Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 59 in total

  1. Poobathy R, Zakaria R, Murugaiyah V, Subramaniam S
    PLoS One, 2018;13(4):e0195642.
    PMID: 29649288 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195642
    Anoectochilus sp. and Ludisia discolor are known as Jewel orchids. Both species are terrestrial wild orchids that grow in shaded areas of forests. The Jewel orchids are renowned for the beauty of their leaves, which are dark-green laced with silvery or golden veins. The orchids are used as a cure in various parts of Asia. Overharvesting and anthropogenic disturbances threaten the existence of the Jewel orchids in the wild, necessitating human intervention in their survival. An understanding of the structure and adaptations of a plant may assist in its survival when propagated outside of its habitat. In this study, ex vitro leaves of Anoectochilus sp. and L. discolor were subjected to freehand sectioning, and then inspected through brightfield and fluorescence microscopy. The study indicated that all parts of both plants presented typical monocotyledonous characteristics except the leaves. The leaves displayed dorsiventrality with distinct palisade and spongy mesophyll layers. The spongy mesophyll layer contained cells which fluoresced a bright red when exposed to ultraviolet, blue, and green light wavelengths, hinting at the presence of anthocyanins for photoprotection. Cyanidin was detected in the leaves of L. discolor, as enumerated through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The observations indicated that Anoectochilus sp. and L. discolor are well-adapted to live under shaded conditions with minimal exposure to light.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/analysis*; Anthocyanins/chemistry
  2. MohdMaidin N, Oruna-Concha MJ, Jauregi P
    Food Chem, 2019 Jan 15;271:224-231.
    PMID: 30236671 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.07.083
    Red grape pomace, a wine-making by-product is rich in anthocyanins and has many applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. However, anthocyanins are unstable during processing and storage. This study aimed to investigate the stability of anthocyanins obtained by hydroalcoholic extraction (with and without sorbic acid) and colloidal gas aphrons (CGA) separation; a surfactant (TWEEN20) based separation. Anthocyanins in CGA samples showed higher stability (half-life = 55 d) than in the crude extract (half-life = 43 d) and their stability increased with the concentration of TWEEN20 in the CGA fraction (6.07-8.58 mM). The anthocyanins loss in the CGA sample (with the maximum content of surfactant, 8.58 mM) was 34.90%, comparable to that in the crude ethanolic extract with sorbic acid (EE-SA) (31.53%) and lower than in the crude extract (44%). Colour stabilisation was also observed which correlated well with the stability of individual anthocyanins in the EE and CGA samples. Malvidin-3-o-glucoside was the most stable anthocyanin over time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/isolation & purification*; Anthocyanins/chemistry
  3. Chan LK, Koay SS, Boey PL, Bhatt A
    Biol. Res., 2010;43(1):127-35.
    PMID: 21157639 DOI: /S0716-97602010000100014
    Plant cell cultures could be used as an important tool for biochemical production, ranging from natural coloring (pigments) to pharmaceutical products. Anthocyanins are becoming a very important alternative to synthetic dyes because of increased public concern over the safety of artificial food coloring agents. Several factors are responsible for the production of anthocyanin in cell cultures. In the present study, we investigate the effects of different environmental factors, such as light intensity, irradiance (continuous irradiance or continuous darkness), temperature and medium pH on cell biomass yield and anthocyanin production in cultures of Melastoma malabathricum. Moderate light intensity (301 - 600 lux) induced higher accumulation of anthocyanins in the cells. The cultures exposed to 10-d continuous darkness showed the lowest pigment content, while the cultures exposed to 10-d continuous irradiance showed the highest pigment content. The cell cultures incubated at a lower temperature range (20 ± 2 ºC) grew better and had higher pigment content than those grown at 26 ± 2 ºC and 29 ± 2 ºC. Different medium pH did not affect the yield of cell biomass but anthocyanin accumulation was highest at pH 5.25 - 6.25.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/biosynthesis*
  4. H-E. Khoo, Azlan A, Ismail A, Abas F
    Sains Malaysiana, 2013;42:949-954.
