Carbon-based quantum dots (C-QDs) were synthesized through microwave-assisted carbonization of an aqueous starch suspension mediated by sulphuric and phosphoric acids. The as-prepared C-QDs showed blue, green and yellow luminescence without the addition of any surface-passivating agent. The C-QDs were further analyzed by UV-vis spectroscopy to measure the optical response of the organic compound. The energy gaps revealed narrow sizing of C-QDs in the semiconductor range. The optical refractive index and dielectric constant were investigated. The C-QDs size distribution was characterized. The results suggested an easy route to the large scale production of C-QDs materials.
Oil and grease content in wastewater is used as an environmental monitoring parameter in the oil and gas industry to prevent serious pollution. Conventional oil and grease laboratory testing is time-consuming and necessitates the use of a hazardous chemical solvent, resulting in non-real-time test data and unnecessary chemical waste. On-site or real-time analysis can enable monitoring of oil and grease in wastewater before discharge to the environment from an operating plant, allowing immediate action to be taken to mitigate environmental impact before contamination spirals out of control. Bioluminescent whole-cell biosensors have been reported to have high sensitivity and selectivity in environmental samples, but only for a few traces of organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatics and naphthalene, allowing for faster analysis times. However, no evaluation of biosensor application for oil and grease (a mixture of hydrocarbons) detection in wastewater, which is critical in the oil and gas industry, has been published to date. Herein, the advantages, disadvantages, challenges, and limitations of using a whole-cell bioluminescent biosensor technology to measure oil and grease content in wastewater are carefully reviewed. This review attempts to bridge the knowledge gap between conventional laboratory methods and biosensor technology in terms of analytical challenges, identifying areas for improvement as well as real-world applications for oil and grease content detection in wastewater.
Nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods (NRs) with hexagonal wurtzite structures were synthesized using an easy and low-cost bottom-up hydrothermal growth technique. ZnO thin films were prepared with the use of four different solvents, namely, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and 2-methoxyethanol, and then used as seed layer templates for the subsequent growth of the ZnO NRs. The influences of the different solvents on the structural and optical properties were investigated through scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. The obtained X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the synthesized ZnO NRs were single crystals and exhibited a preferred orientation along the (002) plane. In addition, the calculated results from the specific models of the refractive index are consistent with the experimental data. The ZnO NRs that grew from the 2-methoxyethanol seeded layer exhibited the smallest grain size (39.18 nm), largest diffracted intensities on the (002) plane, and highest bandgap (3.21 eV).
Amylase is an important and indispensable enzyme that plays a pivotal role in the field of biotechnology. It is produced mainly from microbial sources and is used in many industries. Industrial sectors with top-down and bottom-up approaches are currently focusing on improving microbial amylase production levels by implementing bioengineering technologies. The further support of energy consumption studies, such as those on thermodynamics, pinch technology, and environment-friendly technologies, has hastened the large-scale production of the enzyme. Herein, the importance of microbial (bacteria and fungi) amylase is discussed along with its production methods from the laboratory to industrial scales.
Field-effect transistors (FETs) have succeeded in modern electronics in an era of computers and hand-held applications. Currently, considerable attention has been paid to direct electrical measurements, which work by monitoring changes in intrinsic electrical properties. Further, FET-based sensing systems drastically reduce cost, are compatible with CMOS technology, and ease down-stream applications. Current technologies for sensing applications rely on time-consuming strategies and processes and can only be performed under recommended conditions. To overcome these obstacles, an overview is presented here in which we specifically focus on high-performance FET-based sensor integration with nano-sized materials, which requires understanding the interaction of surface materials with the surrounding environment. Therefore, we present strategies, material depositions, device structures and other characteristics involved in FET-based devices. Special attention was given to silicon and polyaniline nanowires and graphene, which have attracted much interest due to their remarkable properties in sensing applications.
Aptamers are single-stranded nucleic acids or peptides identified from a randomized combinatorial library through specific interaction with the target of interest. Targets can be of any size, from small molecules to whole cells, attesting to the versatility of aptamers for binding a wide range of targets. Aptamers show drug properties that are analogous to antibodies, with high specificity and affinity to their target molecules. Aptamers can penetrate disease-causing microbial and mammalian cells. Generated aptamers that target surface biomarkers act as cell-targeting agents and intracellular delivery vehicles. Within this context, the "cell-internalizing aptamers" are widely investigated via the process of cell uptake with selective binding during in vivo systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) or by cell-internalization SELEX, which targets cell surface antigens to be receptors. These internalizing aptamers are highly preferable for the localization and functional analyses of multiple targets. In this overview, we discuss the ways by which internalizing aptamers are generated and their successful applications. Furthermore, theranostic approaches featuring cell-internalized aptamers are discussed with the purpose of analyzing and diagnosing disease-causing pathogens.
