Displaying all 16 publications

  1. Xing Y, Wang K, Zhang M, Law CL, Lei H, Wang J, et al.
    Food Chem, 2023 Oct 30;424:136456.
    PMID: 37267648 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2023.136456
    This study investigated the digestive stability of anthocyanins (ACNs) and their interaction with three pectin fractions-water-soluble pectin (WSP), cyclohexanetrans-1,2-diamine tetra-acetic acid-soluble pectin (CSP), and sodium carbonate-soluble pectin (NSP)-in strawberry pulp processed by pasteurization (PS), ultrasound (US), electron beam (EB) irradiation, and high pressure (HP). Compared with the control group, the ACNs content increased to the highest level (312.89 mg/mL), but the retention rate of ACNs in the simulated intestine decreased significantly after US treatment. The monosaccharide compositions indicated that the WSP and CSP possessed more homogalacturonan (HG) domains than the NSP, which contains more rhamngalacturonan-I (RG-I) domains. The microstructure of US-treated pectin was damaged and fragmented. Comprehensive analysis showed that the retention rate of ACNs was closely related to the pectin structure, primarily reflected by the degree of linearity and the integrity of structure. These results revealed the structure-activity relationship between ACNs and pectin during pulp processing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/chemistry
  2. Poobathy R, Zakaria R, Murugaiyah V, Subramaniam S
    PLoS One, 2018;13(4):e0195642.
    PMID: 29649288 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195642
    Anoectochilus sp. and Ludisia discolor are known as Jewel orchids. Both species are terrestrial wild orchids that grow in shaded areas of forests. The Jewel orchids are renowned for the beauty of their leaves, which are dark-green laced with silvery or golden veins. The orchids are used as a cure in various parts of Asia. Overharvesting and anthropogenic disturbances threaten the existence of the Jewel orchids in the wild, necessitating human intervention in their survival. An understanding of the structure and adaptations of a plant may assist in its survival when propagated outside of its habitat. In this study, ex vitro leaves of Anoectochilus sp. and L. discolor were subjected to freehand sectioning, and then inspected through brightfield and fluorescence microscopy. The study indicated that all parts of both plants presented typical monocotyledonous characteristics except the leaves. The leaves displayed dorsiventrality with distinct palisade and spongy mesophyll layers. The spongy mesophyll layer contained cells which fluoresced a bright red when exposed to ultraviolet, blue, and green light wavelengths, hinting at the presence of anthocyanins for photoprotection. Cyanidin was detected in the leaves of L. discolor, as enumerated through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The observations indicated that Anoectochilus sp. and L. discolor are well-adapted to live under shaded conditions with minimal exposure to light.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/chemistry
  3. MohdMaidin N, Oruna-Concha MJ, Jauregi P
    Food Chem, 2019 Jan 15;271:224-231.
    PMID: 30236671 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.07.083
    Red grape pomace, a wine-making by-product is rich in anthocyanins and has many applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. However, anthocyanins are unstable during processing and storage. This study aimed to investigate the stability of anthocyanins obtained by hydroalcoholic extraction (with and without sorbic acid) and colloidal gas aphrons (CGA) separation; a surfactant (TWEEN20) based separation. Anthocyanins in CGA samples showed higher stability (half-life = 55 d) than in the crude extract (half-life = 43 d) and their stability increased with the concentration of TWEEN20 in the CGA fraction (6.07-8.58 mM). The anthocyanins loss in the CGA sample (with the maximum content of surfactant, 8.58 mM) was 34.90%, comparable to that in the crude ethanolic extract with sorbic acid (EE-SA) (31.53%) and lower than in the crude extract (44%). Colour stabilisation was also observed which correlated well with the stability of individual anthocyanins in the EE and CGA samples. Malvidin-3-o-glucoside was the most stable anthocyanin over time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/chemistry
  4. Lau WN, Mohammadi Nafchi A, Zargar M, Rozalli NHM, Mat Easa A
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2024 Mar;260(Pt 2):129589.