    This study aimed to determine the total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of defatted dabai parts based on liquid extraction and optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). A two-level factorial design was applied to determine the effect of two independent variables (extraction time: X1 and % methanol: X2) on three response variables (total phenolic content: Y1, total flavonoid/anthocyanin content: Y2 and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity: Y3). The optimum conditions for extraction time and percent methanol were 36 min or 1 min and 62.25% or 53% for the defatted dabai pulp or peel, respectively. The RSM optimized extraction was compared with sonication-assisted extraction. Optimization results showed that defatted dabai parts had high total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Sonication-assisted extraction utilized the optimized extraction conditions had further increased the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of defatted dabai peel, but not in the pulp. Therefore, optimization of different extraction methods for the defatted fruit parts is recommended for future studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins
  5. Gannasin SP, Adzahan NM, Hamzah MY, Mustafa S, Muhammad K
    Food Chem, 2015 Sep 1;182:292-301.
    PMID: 25842340 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.03.010
    Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) is an underutilised fruit in Malaysia. The fruit, however, contains good proportions of soluble fibre, protein, starch, anthocyanins and carotenoids. Amongst the fruits, only tamarillo mesocarp contains both polar (anthocyanins) and non-polar (carotenoids) pigments. The ability to retain both polar and non-polar pigments in the mesocarp could be related to the unique properties of its hydrocolloids. To understand the pigment-hydrocolloid interaction in the fruit, information on the physicochemical characteristics of the hydrocolloids is required. Therefore, hydrocolloids from the anthocyanin-rich seed mucilage fraction of the tamarillo and its carotenoid-rich pulp fraction were extracted and characterised. Water and 1% citric acid were used to extract the seed mucilage hydrocolloid while 72% ethanol and 20mM HEPES buffer were used for pulp hydrocolloid extraction. Seed mucilage hydrocolloid was primarily composed of arabinogalactan protein-associated pectin whereas pulp hydrocolloid was composed of hemicellulosic polysaccharides with some naturally interacting proteins and neutral polysaccharides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/analysis
  6. Chong FC, Gwee XF
    Nat Prod Res, 2015;29(15):1485-7.
    PMID: 25836369 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2015.1027892
    The ultrasonic extraction (UE) method of anthocyanin from Clitoria ternatea flowers using response surface methodology (RSM) was performed in this study. By using RSM, the objective is to optimise the extraction yield of anthocyanin from C. ternatea which is influenced by various factors, including the extraction temperature, time, ratio of solvent to solid and ultrasonic power. The empirical model was investigated by performing first-level optimisation in a two-level factorial design with Design Expert 7 software. In comparison with the conventional solvent extraction, UE showed a 246.48% better extraction yield and produced an anthocyanin extract with a radical scavenging activity of 68.48% at the optimised factors of 50°C, 150 min, 15 mL/g and 240 W.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/isolation & purification*
  7. Rabeta, M. S., Vithyia, M.
    This study was done to determine the effects of different thermal drying methods (sun drying, microwave drying and hot air oven drying) on the total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content and the antioxidant properties of Vitex negundo (VN) tea. Significant decline (P < 0.05) in antioxidant properties of hot air oven drying shows that this method is not the best method to preserve antioxidant compounds in VN tea. As a conclusion, microwave drying has been found to be a good method for maintain the TPC, anthocyanin content and AEAC in dried sample of VN tea.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins
  8. Sirinupong, T., Tirawat, D., Lau, W. J., Youravong, W.
    The experimental water flux of the forward osmosis (FO) process is much lower than the
    theoretical flux due to the existence of the internal concentration polarisation (ICP), external
    concentration polarisation (ECP), and membrane fouling. In the present work, vibration was
    integrated with the FO process to enhance water flux in water and Mao (Antidesma bunius L.
