequate. There is a need to plan community-based intervention programmes in order to prevent the subsequent consequences of malnutrition that lead to increased morbidity and mortality.
  2. Othman NH, Rahman SA
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1990 Dec;45(4):275-80.
    PMID: 2152046
    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX), a rare inherited lipid storage disease is due to a defect in bile acid metabolism. Involvement of five members of a family is presented. The clinical features, laboratory and pathologic findings are discussed. Tendinous and tuberous xanthomatosis, bilateral cataracts, cerebral impairment and raised serum cholestanol are the salient features. We believe this is the first report of CTX in Malaysia.
  3. Qian G, Rahman SA, Goh BT
    Nanoscale Res Lett, 2015 Dec;10(1):980.
    PMID: 26100555 DOI: 10.1186/s11671-015-0980-6
    Ni-catalyzed Si-based heterostructure nanowires grown on crystal Si substrates by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) were studied. The nanowires which included NiSi nanowires, NiSi/Si core-shell nanowires, and NiSi/SiC core-shell nanowires were grown by varying the filament temperature T f from 1150 to 1850 °C. At a T f of 1450 °C, the heterostructure nanowires were formed by crystalline NiSi and crystalline Si that were attributed to the core and shell of the nanowires, respectively. The morphology of the nanowires showed significant changes with the increase in the filament temperature to 1850 °C. Moreover, the effect of hydrogen heat transfer from the filament temperature demonstrated significant phase changes from NiSi to Ni2Si with increase in the filament temperature. The increased filament temperature also enhanced reactions in the gas phase thus generating more SiC clusters and consequently formed the NiSi/SiC heterostructure core-shell nanowires at T f of 1850 °C. This paper discusses the role of filament temperatures on the growth and constituted phase change of the nanowires as well as their electrical characteristics.
  4. Yew CC, Rahman SA, Alam MK
    BMC Pediatr, 2015;15:169.
    PMID: 26546159 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-015-0495-4
    The Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) ankylosis in child is rare and yet the causes still remain unclear. This condition that affects the feeding and possible airway obstruction do not only worry the parents, but also possesses as a great challenge to the surgeons. Furthermore, it interferes with the facial skeletal and dento-alveolar development in the on growing child.
  5. Eshkoor S, Ismail P, Rahman S, Moin S, Adon M
    Balkan J. Med. Genet., 2013 Dec;16(2):45-52.
    PMID: 24778563 DOI: 10.2478/bjmg-2013-0031
    The ageing process is influenced by many internal and external factors. The toxic substances in the environment can cause genomic damages to cells, which increase the risk of early ageing. Furthermore, the cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) gene polymorphism is a susceptibility factor and may enhance the risk of DNA damage in cells. The current study was carried out to show whether occupational exposure could cause genotoxicity in cells carrying the CYP1A2 gene polymorphism, thus enhancing the likelihood of early ageing. This study was conducted on mechanical workshop workers and a control group by collecting buccal cells from their mouths. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) was used to identify the CYP1A2 gene polymorphism in the cells. In addition, three extra methods including micronuclei (MN) test, comet assay and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) were applied to determine the effects of gene polymorphisms on DNA damage and ageing from occupational exposure. The results showed that DNA damage in the cells carrying the mutated genotype was higher than the wild genotype. In addition, the difference in MN frequency (p = 0.001) and relative telomere length (p = 0.002) between workers and controls was significant (p <0.05) in the mutated genotype. The findings indicated a possible protective effect of gene polymorphism against early ageing, which was characterized by lack of a significant influence of CYP1A2 gene polymorphism on genetic material in the subjects (p >0.05). It was concluded that the CYP1A2 gene could be a contributing factor to prevent early ageing from occupational exposure.
  6. Shahar S, Earland J, Powers HJ, Rahman SA
    Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 1999 Jul;69(4):277-84.
