Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 102 in total

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  1. Tan SM, Lee SM, Dykes GA
    Foodborne Pathog. Dis., 2015 Mar;12(3):183-9.
    PMID: 25562466 DOI: 10.1089/fpd.2014.1853
    Weak organic acids are widely used as preservatives and disinfectants in the food industry. Despite their widespread use, the antimicrobial mode of action of organic acids is still not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of acetic acid on the cell membranes and cellular energy generation of four Salmonella strains. Using a nucleic acid/protein assay, it was established that acetic acid did not cause leakage of intracellular components from the strains. A scanning electron microscopy study further confirmed that membrane disruption was not the antimicrobial mode of action of acetic acid. Some elongated Salmonella cells observed in the micrographs indicated a possibility that acetic acid may inhibit DNA synthesis in the bacterial cells. Using an ATP assay, it was found that at a neutral pH, acetic acid caused cellular energy depletion with an ADP/ATP ratio in the range between 0.48 and 2.63 (p<0.05) that was apparent for the four Salmonella strains. We suggest that this effect was probably due solely to the action of undissociated acid molecules. The antimicrobial effect of acetic acid was better under acidic conditions (ADP/ATP ratio of 5.56 ± 1.27; p<0.05), where the role of both pH and undissociated acid molecules can act together. We concluded that the inhibitory effect of acetic acid is not solely attributable to acidic pH but also to undissociated acid molecules. This finding has implication for the use of acetic acid as an antimicrobial against Salmonella on food products, such as chicken meat, which can buffer its pH.
  2. Loh SF, Maniam T, Tan SM, Badi'ah Y
    East Asian Arch Psychiatry, 2010 Jun;20(2):87-91.
    PMID: 22351814
    Objective: To describe the association between childhood adversity and depression in adult depressed patients in a Malaysian population.
    Methods: Fifty-two patients, who met the criteria for major depressive disorder or dysthymia according to the Structured Clinical Interview based on the revised 3rd edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, were used as cases and compared with 52 controls matched for age and sex. Cases and controls were assessed using a sexual and physical abuse questionnaire and a Parental Bonding Instrument.
    Results: There was a positive relationship between childhood abuse in general and childhood physical abuse with adult depressive disorder in particular. Nearly a quarter (23%) of depressed patients reported being abused in childhood compared with none in the control group. There was no significant association between childhood loss and depression in adulthood. Low level of parental care during childhood was significantly correlated with adult depressive disorder.
    Conclusion: Clinicians should assiduously seek a history of childhood adversities in adult patients with depression. This information can influence clinical management by way of implementing secondary preventive measures. In all depressed patients, mental health professionals also need to look out for their poor attachment with parents during childhood. This may enable interventions directed at parenting skills and improved attachment relationships with their own children. These types of interventions together
    with pharmacotherapy may provide the optimal approach to the management of depression in adults and help prevent the cycle of depression perpetuating itself in the next generation.
    Key words: Child abuse; Depression; Maternal behavior
  3. Wahab S, Tan SM, Marimuthu S, Razali R, Muhamad NA
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2013 Apr;5 Suppl 1:95-102.
    PMID: 23857844 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12051
    Research in the field of child sexual abuse is lacking in Malaysia. The aims of this study are to identify the association between sociodemographic factors and depression among sexually abused females.
  4. Kuan JW, Pathmanathan R, Chang KM, Tan SM
    Leuk. Res., 2009 Nov;33(11):1574-7.
    PMID: 19215983 DOI: 10.1016/j.leukres.2009.01.016
    Granulocytic sarcoma (GS) can occur de novo or in association with intramedullary myeloid disorders. With the advent of sophisticated molecular detection techniques to detect diagnostic genes such as bcr-abl, PML-RARA and CBFB/MYH11 in bone marrow or peripheral blood, many cases of the so called 'primary' GS are questionable. We report a case of primary GS where the tumor mass bcr-abl translocation was demonstrated by fluorescent in situ hybridization in which there was no evidence of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). This is an important finding as it highlights the possibility that CML may present as a sole extramedullary form, and illustrates potential treatment by tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
  5. Joyce-Tan SM, Zain SM, Abdul Sattar MZ, Abdullah NA
    J Diabetes Res, 2016;2016:2161376.
    PMID: 26682227 DOI: 10.1155/2016/2161376