    Spreng) juice concentration. In addition, the capability of the FO process in preserving
    phytochemicals was studied. The use of the vibration assisted technique could enhance the
    water flux up to 23% during the FO process of distilled water due to the reduction of ICP, and
    a much higher water flux enhancement (up to 70%) was attained during the FO of Mao juice
    due to the reduction of ICP, ECP, and fouling. Phytochemicals including total phenolic
    compounds, anthocyanin, and ascorbic acid were preserved up to 82.7, 72.6, and 95.9%,
    respectively. These results suggest that membrane vibration is a promising technique for the
    enhancement of the FO process performance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins
  9. Anuar N, Mohd Adnan AF, Saat N, Aziz N, Mat Taha R
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2013;2013:810547.
    PMID: 24174918 DOI: 10.1155/2013/810547
    Anthocyanins not just have various benefits in food industry but also have been used as natural colourants in cosmetic, coating products and as potential natural photosensitizers in solar cell. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to obtain information on the maximum yield of anthocyanin that can be recovered from Melastoma malabathricum fruit. Factors such as extraction temperature, extraction time, and solid to liquid ratio were identified to be significantly affecting anthocyanin extraction efficiency. By using three-level three-factor Box-Behnken design, the optimized conditions for anthocyanin extraction by acidified methanol (R (2) = 0.972) were temperature of 60°C, time of 86.82 min, and 0.5 : 35 (g/mL) solid to liquid ratio while the optimum extraction conditions by acidified ethanol (R (2) = 0.954) were temperature of 60°C, time of 120 min, and 0.5 : 23.06 (g/mL) solid to liquid ratio. The crude anthocyanin extract was further purified by using Amberlite XAD-7 and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Identification of anthocyanins revealed the presence of cyanidin dihexoside, cyanidin hexoside, and delphinidin hexoside as the main anthocyanins in M. malabathricum fruit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/isolation & purification*; Anthocyanins/chemistry
  10. Ibrahim MH, Jaafar HZ
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(5):5290-306.
    PMID: 22754297 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13055290
    A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m(2)/s) for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 μmol/m(2)/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin) was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m(2)/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM) under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH) than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe) under this condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/metabolism; Anthocyanins/chemistry
  11. Yusof Z, Ramasamy S, Mahmood NZ, Yaacob JS
    Molecules, 2018 Jun 04;23(6).
    PMID: 29867000 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23061345
    This project studied the effect of vermicompost application on the composition of bioactive anthocyanin and phenolic compounds, and the antioxidant activity of Clinacanthus nutans. The correlation between the bioactive constituents and antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. In this project, a field study was conducted using a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four treatment groups, including control plants (CC), plants supplied with chemical fertilizer (CF), plants supplied with vermicompost (VC), and plants supplied with mixed fertilizer (MF). The leaves of C. nutans from all treatment groups were harvested, subjected to solvent extraction, and used for quantification of total anthocyanin content (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC), and total flavonoid content (TFC). The initial antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays, as well as after two and four weeks of storage at -20 °C and 4 °C. Data analysis showed that CC plants contained the highest TAC (2180.14 ± 338.43 µg/g dry weight) and TFC (276.25 ± 3.09 mg QE/g dry weight). On the other hand, CF plants showed the highest TPC (181.53 ± 35.58 mg GAE/g dry weight). Moreover, we found that CC plants had the highest antioxidant potential against DPPH radicals whereas MF plants showed the lowest antioxidant potential. After four weeks of extract storage at -20 °C and 4 °C, the TPC, TFC, TAC, and antioxidant potential of the extracts decreased. Extracts from VC showed the lowest percentage of total phenolic and total flavonoid loss after extract storage at -20 °C and 4 °C compared with other plant extracts. At this juncture, it could be deduced that the application of vermicompost had little effect on the expression of phenolics, flavonoids, or anthocyanin in C. nutans. However, the extract from plants treated with vermicompost (VC and MF) showed better stability compared with CC and CF after extract storage at different temperatures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/pharmacology; Anthocyanins/chemistry*
  12. Xue Mei L, Mohammadi Nafchi A, Ghasemipour F, Mat Easa A, Jafarzadeh S, Al-Hassan AA
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 Dec 01;164:4603-4612.