Mortality level is worsening the situation worldwide thru blood diseases and greatly jeopardizes the human health with poor diagnostics. Due to the lack of successful generation of early diagnosis, the survival rate is currently lower. To overcome the present hurdle, new diagnostic methods have been choreographed for blood disease biomarkers analyses with the conjunction of ultra-small ideal gold nanohybrids. Gold-hybrids hold varieties of unique features, such as high biocompatibility, increased surface-to-volume ratio, less-toxicity, ease in electron transfer and have a greater localized surface plasmon resonance. Gold-nanocomposites can be physically hybrid on the sensor surface and functionalize with the biomolecules using appropriate chemical conjugations. Revolutionizing biosensor platform can be prominently linked for the nanocomposite applications in the current research on medical diagnosis. This review encloses the new developments in diagnosing blood biomarkers by utilizing the gold-nanohybrids. Further, the current state-of-the-art and the future envision with digital monitoring for facile telediagnosis were narrated.
Surface acoustic wave mediated transductions have been widely used in the sensors and actuators applications. In this study, a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SHSAW) was used for the detection of food pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E.coli O157:H7), a dangerous strain among 225 E. coli unique serotypes. A few cells of this bacterium are able to cause young children to be most vulnerable to serious complications. Presence of higher than 1cfu E.coli O157:H7 in 25g of food has been considered as a dangerous level. The SHSAW biosensor was fabricated on 64° YX LiNbO3 substrate. Its sensitivity was enhanced by depositing 130.5nm thin layer of SiO2 nanostructures with particle size lesser than 70nm. The nanostructures act both as a waveguide as well as a physical surface modification of the sensor prior to biomolecular immobilization. A specific DNA sequence from E. coli O157:H7 having 22 mers as an amine-terminated probe ssDNA was immobilized on the thin film sensing area through chemical functionalization [(CHO-(CH2)3-CHO) and APTES; NH2-(CH2)3-Si(OC2H5)3]. The high-performance of sensor was shown with the specific oligonucleotide target and attained the sensitivity of 0.6439nM/0.1kHz and detection limit was down to 1.8femto-molar (1.8×10(-15)M). Further evidence was provided by specificity analysis using single mismatched and complementary oligonucleotide sequences.
Photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) is a potential wastewater treatment technology that can generate electricity from the conversion of chemical energy of organic pollutants. An immobilized ZnO/Zn fabricated by sonication and heat attachment method was applied as the photoanode and Pt/C plate was used as the cathode of the PFC in this study. Factors that affect the decolorization efficiency and electricity generation of the PFC such as different initial dye concentrations and pH were investigated. Results revealed that the degradation of Reactive Green 19 (RG19) was enhanced in a closed circuit PFC compared with that of a opened circuit PFC. Almost 100% decolorization could be achieved in 8 h when 250 mL of 30 mg L(-1) of RG19 was treated in a PFC without any supporting electrolyte. The highest short circuit current of 0.0427 mA cm(-2) and maximum power density of 0.0102 mW cm(-2) was obtained by PFC using 30 mg L(-1) of RG19. The correlation between dye degradation, conductivity and voltage output were also investigated and discussed.
The role of azo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) as an electron donor and/or electron acceptor could be distinguished in dual chamber of photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC). The introduction of RB5 in anode chamber increased the voltage generation in the system since degradation of RB5 might produce electrons which also would transfer through external circuit to the cathode chamber. The removal efficiency of RB5 with open and closed circuit was 8.5% and 13.6%, respectively and removal efficiency for open circuit was low due to the fact that recombination of electron-hole pairs might happen in anode chamber since without connection to the cathode, electron cannot be transferred. The degradation of RB5 in cathode chamber with absence of oxygen showed that electrons from anode chamber was accepted by dye molecules to break its azo bond. The presence of oxygen in cathode chamber would improve the oxygen reduction rate which occurred at Platinum-loaded carbon (Pt/C) cathode electrode. The Voc, Jsc and Pmax for different condition of ultrapure water at cathode chamber also affected their fill factor. The transportation of protons to cathode chamber through Nafion membrane could decrease the pH of ultrapure water in cathode chamber and undergo hydrogen evolution reaction in the absence of oxygen which then increased degradation rate of RB5 as well as its electricity generation.