    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successfully used to call for variants associated with diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, some variants are not included in the GWAS to avoid penalty in multiple hypothetic testing. Thus, candidate gene approach is still useful even at GWAS era. This study attempted to assess whether genetic variations in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and their gene interactions are associated with T2DM risk. We genotyped 290 T2DM patients and 267 controls using three genes of the RAS, namely, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1). There were significant differences in allele frequencies between cases and controls for AGT variants (P = 0.05) but not for ACE and AGTR1. Haplotype TCG of the AGT was associated with increased risk of T2DM (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15-3.20, permuted P = 0.012); however, no evidence of significant gene-gene interactions was seen. Nonetheless, our analysis revealed that the associations of the AGT variants with T2DM were independently associated. Thus, this study suggests that genetic variants of the RAS can modestly influence the T2DM risk.
  6. Chan LF, Tan SM, Ang JK, Kamal Nor N, Sharip S
    J Child Sex Abus, 2012;21(6):613-20.
    PMID: 23194137 DOI: 10.1080/10538712.2012.719597
    Adolescent sexual abuse is not an uncommon phenomenon in Malaysia. It is a traumatic experience that complicates the psychosocial development of young people on the threshold of adulthood. This case report highlights the psychosocial sequelae of adolescent sexual abuse by a traditional healer and discusses management issues in the context of unique cultural and belief systems.
  7. Reddy JP, Tan SM, Azmi MT, Shaharom MH, Rosdinom R, Maniam T, et al.
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 2005 Sep;34(8):505-10.
    PMID: 16205829
    The stigma attached to mental illness and the mentally ill is a universal phenomenon and a major barrier to the provision of mental health services. Stigmatising attitudes among doctors themselves can result in compromised patient care. The aim of this research project is to study the impact of a clinical posting in psychiatry on the attitudes of medical students to mental illness and to psychiatry. This paper reports the results of the first phase of a longitudinal study.
  8. Tan SM, Shafiee Z, Wu LL, Rizal AM, Rey JM
    Int J Psychiatry Med, 2005;35(2):123-36.
    PMID: 16240970
    To examine the association between ethnicity, depression, quality of life, and diabetic control in Malaysian adolescents and young adults with type I diabetes mellitus.
  9. Tan SM, Jong SC, Chan LF, Jamaludin NA, Phang CK, Jamaluddin NS, et al.
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2013 Apr;5 Suppl 1:74-81.
    PMID: 23857841 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12048
    Anxiety among house officers may impair functioning and health care delivery. This study aimed to determine the association between anxiety among house officers at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, sociodemographic and work-related factors.
  10. Abd Rahman FN, Mohd Daud TI, Nik Jaafar NR, Shah SA, Tan SM, Wan Ismail WS
    Pediatr Int, 2013 Aug;55(4):422-7.
    PMID: 23617604 DOI: 10.1111/ped.12115
    There is a dearth of studies on behavioral and emotional problems in residential care children in Malaysia. This study describes the behavioral and emotional problems in a sample of children in a government residential care home and compares them with their classmates living with their birth parents.
  11. Chan LF, Mohamad Adam B, Norazlin KN, Siti Haida MI, Lee VY, Norazura AW, et al.
    J Adolesc, 2016 10;52:162-9.
    PMID: 27572955 DOI: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.08.006
    Pregnant adolescents are a high-risk population for suicide. However, a knowledge gap still exists on how sexual and religious knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) influence suicidal ideation (SI) in teenage pregnancy. We aim to explore the interplay between psychiatric diagnoses, sociodemographic factors and KAP of sexual and religious issues as risk factors of SI among 114 pregnant Malaysian adolescents from 6 rehabilitation centers and a tertiary hospital. Single sexual partner was an independent predictor of SI, suggesting the role of less sexual experience as a risk factor for SI after controlling for major depression. Participants who were unsure versus those who agreed with the statement that most religions' viewed sex outside marriage as wrong had a lower risk of SI after controlling for major depression. Pregnant adolescents with a single sexual partner were significantly associated with current SI. Ambivalence towards religious prohibitions on premarital sex may protect against suicidal ideation.
  12. Phan CL, Megat Baharuddin PJ, Chin LP, Zakaria Z, Yegappan S, Sathar J, et al.
    Cancer Genet. Cytogenet., 2008 Jan 1;180(1):60-4.
    PMID: 18068536