    PMID: 10450534
    A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out on 350 elderly Malays aged 60 and above from 11 randomly selected villages in a rural area on the East Coast of Malaysia. The findings indicated that the mean intakes of energy and all of the nutrients investigated were below the Malaysian Recommended Dietary Allowances, excepts for protein and vitamin C. Nutrients most likely to be inadequate were vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and calcium, with more than 50% of the subjects having estimated intakes of below 2/3 of the recommendations. However, vitamin A status was adequate, with only 2 subjects being biochemically deficient (plasma retinol < or = 0.7 mmol/l). Approximately a third of the subjects had hypoalbuminaemia (plasma albumin < 3.3 g/dl) and anaemia (Haemoglobin < 12 g/dl for men; < 13 g/dl for women). Riboflavin deficiency, as assessed by an erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient (EGRAC) of more than 1.35 was identified in 77% of the subjects. The prevalence of vitamin E deficiency (plasma a-tocopherol < or = 12 mmol/l) was 27%, with men being at a greater risk. In conclusion, the dietary intakes of these rural elderly Malays was inadequate. Over three quarters of the sample were biochemically deficient in riboflavin, the functional consequences of which need to be further investigated.
  7. Yew CC, Alam MK, Rahman SA
    PMID: 27619027 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2016.07.026
    OBJECTIVES: This study is to evaluate the dental arch relationship and palatal morphology of unilateral cleft lip and palate patients by using EUROCRAN index, and to assess the factors that affect them using multivariate statistical analysis.

    METHOD: A total of one hundred and seven patients from age five to twelve years old with non-syndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate were included in the study. These patients have received cheiloplasty and one stage palatoplasty surgery but yet to receive alveolar bone grafting procedure. Five assessors trained in the use of the EUROCRAN index underwent calibration exercise and ranked the dental arch relationships and palatal morphology of the patients' study models. For intra-rater agreement, the examiners scored the models twice, with two weeks interval in between sessions. Variable factors of the patients were collected and they included gender, site, type and, family history of unilateral cleft lip and palate; absence of lateral incisor on cleft side, cheiloplasty and palatoplasty technique used. Associations between various factors and dental arch relationships were assessed using logistic regression analysis.

    RESULT: Dental arch relationship among unilateral cleft lip and palate in local population had relatively worse scoring than other parts of the world. Crude logistics regression analysis did not demonstrate any significant associations among the various socio-demographic factors, cheiloplasty and palatoplasty techniques used with the dental arch relationship outcome.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study has limitations that might have affected the results, example: having multiple operators performing the surgeries and the inability to access the influence of underlying genetic predisposed cranio-facial variability. These may have substantial influence on the treatment outcome. The factors that can affect unilateral cleft lip and palate treatment outcome is multifactorial in nature and remained controversial in general.

  8. Sujon MK, Alam MK, Rahman SA
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(8):e0162070.
    PMID: 27580050 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162070
    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of third molar agenesis and other associated dental anomalies in Bangladeshi population and to investigate the relationship of other dental anomalies with the third molar presence/agenesis. A retrospective study was performed using panoramic radiographs of 5923 patients, who ranged in age from 10 to 50 years. All radiographs were analyzed by Planmeca Romexis® 3.0 software (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland). Pearson chi-square and one way ANOVA (Post Hoc) test were conducted. The prevalence of third molar agenesis was 38.4%. The frequency of third molar agenesis was significantly higher in females than males (p <0.025). Third molar agenesis was significantly more prevalent in maxilla as compared to mandible (p <0.007). The prevalence of other dental anomalies was 6.5%, among them hypodontia was 3.1%. Prevalence of third molar agenesis varies in different geographic region. Among the other dental anomalies hypodontia was more prevalent.
  9. Abosadegh MM, Rahman SA, Saddki N
    Dent Traumatol, 2017 Oct;33(5):369-374.