Anxiety is a psychological problem that often emerges during the normal course of human life. The detection of anxiety often involves a physical exam and a self-reporting questionnaire. However, these approaches have limitations, as the data might lack reliability and consistency upon application to the same population over time. Furthermore, there might be varying understanding and interpretations of the particular question by the participant, which necessitating the approach of using biomarker-based measurement for stress diagnosis. The most prominent biomarker related to stress, hormone cortisol, plays a key role in the fight-or-flight situation, alters the immune response, and suppresses the digestive and the reproductive systems. We have taken the endeavour to review the available aptamer-based biosensor (aptasensor) for cortisol detection. The potential point-of-care diagnostic strategies that could be harnessed for the aptasensing of cortisol were also envisaged.
Reactive green 19, acid orange 7 and methylene blue are employed as the organic pollutants in this work. A photocatalytic fuel cell is constructed based on the idea of immobilizing zinc oxide onto zinc photoanode and platinum loaded carbon cathode, both evaluated under sunlight and ultraviolet irradiation, respectively. Influence of light and dye structures on the performance of photocatalytic fuel cell are examined. With reactive green 19, 93% and 86% of color removal are achieved after 8 h of photocatalytic fuel cell treatment under sunlight and ultraviolet irradiation, respectively. The decolorization rate of diazo reactive green 19 is higher than acid orange 7 (monoazo dye) when both dyes are treated by photocatalytic fuel cell under sunlight and ultraviolet irradiation, as the electron releasing groups (-NH-triazine) allow reactive green 19 easier to be oxidized. Comparatively, acid orange 7 is less favorable to be oxidized. The degradation of methylene blue is enhanced under sunlight irradiation due to the occurrence of self-sensitized photodegradation. When methylene blue is employed in the photocatalytic fuel cell under sunlight irradiation, the short circuit current (0.0129 mA cm-2) and maximum power density (0.0032 mW cm-2) of photocatalytic fuel cell greatly improved.
The photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) system was developed in order to study the effect of several operating parameters in degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and its electricity generation. Light irradiation, initial dye concentration, aeration, pH and cathode electrode are the operating parameters that might give contribution in the efficiency of PFC system. The degradation of RB5 depends on the presence of light irradiation and solar light gives better performance to degrade the azo dye. The azo dye with low initial concentration decolorizes faster compared to higher initial concentration and presence of aeration in PFC system would enhance its performance. Reactive Black 5 rapidly decreased at higher pH due to the higher amount of OH generated at higher pH and Pt-loaded carbon (Pt/C) was more suitable to be used as cathode in PFC system compared to Cu foil and Fe foil. The rapid decolorization of RB5 would increase their voltage output and in addition, it would also increase their Voc, Jsc and Pmax. The breakage of azo bond and aromatic rings was confirmed through UV-Vis spectrum and COD analysis.
In this study, a membraneless photocatalytic fuel cell with zinc oxide loaded carbon photoanode and platinum loaded carbon cathode was constructed to investigate the impact of dissolved oxygen on the mechanism of dye degradation and electricity generation of photocatalytic fuel cell. The photocatalytic fuel cell with high and low aeration rate, no aeration and nitrogen purged were investigated, respectively. The degradation rate of diazo dye Reactive Green 19 and the electricity generation was enhanced in photocatalytic fuel cell with higher dissolved oxygen concentration. However, the photocatalytic fuel cell was still able to perform 37% of decolorization in a slow rate (k = 0.033 h-1) under extremely low dissolved oxygen concentration (approximately 0.2 mg L-1) when nitrogen gas was introduced into the fuel cell throughout the 8 h. However, the change of the UV-Vis spectrum indicates that the intermediates of the dye could not be mineralized under insufficient dissolved oxygen level. In the aspect of electricity generation, the maximum short circuit current (0.0041 mA cm-2) and power density (0.00028 mW cm-2) of the air purged photocatalytic fuel cell was obviously higher than that with nitrogen purging (0.0015 mA cm-2and 0.00008 mW cm-2).
