RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have been focused on the interactions of mitragynine, the most abundant alkaloid, and opioid-like effects. This has been driven by the harm that kratom products have produced in the Western world, in stark contrast to the lack of harm in Southeast Asian traditional use over centuries. Many users in the Western world ingest kratom for mood enhancement and/or to ween themselves from prescription or illicit opioids. Highly concentrated products and recreational use and misuse have resulted in individuals pushing doses to levels that have not been imagined or ever studied in animal, let alone humans.
SUMMARY: Kratom, as a preparation and how it is utilized is different around the world.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats received three doses of mitragynine (1, 10, 100mg/kg, p.o) for 28 days respectively. Food intake and relative body weight were measured during the experiment. After completion of drug treatment biochemical, hematological, and histological analyses were performed.
RESULTS: No mortality was observed in any of the treatment groups. The groups of rats treated with the lower and intermediate doses showed no toxic effects during the study. However, the relative body weight of the group of female rats treated with the 100mg/kg dose was decreased significantly. Food intake also tended to decrease in the same group. Only relative liver weight increased after treatment with the high dose of mitragynine (100mg/ kg) in both the male and female treatment groups of rats. Biochemical and hematological parameters were also altered especially in high dose treatment group which corresponds to the histopathological changes.
CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated that mitragynine is relatively safe at lower sub-chronic doses (1-10mg/kg) but exhibited toxicity at a highest dose (sub-chronic 28 days: 100mg/kg). This was confirmed by liver, kidney, and brain histopathological changes, as well as hematological and biochemical changes.
AIM OF THE STUDY: However, there are no scientific reports documented on the wound healing activities of this plant against Staphylococcus aureus infections in the Sprague Dawley male rat model. Thus, the present study was conducted to evaluate the wound healing potential of E. guineensis extract leaves.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The crude extract was prepared in 10% (w/w) ointment and evaluated for wound healing activity using excision and infected wound models in Sprague Dawley rats. The wound healing activity was evaluated from wound closure rate, CFU reduction, histological analysis of granulation tissue and matrix metalloprotease expression.
RESULTS: The results show that the E. guineensis extract has potent wound healing ability, as manifest from improved wound closure and tissue regeneration supported by histopathological parameters. Assessment of granulation tissue every fourth day showed a significant reduction in the microbial count. The expression of matrix metalloproteinases was well correlated with the other results, hence confirming E. guineensis wound healing activity's effectiveness.
CONCLUSIONS: E. guineensis enhanced infected wound healing in rats, thus supporting its traditional use.
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