DNA fingerprinting, also known as DNA profiling, serves as a standard procedure in forensics to identify a person by the short tandem repeat (STR) loci in their DNA. By comparing the STR loci between DNA samples, practitioners can calculate a probability of match to identity the contributors of a DNA mixture. Most existing methods are based on 13 core STR loci which were identified by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Analyses based on these loci of DNA mixture for forensic purposes are highly variable in procedures, and suffer from subjectivity as well as bias in complex mixture interpretation. With the emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, the sequencing of billions of DNA molecules can be parallelized, thus greatly increasing throughput and reducing the associated costs. This allows the creation of new techniques that incorporate more loci to enable complex mixture interpretation. In this paper, we propose a computation for likelihood ratio that uses NGS (next generation sequencing) data for DNA testing on mixed samples. We have applied the method to 4480 simulated DNA mixtures, which consist of various mixture proportions of 8 unrelated whole-genome sequencing data. The results confirm the feasibility of utilizing NGS data in DNA mixture interpretations. We observed an average likelihood ratio as high as 285,978 for two-person mixtures. Using our method, all 224 identity tests for two-person mixtures and three-person mixtures were correctly identified.
Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs)-polyester nanocomposites with four different concentrations were produced using solution casting technique and the biodegradation effect of short-term seawater exposure (120 h) was studied. Monolithic polyester was observed to have the highest seawater absorption with 1.37%. At 0.3 wt % HNTs reinforcement, the seawater absorption dropped significantly to the lowest value of 0.77% due to increase of liquid diffusion path. For samples tested in dry conditions, the Tg, storage modulus, tensile properties and flexural properties were improved. The highest improvement of Tg was from 79.3 to 82.4 °C (increase 3.1 °C) in the case of 0.3 wt % HNTs. This can be associated with the exfoliated HNTs particles, which restrict the mobility of polymer chains and thus raised the Tg. After seawater exposure, the Tg, storage modulus, tensile properties and flexural properties of polyester and its nanocomposites were decreased. The Young's modulus of 0.3 wt % HNTs-polyester dropped 20% while monolithic polyester dropped up to 24% compared to their values in dry condition. Apart from that, 29% flexural modulus reduction was observed, which was 18% higher than monolithic polyester. In contrast, fracture toughness and surface roughness increased due to plasticization effect. The presence of various microbial communities caused gradual biodegradation on the microstructure of the polyester matrix as also evidently shown by SEM images.
Oxidative stress is performing an essential role in developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), and age-related disorder and other neurodegenerative diseases. In existing research, we have aimed at investigating the daidzein (4',7-dihydroxyisoflavone) effect (10 and 20 mg/kg of body weight), as a free radical scavenger and antioxidant in streptozotocin (STZ) infused AD in rat model. Daidzein treatment led to significant improvement in intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced memory and learning impairments that was evaluated by Morris water maze test and spontaneous locomotor activity. It significantly restored the alterations in malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and reduced glutathione levels. In addition, histopathological observations in cerebral cortex and hippocampal areas confirmed the neuroprotective effect of daidzein. These outcomes provide experimental proof showing preventive effect of daidzein on memory, learning dysfunction and oxidative stress in case of ICV-STZ rats. In conclusion, daidzein offers a potential treatment module for various neurodegenerative disorders with regard to mental deficits like AD.
A main challenge in parasitology is the development of reliable tools to prevent or treat mosquito-borne diseases. We investigated the toxicity of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) produced by Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense (strain MSR-1) on chloroquine-resistant (CQ-r) and sensitive (CQ-s) Plasmodium falciparum, dengue virus (DEN-2), and two of their main vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti, respectively. MNP were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. They were toxic to larvae and pupae of An. stephensi, LC50 ranged from 2.563 ppm (1st instar larva) to 6.430 ppm (pupa), and Ae. aegypti, LC50 ranged from 3.231 ppm (1st instar larva) to 7.545 ppm (pupa). MNP IC50 on P. falciparum were 83.32 μg ml(-1) (CQ-s) and 87.47 μg ml(-1) (CQ-r). However, the in vivo efficacy of MNP on Plasmodium berghei was low if compared to CQ-based treatments. Moderate cytotoxicity was detected on Vero cells post-treatment with MNP doses lower than 4 μg ml(-1). MNP evaluated at 2-8 μg ml(-1) inhibited DEN-2 replication inhibiting the expression of the envelope (E) protein. In conclusion, our findings represent the first report about the use of MNP in medical and veterinary entomology, proposing them as suitable materials to develop reliable tools to combat mosquito-borne diseases.