    PMID: 28504848 DOI: 10.1111/edt.12349
    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The association of traumatic head injury (THI) with maxillofacial fractures (MFF) is a major health concern worldwide. In spite of the close anatomical proximity of maxillofacial bones to the cranium, the association of THI with MFF is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the association between THI and MFF. Other factors associated with THI in patients with MFF were also investigated.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A hospital-based retrospective study was conducted at the OMFS Unit, Hospital USM, Kelantan, Malaysia. From 12 June 2013 to 31 December 2015, 473 patient records with MFF were reviewed to evaluate the association of THI and MFF.

    RESULTS: A total of 331 patients (69.98%) presented with concomitant THI. The most common associated THI were cranial bone fractures (68.6%) followed by intracranial injuries and concussion. A significant association existed between the Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score and the presence of THI concomitant MFF with P-value

  10. Yew CC, Shaari R, Rahman SA, Alam MK
    Injury, 2015 Sep;46(9):1856-9.
    PMID: 25986667 DOI: 10.1016/j.injury.2015.04.025
    White-eyed blowout fracture was first termed by Jordan et al. in individuals sustaining a blow to the periocular area and presenting with ocular symptoms, although with minimal soft tissue signs of trauma. It is often found in pure orbital floor blowout fractures among paediatric patients, and it could manifest as a linear or hinge-like trapdoor deformity. Unlike the more common open orbital blowout fractures with distinct diagnostic clinical signs, white-eyed blowout fractures are rarer and their diagnoses can be easily missed, subsequently costing an optimal time window for surgical intervention. This is critical as better outcomes are found with earlier release of entrapments. This report describes a case of a white-eyed blowout fracture in a 10-year-old child faced with its diagnostic challenges. The current literature review discusses the types of fracture pattern, signs and symptoms, mechanism of action, as well as timing of surgery. In view of the common complication of persistent diplopia, clinical pitfalls in achieving this diagnosis are emphasized to prevent any delay of treatment. Current literature evidences are weighted towards urgent surgical intervention, as positive outcomes are found to correlate with earlier release of entrapments.
  11. Uzbek UH, Rahman SA, Alam MK, Gillani SW
    J Clin Diagn Res, 2014 Dec;8(12):ZC73-6.
    PMID: 25654037 DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2014/8557.5352
    An-organic bovine bone graft is a xenograft with the potential of bone formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone density using cone beam computed tomography scans around functional endosseous implant in the region of both augmented maxillary sinus with the an-organic bovine bone graft and the alveolar bone over which the graft was placed to provide space for the implants.
  12. Rahman SA, Taghizadeh SK, Ramayah T, Ahmad NH
    Springerplus, 2015;4:810.
    PMID: 26722630 DOI: 10.1186/s40064-015-1580-8
    Service innovation management practice is currently being widely scrutinized mainly in the developed countries, where it has been initiated. The current study attempts to propose a framework and empirically validate and explain the service innovation practices for successful performance in the telecommunications industry of two developing countries, Malaysia and Bangladesh. The research framework proposes relationships among organisational culture, operating core (innovation process, cross-functional organisation, and implementation of tools/technology), competition-informed pricing, and performance. A total of 176 usable data from both countries are analysed for the purpose of the research. The findings show that organisational culture tends to be more influential on innovation process and cross-functional organisation in Malaysian telecommunication industry. In contrast, implementation of tools/technology plays a more instrumental role in competition-informed pricing practices in Bangladesh. This study revealed few differences in the innovation management practices between two developing countries. The findings have strategic implications for the service sectors in both the developing countries regarding implementation of innovative enterprises, especially in Bangladesh where innovation is the basis for survival. Testing the innovation management practices in the developing countries perhaps contains uniqueness in the field of innovation management.
  13. Eshkoor SA, Ismail P, Rahman SA, Moin S
    Arh Hig Rada Toksikol, 2011 Dec;62(4):291-8.
