OBSERVATIONS: A total of four cases were reported. Three patients received the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, while the other received the Oxford AstraZeneca type. Ocular symptoms occurred after the first vaccine dose in two patients and after the second vaccine dose in the other two. Three out of four patients required active treatment for their vision complications postvaccination. The first patient had acute-onset retinal pigment epitheliitis within 3 h of vaccination and was treated conservatively. The second patient developed unilateral choroidal neovascularization 3 days after vaccination and required intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor injection. The third patient presented with bilateral acute multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy a week after vaccination and responded to intravenous methylprednisolone. The fourth patient presented with herpes zoster infection and unilateral anterior nongranulomatous uveitis 2 weeks after vaccination and was treated with oral acyclovir and topical corticosteroids. All patients reported some amount of visual recovery.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPORTANCE: Visual symptoms and various ocular adverse events can occur following COVID-19 vaccination, which warrants further investigation and urgent intervention if necessary. We would suggest patients receiving the COVID-19 vaccination be aware of possible ocular complications and report any symptoms, regardless of severity.
METHODS: All consecutive patients admitted to any of the 150 participating general surgery (GS), hepatopancreatobiliary surgery (HPB), internal medicine (IM) and gastroenterology (GA) departments with a diagnosis of biliary acute pancreatitis between 01/01/2019 and 31/12/2020 were included in the study. Categorical data were reported as percentages representing the proportion of all study patients or different and well-defined cohorts for each variable. Continuous data were expressed as mean and standard deviation. Differences between the compliance obtained in the four different subgroups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U, Student's t, ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests for continuous data, and the Chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test for categorical data.
RESULTS: Complete data were available for 5275 patients. The most commonly discordant gaps between daily clinical practice and recommendations included the optimal timing for the index CT scan (6.1%, χ2 6.71, P = 0.081), use of prophylactic antibiotics (44.2%, χ2 221.05, P