    PMID: 38296665 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2024.129589
    The aim of this work was to fabricate an intelligent film using sago starch incorporated with the natural source of anthocyanins from the Bauhinia Kockiana flower and use it to monitor the freshness of coconut milk. The films were developed using the casting method that included the addition of the different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 mg) of Bauhinia Kockiana extract (BKE) obtained using a solvent. The anthocyanin content of Bauhinia Kockiana was 262.17 ± 9.28 mg/100 g of fresh flowers. The spectral characteristics of BKE solutions, cross-section morphology, physiochemical, barrier, and mechanical properties, and the colour variations of films in different pH buffers were investigated. Films having the highest BKE concentration demonstrated the roughest structure and highest thickness (0.16 mm), moisture content (9.72 %), swelling index (435.83 %), water solubility (31.20 %), and elongation at break (262.32 %) compared to the other films. While monitoring the freshness of coconut milk for 16 h, BKE15 showed remarkable visible colour changes (from beige to dark brown), and the pH of coconut milk dropped from 6.21 to 4.56. Therefore, sago starch film incorporated with BKE has excellent potential to act as an intelligent pH film in monitoring the freshness of coconut milk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/chemistry
  5. Anuar N, Mohd Adnan AF, Saat N, Aziz N, Mat Taha R
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:810547.
    PMID: 24174918 DOI: 10.1155/2013/810547
    Anthocyanins not just have various benefits in food industry but also have been used as natural colourants in cosmetic, coating products and as potential natural photosensitizers in solar cell. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to obtain information on the maximum yield of anthocyanin that can be recovered from Melastoma malabathricum fruit. Factors such as extraction temperature, extraction time, and solid to liquid ratio were identified to be significantly affecting anthocyanin extraction efficiency. By using three-level three-factor Box-Behnken design, the optimized conditions for anthocyanin extraction by acidified methanol (R (2) = 0.972) were temperature of 60°C, time of 86.82 min, and 0.5 : 35 (g/mL) solid to liquid ratio while the optimum extraction conditions by acidified ethanol (R (2) = 0.954) were temperature of 60°C, time of 120 min, and 0.5 : 23.06 (g/mL) solid to liquid ratio. The crude anthocyanin extract was further purified by using Amberlite XAD-7 and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Identification of anthocyanins revealed the presence of cyanidin dihexoside, cyanidin hexoside, and delphinidin hexoside as the main anthocyanins in M. malabathricum fruit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/chemistry
  6. Ibrahim MH, Jaafar HZ
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(5):5290-306.
    PMID: 22754297 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13055290
    A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m(2)/s) for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 μmol/m(2)/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin) was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m(2)/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM) under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH) than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe) under this condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/chemistry
  7. Xue Mei L, Mohammadi Nafchi A, Ghasemipour F, Mat Easa A, Jafarzadeh S, Al-Hassan AA
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 Dec 01;164:4603-4612.
    PMID: 32941902 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.09.082
    The development of intelligent packaging based on natural and biodegradable resources is getting more attention by researchers in recent years. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a pH-sensitive films based on sago starch and incorporated with anthocyanin from torch ginger. The pH-sensitive films were fabricated by casting method with incorporation of different torch ginger extract (TGE) concentration. The surface morphology, physicochemical, barrier, and mechanical properties as well as the pH-sensitivity of films were investigated. The film with the highest concentration of TGE showed the lowest tensile strength (4.26 N/m2), toughness (2.54 MJ/m3), Young's modulus (73.96 MPa) and water vapour permeability (2.6 × 10-4 g·m/day·kPa·m2). However, its elongation at break (85.14%), moisture content (0.27%) and water solubility (37.92%) were the highest compared to other films. pH sensitivity analysis showed that the films containing TGE extract, changes in colour by changing the pH. The colour of films changed from pink to slightly green as the pH increased from pH 4 to 9. Thus, the developed pH-sensitive film with torch ginger extract has potential as intelligent packaging for detection of food freshness or spoilage to ensure their quality and safe consumption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/chemistry*
  8. Yusof Z, Ramasamy S, Mahmood NZ, Yaacob JS
    Molecules, 2018 Jun 04;23(6).