    PMID: 22202462 DOI: 10.2478/10004-1254-62-2011-2088
    The aim of our study was to see the effects of GSTP1 polymorphism on biomarkers of ageing, including micronuclei (MN), comet tail length, and relative telomere length in automobile repair workers, who are exposed to a broad spectrum of potential mutagens. The analysis was performed on buccal cells collected from occupationally exposed and non-exposed (control) subjects. Samples were analysed using cytogenetic and molecular methods, including restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), MN test, comet assay, and real-time PCR. The results confirmed the DNA damaging effects of substances used in the mechanical workshops, but did not confirm the influence of GSTP1 gene polymorphism on DNA damage. However, further studies on both occupationally exposed and control populations are needed to understand the relationship between GSTP1 polymorphism and genome damage.
  14. Eshkoor SA, Ismail P, Rahman SA, Oshkour SA
    Arch. Med. Res., 2008 Oct;39(7):668-73.
    PMID: 18760195 DOI: 10.1016/j.arcmed.2008.06.003
    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) develops predominantly in sun-exposed skin in fair-skinned individuals prone to sunburn. BCC typically occurs in adults. High exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation increases rate of developing BCC, a slowly growing tumor that occurs in hair-growing squamous epithelium and rarely metastasizes. In genetic studies, BCC patients have cell-cycle abnormalities of different parts of the signaling pathway. Retinoblastoma regulatory pathway is important in cell cycle arrest. In this pathway, p16INK4a, an inhibitor of Rb pathway, binds to CDK4 and CDK6 competitively with cyclin D1 to prevent phosphorylation of tumor suppressor pRB gene. Alteration of this pathway contributes to development of human cancers and also is effective in skin cancers. In this study, we analyzed mRNA expression using in situ RT-PCR and the role of immunohistochemical expression of p16INK4a in BCC.
  15. Rahman SA, Chee WS, Yassin Z, Chan SP
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2004;13(3):255-60.
    PMID: 15331337
    Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) were determined in 276 (103 Malays and 173 Chinese) postmenopausal women, aged 50 to 65 years. The level of 25 (OH) D was significantly lower in the postmenopausal Malay women (44.4 +/-10.6 nmol/L) compared to the Chinese women (68.8 +/- 15.7 nmol/L) (P<0.05). There were 27% Malay women with serum 25 (OH) D in the range of 50 - 100 nmol/L (defined as lowered vitamin D status, or hypovitaminosis D) and 71% with levels in the range of 25 - 50 nmol/L (defined as vitamin D insufficiency) compared to 87% and 11% Chinese women respectively. Serum 25 (OH) D was found to significantly correlate with BMI, fat mass and PTH level. Multivariate analyses showed that race has a strong association with vitamin D status. The high prevalence of inadequate levels of serum vitamin D found in our study may have important public health consequences and warrants the development of a strategy to correct this problem in the older adult Malaysian population.
  16. Arabi Z, Syed Abdul Rahman SA, Hazmi H, Hamdin N
    BMC Geriatr, 2016 11 30;16(1):202.
    PMID: 27903242 DOI: 10.1186/s12877-016-0384-1
    BACKGROUND: Early Dementia Questionnaire (EDQ) was developed as a screening tool to detect patients with early dementia in primary care. It was developed based on 20 symptoms of dementia. From a preliminary study, EDQ had been shown to be a promising alternative for screening of early dementia. This study was done to further test on EDQ's reliability and validity.

    METHODS: Using a systematic random sampling, 200 elderly patients attending primary health care centers in Kuching, Sarawak had consented to participate in the study and were administered the EDQ. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was used to exclude patients with depression. Those who scored >21 MMSE, were retested using the EDQ. Reliability was determined by Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency and construct validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (principle component with varimax rotation). Test retest Intraclass Correlation Coeeficient (ICC) was used to determine the reliability of the scale.