    The Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome, or t(9;22), is the hallmark of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). It results in juxtaposition of the 5' part of the BCR gene on chromosome 22 to the 3' part of the ABL1 gene (previously ABL) on chromosome 9. CML is clinically characterized by three distinct phases: chronic, accelerated, and blast phase. Blast crisis is characterized by the rapid expansion of a population of differentiation arrested blast cells (myeloid or lymphoid cells population), with secondary chromosomal abnormalities present. We report a case of myeloid blast crisis of CML resistant to imatinib mesylate and chemotherapy. By use of cytogenetic, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and comparative genomic hybridization methods, we identified a cluster of BCR-ABL amplification on inverted duplication of the Ph chromosome with t(3;21)(q26;q22) and increased genomic levels of the RUNX1 gene (previously AML1). The t(3;21)(q26;q22) is a recurrent chromosomal abnormality in some cases of CML blast phase and in treatment-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia. Amplification or copy number increase of RUNX1 has been reported in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Our study indicated that the progenitor of CML was BCR-ABL dependent through the amplification of Ph chromosome as a mechanism of resistance to imatinib therapy. The coexistence of BCR-ABL and t(3;21)(q26;q22) with RUNX1 rearrangement might play a pivotal role in the CML blast transformation.
  13. Chan LF, Maniam T, Saini SM, Shah SA, Loh SF, Sinniah A, et al.
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2013 Apr;5 Suppl 1:123-6.
    PMID: 23857848 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12057
    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the association between sexual abuse, substance abuse and socio-demographic factors with suicidal ideation (SI), plans (SP) and deliberate self-harm (DSH) and propose steps to prevent youth suicidal behavior.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 6786 adolescents aged 17-18 years, selected randomly from all Malaysian adolescents to undergo compulsory youth camps located in Selangor, Malaysia (2008-2009). Participants were assessed using self-administered questionnaires developed to reflect the local cultural setting. However, only 4581 subjects were analyzed after excluding incomplete data.
    RESULTS: The rates of SI, SP and DSH were 7.6%, 3.2% and 6.3%, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio showed that sexual abuse was associated with SI 1.99 (95% CI: 1.56-2.55), SP 1.57 (95% CI: 1.09-2.27) and DSH 2.26 (95% CI: 1.75-2.94); illicit drug use was associated with SI 4.05 (95% CI: 2.14-7.67), SP 2.62 (95% CI: 1.05-6.53) and DSH 2.06, (95% CI: 1.05-4.04); for alcohol use DSH was 1.34 (95% CI: 1.00-1.79). Being female was associated with all suicidal behaviors: SI 2.51 (95% CI: 1.91-3.30), SP 2.07 (95% CI: 1.39-3.08) and DSH 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19-2.11).
    DISCUSSION: Given the well-founded concern of increasing risk of suicidal behavior among youth, preventive efforts should adopt a more comprehensive approach in dealing with sexual abuse and substance abuse, and their sequelae, especially in girls.
    KEYWORDS: adolescent; risks; sexual abuse; substance abuse; suicidal behavior
  14. Kuan JW, Su AT, Wong SP, Sim XY, Toh SG, Ong TC, et al.
    Transfus. Apher. Sci., 2015 Oct;53(2):196-204.
    PMID: 25910537 DOI: 10.1016/j.transci.2015.03.017
    There are few randomized trials comparing filgrastim and pegfilgrastim in peripheral blood stem cell mobilization (PBSCM). None of the trials studied the effects of the timing of pegfilgrastim administration on the outcomes of mobilization. We conducted a randomized triple blind control trial comparing the outcomes of filgrastim 5 µg/kg daily from day 3 onwards, 'early' pegfilgrastim 6 mg on day 3 and 'delayed' pegfilgrastim 6 mg on day 7 in cyclophosphamide PBSCM in patients with no previous history of mobilization. Peripheral blood (PB) CD34+ cell count was checked on day 8 and day 11 onward. Apheresis was started when PB CD34+ ≥ 10/µl from day 11 onward. The primary outcome was the successful mobilization rate, defined as cumulative collection of ≥2 × 10(6)/kg CD34+ cells in three or less apheresis. The secondary outcomes were the day of neutrophil and platelet engraftment post transplantation. There were 156 patients randomized and 134 patients' data analyzed. Pegfilgrastim 6 mg day 7 produced highest percentage of successful mobilization, 34 out of 48 (70.8%) analyzed patients, followed by daily filgrastim, 28 out of 44 (63.6%) and day 3 pegfilgrastim, 20 out of 42 (47.6%) (p = 0.075). Pegfilgrastim day 7 and daily filgrastim reported 1.48 (p = 0.014) and 1.49 (p = 0.013) times higher successful mobilization rate respectively as compared to pegfilgrastim day 3 after adjusting for disease, gender and exposure to myelotoxic agent. Multiple myeloma patients were three times more likely to achieve successful mobilization as compared to acute leukemia or lymphoma patients. Pegfilgrastim avoided the overshoot of white cells compared to filgrastim. There was no difference in the duration of both white cells and platelet recovery post transplantation between the three interventional arms.
  15. Bastidas A, de la Serna J, El Idrissi M, Oostvogels L, Quittet P, López-Jiménez J, et al.
    JAMA, 2019 07 09;322(2):123-133.
    PMID: 31287523 DOI: 10.1001/jama.2019.9053
    Importance: Herpes zoster, a frequent complication following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), is associated with significant morbidity. A nonlive adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine has been developed to prevent posttransplantation zoster.