    PMID: 29867000 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23061345
    This project studied the effect of vermicompost application on the composition of bioactive anthocyanin and phenolic compounds, and the antioxidant activity of Clinacanthus nutans. The correlation between the bioactive constituents and antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. In this project, a field study was conducted using a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four treatment groups, including control plants (CC), plants supplied with chemical fertilizer (CF), plants supplied with vermicompost (VC), and plants supplied with mixed fertilizer (MF). The leaves of C. nutans from all treatment groups were harvested, subjected to solvent extraction, and used for quantification of total anthocyanin content (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC). The initial antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays, as well as after two and four weeks of storage at -20 °C and 4 °C. Data analysis showed that CC plants contained the highest TAC (2180.14 ± 338.43 µg/g dry weight) and TFC (276.25 ± 3.09 mg QE/g dry weight). On the other hand, CF plants showed the highest TPC (181.53 ± 35.58 mg GAE/g dry weight). Moreover, we found that CC plants had the highest antioxidant potential against DPPH radicals whereas MF plants showed the lowest antioxidant potential. After four weeks of extract storage at -20 °C and 4 °C, the TPC, TFC, TAC, and antioxidant potential of the extracts decreased. Extracts from VC showed the lowest percentage of total phenolic and total flavonoid loss after extract storage at -20 °C and 4 °C compared with other plant extracts. At this juncture, it could be deduced that the application of vermicompost had little effect on the expression of phenolics, flavonoids, or anthocyanin in C. nutans. However, the extract from plants treated with vermicompost (VC and MF) showed better stability compared with CC and CF after extract storage at different temperatures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/chemistry*
  9. Bhat R, Stamminger R
    Food Sci Technol Int, 2015 Jul;21(5):354-63.
    PMID: 24867944 DOI: 10.1177/1082013214536708
    Freshly prepared, hand-pressed strawberry fruit juice was exposed to ultraviolet radiation (254 nm) at room temperature (25 ℃ ± 1 ℃) for 15, 30 and 60 min with 0 min serving as control. Results revealed decrease in pH, total soluble solids and titratable acidity, while colour parameters (L*, a* and b* values) and clarity of juice (% transmittance) increased significantly. All the results corresponded to exposure time to ultraviolet radiation. Bioactive compounds (total phenolics, ascorbic acid and anthocyanins) decreased along with a recorded reduction in polyphenol oxidase enzyme and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activities, which were again dependent on exposure time. Results on the microbial studies showed significant reduction by 2-log cycles in aerobic plate count as well as in total yeast and mould counts. Though negative results were observed for certain parameters, this is the first time it was endeavoured to demonstrate the impact of ultraviolet radiation radiation on freshly prepared, hand-pressed strawberries juice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/chemistry
  10. Al-Alwani MAM, Ludin NA, Mohamad AB, Kadhum AAH, Mukhlus A
    Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 2018 Mar 05;192:487-498.
    PMID: 29133132 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2017.11.018
    The natural dyes anthocyanin and chlorophyll were extracted from Musa acuminata bracts and Alternanthera dentata leaves, respectively. The dyes were then applied as sensitizers in TiO2-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The ethanol extracts of the dyes had maximum absorbance. High dye yields were obtained under extraction temperatures of 70 to 80°C, and the optimal extraction temperature was approximately 80°C. Moreover, dye concentration sharply decreased under extraction temperatures that exceeded 80°C. High dye concentrations were obtained using acidic extraction solutions, particularly those with a pH value of 4. The DSSC fabricated with anthocyanin from M. acuminata bracts had a conversion efficiency of 0.31%, short-circuit current (Isc) of 0.9mA/cm2, open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.58V, and fill factor (FF) of 62.22%. The DSSC sensitized with chlorophyll from A. dentata leaves had a conversion efficiency of 0.13%, Isc of 0.4mA/cm-2,Voc of 0.54V, and FF of 67.5%. The DSSC sensitized with anthocyanin from M. acuminata bracts had a maximum incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 42%, which was higher than that of the DSSC sensitized with chlorophyll from A. dentata leaves (23%). Anthocyanin from M. acuminata bracts exhibited the best photosensitization effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/chemistry
  11. Jaafar HZ, Ibrahim MH, Mohamad Fakri NF
    Molecules, 2012 Jun 13;17(6):7305-22.
