Alkylphenols and most pesticides, especially organochlorine pesticides are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and they usually mimic the female hormone, estrogen. Using these chemicals in our environment would eventually lead us to consume them somehow in the food web. Several rivers in the State of Selangor, Malaysia were selected to monitor the level of alkylphenols and pesticides contamination for several months. The compounds were extracted from the water samples using liquid-liquid extraction method with dichloromethane and ethyl acetate as the extracting solvents. The alkylphenols and pesticides were analyzed by selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode using the quadrapole detector in Shimadzu QP-5000 gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GCMS). Recovery of most alkylphenols and pesticides were in the range of 50% to 120%. Trace amounts of the compounds were detected in the river water samples, mainly in the range of parts per trillion. This technique of monitoring the levels of endocrine-disruptors in river water is consistent and cost effective.
Surgery induces a 'stress' state leading to post-operative hyperglycaemia. To investigate this effect on patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, we reviewed the records of 50 diabetic patients who underwent surgery without intraoperative insulin. Demographic features together with pre-operative and post-operative blood glucose readings were noted. 27.3% of patients with well controlled pre-operative blood glucose levels developed post-operative hyperglycaemia. In contrast, 84.6% of patients with poorly controlled levels developed the same. Poor control of blood glucose and duration of operation were the only significant predictors of post-operative hyperglycaemia.
Bisphenol A is the monomer used in the manufacture of polycarbonate. Bisphenol A is also known to mimic the female hormone estrogen. In this study, the possibility of the leaching of bisphenol A from polycarbonate babies' bottles and feeding teats was investigated. Bisphenol A was extracted from water samples exposed to the bottles and teats using liquid-liquid extraction. Bisphenol A was analysed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer with quadrapole detector in selected ion monitoring mode. Mean leaching of bisphenol A from 100 used babies' bottles when filled with water at 25 degrees C and 80 degrees C were 0.71 +/- 1.65 ng/cm2 (mean +/- standard deviation) and 3.37 +/- 5.68 ng/cm2 respectively. Mean leaching of bisphenol A from 30 new babies' bottles when filled with water at 25 degrees C and 80 degrees C were 0.03 +/- 0.02 ng/cm2 and 0.18 degrees 0.30 ng/cm2 respectively. Bisphenol A was observed to have leached from babies' feeding teats into 37 degrees C water ranged from non-detectable to 22.86 ng/g. The technique employed in this study is fast, reliable and economical.
Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen (Family: Sapotaceae), commonly called as sapodilla, has been applied as traditional folk medicine for diarrhea and pulmonary infections. Conventional therapy in colorectal cancer is not likely effective due to undesirable outcomes. The anti-colon cancer properties of Manilkara zapota leaf water extract have yet to be investigated thus far. Therefore, our present study aimed to evaluate the ability to induce apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms of Manilkara zapota leaf water extract against human colorectal cancer (HT-29) cells. The cytotoxicity of Manilkara zapota leaf water extract was screened in different cancer cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) analyses. The morphological changes in HT-29 cell lines after exposure to Manilkara zapota leaf water extract were viewed under fluorescence and inverted light microscope. The apoptotic cell was measured by Annexin V-propidium iodide staining. The caspase-3 and -8 activities were assessed by colorimetric assay. Overall analyses revealed that treatment with Manilkara zapota leaf water extract for 72 h can inhibit the viability of HT-29 cells. Incubation with Manilkara zapota leaf water extract for 24, 48, and 72 h significantly increased (p < 0.05) the total apoptotic cells compared to the control. Treatment with 21, 42, and 84 μg/mL of Manilkara zapota leaf water extract for 72 h triggered both caspase-3 and -8 activities in a concentration-dependent pattern. We also found that the catalase level in the two treatment groups (21 and 42 μg/mL) was significantly elevated after 24 h incubation. Incubation with Manilkara zapota leaf water extract for 72 h triggered the transcriptional elevation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), AXIN1, and casein kinase 1 (CK1). The β-catenin mRNA levels were reduced accordingly when the concentration of the Manilkara zapota leaf water extract was increased. Our results suggested that Manilkara zapota leaf water extract offer great potential against colorectal cancer through modulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, caspase-dependent pathway, and antioxidant enzyme.