The objective of this study was to investigate several operating parameters, such as open circuit, different external resistance, pH, supporting electrolyte, and presence of aeration that might enhance the degradation rate as well as electricity generation of batik wastewater in solar photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC). The optimum degradation of batik wastewater was at pH 9 with external resistor 250 Ω. It was observed that open circuit of PFC showed only 17.2 ± 7.5% of removal efficiency, meanwhile the degradation rate of batik wastewater was enhanced to 31.9 ± 15.0% for closed circuit with external resistor 250 Ω. The decolorization of batik wastewater in the absence of photocatalyst due to the absorption of light irradiation by dye molecules and this process was known as photolysis. The degradation of batik wastewater increased as the external resistor value decreased. In addition, the degradation rate of batik wastewater also increased at pH 9 which was 74.4 ± 34.9% and at pH 3, its degradation rate was reduced to 19.4 ± 8.7%. The presence of aeration and sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte in batik wastewater also affected its degradation and electricity generation. The maximum absorbance of wavelength (λmax) of batik wastewater at 535 nm and chemical oxygen demand gradually decreased as increased in irradiation time; however, batik wastewater required prolonged irradiation time to fully degrade and mineralize in PFC system.
This study investigated the effect of different supporting electrolyte (Na2SO4, MgSO4, NaCl) in degradation of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and generation of electricity. Zinc oxide (ZnO) was immobilized onto carbon felt acted as photoanode, while Pt-coated carbon paper as photocathode was placed in a single chamber photocatalytic fuel cell, which then irradiated by UV lamp for 24 h. The degradation and mineralization of RB5 with 0.1 M NaCl rapidly decreased after 24-h irradiation time, followed by MgSO4, Na2SO4 and without electrolyte. The voltage outputs for Na2SO4, MgSO4 and NaCl were 908, 628 and 523 mV, respectively, after 24-h irradiation time; meanwhile, their short-circuit current density, J SC, was 1.3, 1.2 and 1.05 mA cm(-2), respectively. The power densities for Na2SO4, MgSO4 and NaCl were 0.335, 0.256 and 0.245 mW cm(-2), respectively. On the other hand, for without supporting electrolyte, the voltage output and short-circuit current density was 271.6 mV and 0.055 mA cm(-2), respectively. The supporting electrolyte NaCl showed greater performance in degradation of RB5 and generation of electricity due to the formation of superoxide radical anions which enhance the degradation of dye. The mineralization of RB5 with different supporting electrolyte was measured through spectrum analysis and reduction in COD concentration.
The importance of nanotechnology in medical applications especially with biomedical sensing devices is undoubted. Several medical diagnostics have been developed by taking the advantage of nanomaterials, especially with electrical biosensors. Biosensors have been predominantly used for the quantification of different clinical biomarkers toward detection, screening, and follow-up the treatment. At present, ovarian cancer is one of the severe complications that cannot be identified until it becomes most dangerous as the advanced stage. Based on the American Cancer Society, 20% of cases involved in the detection of ovarian cancer are diagnosed at an early stage and 80% diagnosed at the later stages. The patient just has a common digestive problem and stomach ache as early symptoms and people used to ignore these symptoms. Micro ribonucleic acid (miRNA) is classified as small non-coding RNAs, their expressions change due to the association of cancer development and progression. This article reviews and discusses on the currently available strategies for the early detection of ovarian cancers using miRNA as a biomarker associated with electrical biosensors. A unique miRNA-based biomarker detections are specially highlighted with biosensor platforms to diagnose ovarian cancer.
The E6 region has higher protuberant probability annealing than consensus probe focusing on another region in the human papillomavirus (HPV) genome in terms of detection and screening method. Here, we designed the first multiple virus single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) for multiple detections in an early phase of screening for cervical cancer in the E6 region and became a fundamental evolution of detection electrochemical HPV biosensor. Gene profiling of the virus ssDNA sequences has been carried by high-end bioinformatics tools such as GenBank, Basic Local Alignment Searching Tools (BLAST), and Clustal OMEGA in a row. The output from bioinformatics tools resulted in 100% of similarities between our virus ssDNA probe and HPV complete genome in the databases. The cross-validation between HPV genome and our designed virus ssDNA provided high specificity and selectivity during screening methods compared with Pap smear. The DNA probe for HPV 18, 5' COOH-GAT CCA GAA GGT ACA GAC GGG GAG GGC ACG 3', while 5'COOH-GGG CGC TGT GCA GTG TGT TGG AGA CCC CGA3' as DNA probe for HPV 58 designed with 66.77% guanine (G) and cytosine (C) content for both. Our virus ssDNA probe for the HPV biosensor promises high sensitivity, specificity, selectivity, repeatability, low fluid consumption, and will be useful in mini-size diagnostic devices for cervical cancer detection.