    PMID: 22695235 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17067305
    A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER) (100%; well watered), (75%, moderate water stress), (50%; high water stress) and (25%; severe water stress). The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100%) ER L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (f(v)/f(m)) and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement) compared to severe water stress (25% ER). From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/chemistry
  12. Ibrahim MH, Jaafar HZ, Rahmat A, Rahman ZA
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(1):393-408.
    PMID: 22312260 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13010393
    A split plot 3 by 4 experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of gluthatione (GSH), oxidized gluthatione (GSSG), total flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities (FRAP and DPPH) in three varieties of Labisia pumila Blume, namely the varieties alata, pumila and lanceolata, under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha) for 15 weeks. The treatment effects were solely contributed by nitrogen application; there was neither varietal nor interaction effects observed. As the nitrogen levels decreased from 270 to 0 kg N/ha, the production of GSH and GSSG, anthocyanin, total flavonoid and ascorbic acid increased steadily. At the highest nitrogen treatment level, L. pumila exhibited significantly lower antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP) than those exposed to limited nitrogen growing conditions. Significant positive correlation was obtained between antioxidant activities (DPPH and FRAP), total flavonoid, GSH, GSSG, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid suggesting that an increase in the antioxidative activities in L. pumila under low nitrogen fertilization could be attributed to higher contents of these compounds. From this observation, it could be concluded that in order to avoid negative effects on the quality of L. pumila, it is advisable to avoid excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer when cultivating the herb for its medicinal use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/chemistry*
  13. Samad MA, Hashim SH, Simarani K, Yaacob JS
    Molecules, 2016 Mar 26;21(4):419.
    PMID: 27023514 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21040419
    Phoenix dactylifera or date palm fruits are reported to contain natural compounds that exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial properties. This research aimed to study the effect of fruit chilling at 4 °C for 8 weeks, extract storage at -20 °C for 5 weeks, and extraction solvents (methanol or acetone) on total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of Saudi Arabian P. dactylifera cv Mabroom, Safawi and Ajwa, as well as Iranian P. dactylifera cv Mariami. The storage stability of total anthocyanin content (TAC) was also evaluated, before and after storing the extracts at -20 °C and 4 °C respectively, for 5 weeks. Mariami had the highest TAC (3.18 ± 1.40 mg cyd 3-glu/100 g DW) while Mabroom had the lowest TAC (0.54 ± 0.15 mg cyd 3-glu/100 g DW). The TAC of all extracts increased after storage. The chilling of date palm fruits for 8 weeks prior to solvent extraction elevated the TPC of all date fruit extracts, except for methanolic extracts of Mabroom and Mariami. All IC50 values of all cultivars decreased after the fruit chilling treatment. Methanol was a better solvent compared to acetone for the extraction of phenolic compounds in dates. The TPC of all cultivars extracts decreased after 5 weeks of extract storage. IC50 values of all cultivars extracts increased after extract storage except for the methanolic extracts of Safawi and Ajwa. Different cultivars exhibited different antibacterial properties. Only the methanolic extract of Ajwa exhibited antibacterial activity against all four bacteria tested: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Serratia marcescens and Escherichia coli. These results could be useful to the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries in the development of natural compound-based products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/chemistry
  14. Si LY, Ali SAM, Latip J, Fauzi NM, Budin SB, Zainalabidin S
    Life Sci, 2017 Dec 15;191:157-165.
    PMID: 29066253 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2017.10.030
    AIMS: Obesity increase the risks of hypertension and myocardial infarction (MI) mediated by oxidative stress. This study was undertaken to investigate the actions of roselle aqueous extract (R) on cardiotoxicity in obese (OB) rats and thereon OB rats subjected to MI.

    MAIN METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with either normal diet or high-fat diet for 8weeks. Firstly, OB rats were divided into (1) OB and (2) OB+R (100mg/kg, p.o, 28days). Then, OB rats were subjected to MI (ISO, 85mg/kg, s.c, 2days) and divided into three groups: (1) OB+MI, (2) OB+MI+R and (3) OB+MI+enalapril for another 4weeks.