Many chemotherapeutic drugs have been used for the treatment of cancer, for instance, doxorubicin, irinotecan, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and paclitaxel. However, the effectiveness of chemotherapy is limited in cancer therapy due to drug resistance, therapeutic selectivity, and undesirable side effects. The combination of therapies with natural compounds is likely to increase the effectiveness of drug treatment as well as reduce the adverse outcomes. Curcumin, a polyphenolic isolated from Curcuma longa, belongs to the rhizome of Zingiberaceae plants. Studies from in vitro and in vivo revealed that curcumin exerts many pharmacological activities with less toxic effects. The biological mechanisms underlying the anticancer activity of co-treatment curcumin and chemotherapy are complex and worth to discuss further. Therefore, this review aimed to address the molecular mechanisms of combined curcumin and chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer. The anticancer activity of combined nanoformulation of curcumin and chemotherapy was also discussed in this study. Taken together, a better understanding of the implication and underlying mechanisms of action of combined curcumin and chemotherapy may provide a useful approach to combat cancer diseases.
Prostate cancer has become the second leading cancer in men worldwide. Androgen plays an important role in normal functioning, development, and differentiation of the prostate, and thus is considered to be the most powerful candidate that mediates reactive oxygen species (ROS) balance in the prostate. The elevation of ROS has been associated with the progression and development of this disease. Conventional therapy has shown a high cure rate in patients with localized prostate cancer. Despite the patients respond favorably initially, this therapy fails to response in the advanced stage of the diseases even in the absence of androgens. Indeed, the onset and progression of prostate cancer could be prevented by changing dietary habits. Much information indicates that oxidative stress and prostate cancer can be modulated by dietary components rich in antioxidants. While there is substantial evidence to suggest an association between prostate cancer risk and ROS-mediated oxidative stress; therefore, the interactions and mechanisms of this phenomenon are worth to discuss further. This review aimed to discuss the mechanisms of action of oxidative stress involved in the progression of prostate cancer. We also highlighted how some of the vital dietary components dampen or exacerbate inflammation, oxidative stress, and prostate cancer. Overall, the reported information would provide a useful approach to the prevention of prostate cancer.
Cancer is a significant global health concern affecting men and women worldwide. Although current chemopreventive drugs could inhibit the growth of cancer cells, they exert many adverse side effects. Dietary factor plays a crucial role in the management of cancers and has drawn the attention of researchers to be used as an option to combat this disease. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that rice and its by-products display encouraging results in the prevention of this disease. The mechanism of anticancer effect is suggested partly through potentiation of bioactive compounds like vitamin E, phytic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), γ-oryzanol, and phenolics. Nevertheless, the bioactivity of rice and its by-products is still incompletely understood. In this review, we present the findings from a preclinical study both in in vitro and in animal experiments on the promising role of rice by-products with focus on cancer prevention.
Cognitive dysfunction is linked to chronic low-grade inflammatory stress that contributes to cell-mediated immunity in creating an oxidative environment. Food is a vitally important energy source; it affects brain function and provides direct energy. Several studies have indicated that high-fat consumption causes overproduction of circulating free fatty acids and systemic inflammation. Immune cells, free fatty acids, and circulating cytokines reach the hypothalamus and initiate local inflammation through processes such as microglial proliferation. Therefore, the role of high-fat diet (HFD) in promoting oxidative stress and neurodegeneration is worthy of further discussion. Of particular interest in this article, we highlight the associations and molecular mechanisms of HFD in the modulation of inflammation and cognitive deficits. Taken together, a better understanding of the role of oxidative stress in cognitive impairment following HFD consumption would provide a useful approach for the prevention of cognitive dysfunction.
Despite an increase in life expectancy that indicates positive human development, a new challenge is arising. Aging is positively associated with biological and cognitive degeneration, for instance cognitive decline, psychological impairment, and physical frailty. The elderly population is prone to oxidative stress due to the inefficiency of their endogenous antioxidant systems. As many studies showed an inverse relationship between carotenoids and age-related diseases (ARD) by reducing oxidative stress through interrupting the propagation of free radicals, carotenoid has been foreseen as a potential intervention for age-associated pathologies. Therefore, the role of carotenoids that counteract oxidative stress and promote healthy aging is worthy of further discussion. In this review, we discussed the underlying mechanisms of carotenoids involved in the prevention of ARD. Collectively, understanding the role of carotenoids in ARD would provide insights into a potential intervention that may affect the aging process, and subsequently promote healthy longevity.
A total of seven pesticides and eight alkylphenols were monitored using this method for the determination of their trace levels in human cord blood. The pesticides are lindane, diazinon, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate, chlorpyrifos and endrin; while the alkylphenols are 4-n-butylphenol, 4-n-pentylphenol, 4-n-hexylphenol, 4-t-octylphenol, 4-n-heptylphenol, nonylphenol, 4-n-octylphenol and bisphenol A. The pesticides and alkylphenols in the cord blood samples were extracted with solid phase extraction IST C18 cartridges and analyzed by selected ion monitoring mode using quadrapole detector in Shimadzu QP-5000 gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Trace levels of pesticide and alkylphenols in the range of non-detectable to 15.17 ng ml(-1), were detected in the human cord blood samples. This technique of monitoring the levels of endocrine-disruptors in blood samples is consistent, reliable and cost effective while reducing wastage of time and solvents.
Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are among the most useful metal nanoparticles in biomedical applications. A previous study had confirmed that phytic acid-chitosan-iron oxide nanocomposite (Phy-CS-MNP) exhibited antiproliferative activity towards human colorectal cancer (HT-29) cells. Hence, in this work, we explored the in vitro cytotoxicity activity and mechanistic action of Phy-CS-MNP nanocomposite in modulating gene and protein expression profiles in HT-29 cell lines. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were evaluated by NovoCyte Flow Cytometer. The mRNA changes (cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9)) and protein expression (nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and cytochrome c) were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting, respectively. The data from our study demonstrated that treatment with Phy-CS-MNP nanocomposite triggered apoptosis and G₀/G₁ cell cycle arrest. The transcriptional activity of JNK1 and iNOS was upregulated after treatment with 90 μg/mL Phy-CS-MNP nanocomposite. Our results suggested that Phy-CS-MNP nanocomposite induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest via an intrinsic mitochondrial pathway through modulation of Bax and Bcl-2 and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol.
This study was conducted to compare the bioavailability of two controlled-release metformin preparations (Diabetmin Retard and Glucophage Retard) and also to correlate the in vitro and in vivo data obtained with the two preparations. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in the study, conducted according to a completely randomized, two-way crossover design. The preparations were compared using area under the plasma concentration-time curve AUC0-infinity, time to reach peak plasma concentration Tmax, and peak plasma concentration Cmax, while correlation was determined between in vitro release and in vivo absorption. Diabetmin Retard demonstrated a slower rate of in vitro release, but a faster rate of in vivo absorption than Glucophage Retard. However, the in vivo absorption of both products was found to be slower than that of drug released in vitro. A satisfactory relationship could be established between the in vitro and in vivo results, but there was no rank order correlation. No statistically significant difference was observed between the two preparations in the parameters AUC0-infinity and Cmax. However, a slight but statistically significant difference was observed between the Tmax values, but it may not be therapeutically significant. Moreover, the 90% confidence interval for the ratio of the logarithmic transformed AUC0-infinity values, as well as the logarithmic transformed Cmax values, of Diabetmin Retard over those of Glucophage Retard was within the acceptance criteria of 0.80-1.25.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a principal food for more than half of the world's people. Rice is predominantly consumed as white rice, a refined grain that is produced during the rice milling process which removes the bran and germ and leaves the starchy endosperm. Rice bran is a by-product produced from the rice milling process, which contains many bioactive compounds, for instance, phenolic compounds, tocotrienols, tocopherols, and γ-oryzanol. These bioactive compounds are thought to protect against cancer, vascular disease, and type 2 diabetes. Extraction of rice bran oil also generates various by-products including rice bran wax, defatted rice bran, filtered cake, and rice acid oil, and some of them exert bioactive substances that could be utilized as functional food ingredients. However, rice bran is often utilized as animal feed or discarded as waste. Therefore, this review aimed to discuss the role of rice bran in metabolic ailments. The bioactive constituents and food product application of rice bran were also highlighted in this study. Collectively, a better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism and the role of these bioactive compounds exerted in the rice bran would provide a useful approach for the food industry and prevent metabolic ailments.
Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen, called sapodilla, or locally known as ciku, belongs to the family Sapotaceae. We found that Manilkara zapota leaf water extract has cytotoxic effect against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line in our earlier study. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the anticancer properties of Manilkara zapota leaf water extract in HepG2 cells. We also aimed to unravel yet undiscovered mechanisms and identified several expressed genes whose functions in cytotoxicity activity of Manilkara zapota leaf water extract in HepG2 cells have not been well-studied. The apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) activities were analyzed using Annexin V-propidium iodide staining and dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, respectively, by NovoCyte Flow Cytometer. Bax and Bcl-2 expression were assessed using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The associated molecular pathways were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Overall analyses revealed that Manilkara zapota leaf water extract can increase percentage of early apoptotic cells, induce the formation of ROS, upregulate c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and reduce Akt1 and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) transcriptional activities. Our data suggest that Manilkara zapota leaf water extract can suppress the growth of HepG2 cells via modulation of ERK1/2/Akt1/JNK1 transcriptional expression.
Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen (family: Sapotaceae) is commonly called sapodilla, or locally known as ciku. The detailed mechanisms underlying Manilkara zapota leaf methanol extract against HeLa human cervical cancer cells have yet to be investigated. Therefore, our present study is designed to investigate the ability to induce apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms of Manilkara zapota leaf methanol extract inducing cytotoxicity in HeLa cells. The apoptotic cell death was assessed using Annexin V-propidium iodide staining. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential activities were measured using dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and MitoLite Orange, respectively, by NovoCyte Flow Cytometer. Bax and Bcl-2 expression were evaluated using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Caspase-3 activity was determined using a colorimetric assay. The associated biological interaction pathways were evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR. Our data showed that HeLa cells were relatively more sensitive to Manilkara zapota leaf methanol extract than other cancer cell lines studied. Overall analyses revealed that Manilkara zapota leaf methanol extract can inhibit the viability of HeLa cells, induce mitochondrial ROS generation, and inhibit nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transcriptional activities. Our results suggested that Manilkara zapota leaf methanol extract might represent a potential anticervical cancer agent.
Brewers' rice, which is known locally as temukut, is a mixture of broken rice, rice bran, and rice germ. Our present study was designed to identify the effect of brewers' rice on the attenuation of liver and kidney damage induced by azoxymethane (AOM). Alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), creatinine, and urea were evaluated to understand potential hepatoprotective effects and the ability of brewers' rice to attenuate kidney pathology induced by AOM treatment. Liver and kidney tissues were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Overall analyses revealed that brewers' rice improved the levels of serum markers in a manner associated with better histopathological outcomes, which indicated that brewers' rice could enhance recovery from hepatocyte and kidney damage. Taken together, these results suggest that brewers' rice could be used in future applications to combat liver and kidney disease.
Brewers' rice, a mixture of broken rice, rice bran, and rice germ, is a rice by-product in the rice industry. The present study was designed to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity of the water extract of brewers' rice (WBR) against colorectal cancer (HT-29) cells.
The effects of bisphenol A and nonylphenol on pubertal development in the intact juvenile/peripubertal male Sprague-Dawley rats was observed in this study from PND23-52/53. Two groups of rats were administered orally with either 100 mg/kg body weight of nonylphenol or bisphenol A. Another group of rats were administered orally with a mixture of 100 mg/kg body weight of nonylphenol and bisphenol A. Control group was administered with the vehicle of Tween-80 with corn oil (1:9 v/v). Observations made in this study included growth, age at preputial separation, thyroid, liver, testis and kidney weight and histology, epididymal and seminal vesicle plus coagulation gland weight. Nonylphenol and bisphenol A have been observed to cause delay in puberty onset as well as testicular damage in the treatment groups when compared to the control; spermatogenesis was affected in most treated rats. Bisphenol A also caused the enlargement of the kidney and hydronephrosis. Administration of nonylphenol and bisphenol A as a mixture has caused less than additive effects.
There are different types of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress sources that trigger inflammation. Much information indicates that high intakes of macronutrients can promote oxidative stress and subsequently contribute to inflammation via nuclear factor-kappa B- (NF-κB-) mediated cell signaling pathways. Dietary carbohydrates, animal-based proteins, and fats are important to highlight here because they may contribute to the long-term consequences of nutritionally mediated inflammation. Oxidative stress is a central player of metabolic ailments associated with high-carbohydrate and animal-based protein diets and excessive fat consumption. Obesity has become an epidemic and represents the major risk factor for several chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress are complex and poorly understood. Therefore, this review aimed to explore how dietary choices exacerbate or dampen the oxidative stress and inflammation. We also discussed the implications of oxidative stress in the adipocyte and glucose metabolism and obesity-associated noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Taken together, a better understanding of the role of oxidative stress in obesity and the development of obesity-related NCDs would provide a useful approach. This is because oxidative stress can be mediated by both extrinsic and intrinsic factors, hence providing a plausible means for the prevention of metabolic disorders.
Aging is the progressive loss of organ and tissue function over time. Growing older is positively linked to cognitive and biological degeneration such as physical frailty, psychological impairment, and cognitive decline. Oxidative stress is considered as an imbalance between pro- and antioxidant species, which results in molecular and cellular damage. Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development of age-related diseases. Emerging research evidence has suggested that antioxidant can control the autoxidation by interrupting the propagation of free radicals or by inhibiting the formation of free radicals and subsequently reduce oxidative stress, improve immune function, and increase healthy longevity. Indeed, oxidation damage is highly dependent on the inherited or acquired defects in enzymes involved in the redox-mediated signaling pathways. Therefore, the role of molecules with antioxidant activity that promote healthy aging and counteract oxidative stress is worth to discuss further. Of particular interest in this article, we highlighted the molecular mechanisms of antioxidants involved in the prevention of age-related diseases. Taken together, a better understanding of the role of antioxidants involved in redox modulation of inflammation would provide a useful approach for potential interventions, and subsequently promoting healthy longevity.