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and adverse event profile of the recombinant zoster vaccine in immunocompromised autologous HSCT recipients.

    Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 3, randomized, observer-blinded study conducted in 167 centers in 28 countries between July 13, 2012, and February 1, 2017, among 1846 patients aged 18 years or older who had undergone recent autologous HSCT.

    Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive 2 doses of either recombinant zoster vaccine (n = 922) or placebo (n = 924) administered into the deltoid muscle; the first dose was given 50 to 70 days after transplantation and the second dose 1 to 2 months thereafter.

    Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was occurrence of confirmed herpes zoster cases.

    Results: Among 1846 autologous HSCT recipients (mean age, 55 years; 688 [37%] women) who received 1 vaccine or placebo dose, 1735 (94%) received a second dose and 1366 (74%) completed the study. During the 21-month median follow-up, at least 1 herpes zoster episode was confirmed in 49 vaccine and 135 placebo recipients (incidence, 30 and 94 per 1000 person-years, respectively), an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0.32 (95% CI, 0.22-0.44; P 

  16. Yap YY, Law KB, Sathar J, Lau NS, Goh AS, Chew TK, et al.
    Exp Hematol Oncol, 2018;7:31.
    PMID: 30564475 DOI: 10.1186/s40164-018-0124-7
    Background: The evolution of molecular studies in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) has enlightened us the understanding of this complex disease consisting of polycythaemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The epidemiology is well described in the western world but not in Asian countries like Malaysia.

    Materials and methods: This retrospective national registry of MPN was conducted from year 2009 to 2015 in Malaysia.