    RESULTS: The result showed that the sensitivity and specificity for EDQ was 71.2% and 59.5%. The overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient was good which was 0.874. Confirmatory factor analysis on 4 factors indicated that the Cronbach's alpha for each domain were acceptable with memory (0.741), concentration (0.764), emotional and physical symptoms (0.754) and lastly sleep and environment (0.720). The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient between the first EDQ score and the retest EDQ score among those with MMSE of >21 showed a very strong overall agreement, ICC = 0.764, N = 160, P <0.001.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results of the validation study showed that Early Dementia Questionnaire (EDQ) is a valid and reliable tool to be used as a screening tool to detect early dementia in primary care.
  17. Rahman SA, Singh J, Muthusamy R, Alam MK
    Contemp Clin Dent, 2018 6 8;9(2):319-322.
    PMID: 29875581 DOI: 10.4103/ccd.ccd_870_17
    Eagle's syndrome (ES) refers to a group of various types and patterns of pain which spans over the head-and-neck region owing to an elongated styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament. These symptoms are often confused with those attributed to a wide variety of facial neuralgias. The diagnosis of ES is usually made through clinical exclusion which is then confirmed radiographically. Patients with ES are initially managed with nonsurgical therapy, but surgical resection seems to be the treatment of choice. The styloid process shortening can be achieved through an intraoral or extraoral approach. This clinical case report describes such a case of ES after sustaining neck trauma.
  18. Rahman SA, Zainudin SR, Mun VL
    Asia Pac Fam Med, 2010;9(1):5.
    PMID: 20175928 DOI: 10.1186/1447-056X-9-5
    BACKGROUND: Menopausal symptoms can be assessed by several tools, and can be influenced by various socio-demographic factors.
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the commonly reported menopausal symptoms among Sarawakian women using a modified Menopause Rating Scale (MRS).
    METHODS: By using modified MRS questionnaire, 356 Sarawakian women aged 40-65 years were interview to document of 11 symptoms (divided into somatic, psychological and urogenital domain) commonly associated with menopause.
    RESULTS: The mean age of menopause was 51.3 years (range 47 - 56 years). The most prevalent symptoms reported were joint and muscular discomfort (80.1%); physical and mental exhaustion (67.1%); and sleeping problems (52.2%). Followed by symptoms of hot flushes and sweating (41.6%); irritability (37.9%); dryness of vagina (37.9%); anxiety (36.5%); depressive mood (32.6%). Other complaints noted were sexual problem (30.9%); bladder problem (13.8%) and heart discomfort (18.3%). Perimenopausal women (n = 141) experienced higher prevalence of somatic and psychological symptoms compared to premenopausal (n = 82) and postmenopausal (n = 133) women. However urogenital symptoms mostly occur in the postmenopausal group of women.
    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of menopausal symptoms using modified MRS in this study correspond to other studies on Asian women however the prevalence of classical menopausal symptoms of hot flushes, sweating was lower compared to studies on Caucasian women.
  19. Eshkoor SA, Ismail P, Rahman SA, Mirinargesi M, Oshkour SA
    Biosci Trends, 2009 Jun;3(3):105-9.
    PMID: 20103831
    Abnormalities of Rb-pathway components are common in the formation of cancer. The immunostaining for cyclin D1 and p16 protein was applied on 1 mm serial tissue microarray (TMA) paraffin sections. Tissue microarray (TMAs) is potentially a good method to find the molecular features of the genes and expressions of them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protein expressions of cyclin D1 and p16 genes in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of skin and compare with the normal skin tissue. Twenty-five cases of cutaneous SCCs expressed cyclin D1 and p16 proteins. All SCCs samples on the slides showed positive protein expressions of cyclin D1 and p16 genes. Our findings suggested that the increased protein expressions of cyclin D1 and p16 genes might lead to aberrant expressions of these proteins in the affected tumor cells. This study demonstrated that cell cycle controlled deregulation and uncontrolled cell cycle progression might result in the carcinogenesis.
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