    KEY FINDINGS: Roselle ameliorated OB and OB+MI's cardiac systolic dysfunction and reduced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. The increased oxidative markers and decreased antioxidant enzymes in OB and OB+MI groups were all attenuated by roselle.

    SIGNIFICANCE: These observations indicate the protective effect of roselle on cardiac dysfunction in OB and OB+MI rats, which suggest its potential to be developed as a nutraceutical product for obese and obese patients with MI in the future.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/chemistry
  15. Shaipulah NF, Muhlemann JK, Woodworth BD, Van Moerkercke A, Verdonk JC, Ramirez AA, et al.
    Plant Physiol, 2016 Feb;170(2):717-31.
    PMID: 26620524 DOI: 10.1104/pp.15.01646
    Anthocyanins and volatile phenylpropenes (isoeugenol and eugenol) in petunia (Petunia hybrida) flowers have the precursor 4-coumaryl coenzyme A (CoA) in common. These phenolics are produced at different stages during flower development. Anthocyanins are synthesized during early stages of flower development and sequestered in vacuoles during the lifespan of the flowers. The production of isoeugenol and eugenol starts when flowers open and peaks after anthesis. To elucidate additional biochemical steps toward (iso)eugenol production, we cloned and characterized a caffeoyl-coenzyme A O-methyltransferase (PhCCoAOMT1) from the petals of the fragrant petunia 'Mitchell'. Recombinant PhCCoAOMT1 indeed catalyzed the methylation of caffeoyl-CoA to produce feruloyl CoA. Silencing of PhCCoAOMT1 resulted in a reduction of eugenol production but not of isoeugenol. Unexpectedly, the transgenic plants had purple-colored leaves and pink flowers, despite the fact that cv Mitchell lacks the functional R2R3-MYB master regulator ANTHOCYANIN2 and has normally white flowers. Our results indicate that down-regulation of PhCCoAOMT1 activated the anthocyanin pathway through the R2R3-MYBs PURPLE HAZE (PHZ) and DEEP PURPLE, with predominantly petunidin accumulating. Feeding cv Mitchell flowers with caffeic acid induced PHZ expression, suggesting that the metabolic perturbation of the phenylpropanoid pathway underlies the activation of the anthocyanin pathway. Our results demonstrate a role for PhCCoAOMT1 in phenylpropene production and reveal a link between PhCCoAOMT1 and anthocyanin production.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/chemistry
  16. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Karimi E
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012 Nov 13;13(11):14828-44.
    PMID: 23203096 DOI: 10.3390/ijms131114828
    The effect of foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations (10-3 M and 10-5 M) was investigated on the production of secondary metabolites (flavonoids), chalcone synthase (CHS) activity, antioxidant activity and anticancer activity (against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) in two varieties of Malaysian ginger, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. The results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that application of SA induced the synthesis of anthocyanin and fisetin in both varieties. Anthocyanin and fisetin were not detected in the control plants. Accordingly, the concentrations of some flavonoids (rutin and apigenin) decreased significantly in plants treated with different concentrations of SA. The present study showed that SA enhanced the chalcone synthase (CHS) enzyme activity (involving flavonoid synthesis) and recorded the highest activity value of 5.77 nkat /mg protein in Halia Bara with the 10-5 M SA treatment. As the SA concentration was decreased from 10-3 M to 10-5 M, the free radical scavenging power (FRAP) increased about 23% in Halia Bentong and 10.6% in Halia Bara. At a concentration of 350 μg mL-1, the DPPH antioxidant activity recorded the highest value of 58.30%-72.90% with the 10-5 M SA treatment followed by the 10-3 M SA (52.14%-63.66%) treatment. The lowest value was recorded in the untreated control plants (42.5%-46.7%). These results indicate that SA can act not only as an inducer but also as an inhibitor of secondary metabolites. Meanwhile, the highest anticancer activity against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines was observed for H. Bara extracts treated with 10-5 M SA with values of 61.53 and 59.88%, respectively. The results suggest that the high anticancer activity in these varieties may be related to the high concentration of potent anticancer components including fisetin and anthocyanin. The results thus indicate that the synthesis of flavonoids in ginger can be increased by foliar application of SA in a controlled environment and that the anticancer activity in young ginger extracts could be improved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/chemistry
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