    Results: A total of 1010 patients were registered over a period of 5 years. The mean age was 54 years with male predominance. The ethnic distribution revealed that Chinese had a relatively high weighted incidence proportion (43.2%), followed by Indian (23.8%), Malay (15.8%) and other ethnic groups (17.2%). The types of MPN reported were 40.4% of ET (n = 408), 38.1% of PV (n = 385), 9.2% of PMF (n = 93), 3.1% of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) (n = 31) and 7.9% of unclassifiable MPN (MPN-U) (n = 80). Splenomegaly was only palpable clinically in 32.2% of patients. The positive JAK2 V617F mutation was present in 644 patients with 46.6% in PV, 36.0% in ET, 9.0% in PMF, and 7.4% in MPN-U, and had significantly lower haemoglobin (p 

  17. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2016 Feb 19;116(7):071801.
    PMID: 26943527 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.071801
    A search for narrow resonances in proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s]=13  TeV is presented. The invariant mass distribution of the two leading jets is measured with the CMS detector using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.4  fb^{-1}. The highest observed dijet mass is 6.1 TeV. The distribution is smooth and no evidence for resonant particles is observed. Upper limits at 95% confidence level are set on the production cross section for narrow resonances with masses above 1.5 TeV. When interpreted in the context of specific models, the limits exclude string resonances with masses below 7.0 TeV, scalar diquarks below 6.0 TeV, axigluons and colorons below 5.1 TeV, excited quarks below 5.0 TeV, color-octet scalars below 3.1 TeV, and W^{'} bosons below 2.6 TeV. These results significantly extend previously published limits.
  18. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2016 Jan 22;116(3):032301.
    PMID: 26849587 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.032301
    The production cross sections of the B^{+}, B^{0}, and B_{s}^{0} mesons, and of their charge conjugates, are measured via exclusive hadronic decays in p+Pb collisions at the center-of-mass energy sqrt[s_{NN}]=5.02  TeV with the CMS detector at the CERN LHC. The data set used for this analysis corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 34.6  nb^{-1}. The production cross sections are measured in the transverse momentum range between 10 and 60  GeV/c. No significant modification is observed compared to proton-proton perturbative QCD calculations scaled by the number of incoherent nucleon-nucleon collisions. These results provide a baseline for the study of in-medium b quark energy loss in Pb+Pb collisions.
  19. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2017;77(1):15.
    PMID: 28260978 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-016-4504-z
    A measurement of the top quark pair production ([Formula: see text]) cross section in proton-proton collisions at the centre-of-mass energy of 8[Formula: see text] is presented using data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.6[Formula: see text]. This analysis is performed in the [Formula: see text] decay channels with one isolated, high transverse momentum electron or muon and at least four jets, at least one of which is required to be identified as originating from hadronization of a b quark. The calibration of the jet energy scale and the efficiency of b jet identification are determined from data. The measured [Formula: see text] cross section is [Formula: see text]. This measurement is compared with an analysis of 7[Formula: see text] data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0[Formula: see text], to determine the ratio of 8[Formula: see text] to 7[Formula: see text] cross sections, which is found to be [Formula: see text]. The measurements are in agreement with QCD predictions up to next-to-next-to-leading order.
  20. Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Asilar E, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2016;76(7):401.
    PMID: 28286414 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-016-4219-1
    A measurement of the W boson pair production cross section in proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text] TeV is presented. The data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.4[Formula: see text]. The [Formula: see text] candidates are selected from events with two charged leptons, electrons or muons, and large missing transverse energy. The measured [Formula: see text] cross section is [Formula: see text], consistent with the standard model prediction. The [Formula: see text] cross sections are also measured in two different fiducial phase space regions. The normalized differential cross section is measured as a function of kinematic variables of the final-state charged leptons and compared with several perturbative QCD predictions. Limits on anomalous gauge couplings associated with dimension-six operators are also given in the framework of an effective field theory. The corresponding 95 % confidence level intervals are [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], in the HISZ basis.
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