    PMID: 32941902 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.09.082
    The development of intelligent packaging based on natural and biodegradable resources is getting more attention by researchers in recent years. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a pH-sensitive films based on sago starch and incorporated with anthocyanin from torch ginger. The pH-sensitive films were fabricated by casting method with incorporation of different torch ginger extract (TGE) concentration. The surface morphology, physicochemical, barrier, and mechanical properties as well as the pH-sensitivity of films were investigated. The film with the highest concentration of TGE showed the lowest tensile strength (4.26 N/m2), toughness (2.54 MJ/m3), Young's modulus (73.96 MPa) and water vapour permeability (2.6 × 10-4 g·m/day·kPa·m2). However, its elongation at break (85.14%), moisture content (0.27%) and water solubility (37.92%) were the highest compared to other films. pH sensitivity analysis showed that the films containing TGE extract, changes in colour by changing the pH. The colour of films changed from pink to slightly green as the pH increased from pH 4 to 9. Thus, the developed pH-sensitive film with torch ginger extract has potential as intelligent packaging for detection of food freshness or spoilage to ensure their quality and safe consumption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/analysis; Anthocyanins/chemistry*
  13. Jaafar HZ, Ibrahim MH, Mohamad Fakri NF
    Molecules, 2012 Jun 13;17(6):7305-22.
    PMID: 22695235 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17067305
    A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER) (100%; well watered), (75%, moderate water stress), (50%; high water stress) and (25%; severe water stress). The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100%) ER L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (f(v)/f(m)) and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement) compared to severe water stress (25% ER). From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/metabolism; Anthocyanins/chemistry
  14. Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar HZ, Karimi E, Ibrahim MH
    PMID: 23176249 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-229
    The increase in atmospheric CO(2) concentration caused by climate change and agricultural practices is likely to affect biota by producing changes in plant growth, allocation and chemical composition. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of the application of salicylic acid (SA, at two levels: 0 and 10-3 M) and CO(2) enrichment (at two levels: 400 and 800 μmol·mol-1) on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from two Malaysian ginger varieties, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/analysis*; Anthocyanins/metabolism
  15. Rabeta, M.S., Lai, S.Y.
    Antioxidant capacity of Ocimum tenuiflorum L. or ‘ruku’ were determined in this study. Fresh
    leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum was subjected to freeze drying, vacuum drying and processed
    into fermented and unfermented tea. The samples were extracted using distilled water and the
    total phenolics, total flavonoids, condensed tannin content, anthocyanins and total antioxidant
    capacity (TAC) were assessed, measured with ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)
    and 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity (DPPH) assays. The results
    showed that drying the fresh leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum and processing them into tea leaves
    significantly increase (P < 0.05) the antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, total flavonoid
    content, and condensed tannin content. However, anthocyanins content showed reduction
    after drying. In the present study, it can be concluded that the vacuum drying method seem
    to produce a product with higher quality of antioxidant properties than freeze drying. Hence,
    vacuum drying can be used to replace freeze drying as it is also cheaper than freeze drying.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins
  16. Siti Azima, A.M., Noriham, A., Manshoor, N.
    The plant extract serves not only as a good source of bioactive compounds but also as natural pigment that can be applied as colourants in food and pharmaceutical products. The aim of this study were to determine the anthocyanin content of Garcinia mangostana peel extract (GMPE), Clitoria ternatea extract (CTE) and Syzigium cumini extract (SCE) in relation to their antioxidant activity and their colour properties. The antioxidant activities related to the phenolic constituents including anthocyanin content were determined based on the EC50 of DPPH radical scavenging activity and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay. The colour properties of the plant extracts were measured based on their degradation index (DI), indices of polymeric colour (PC) and colour density (CD). GMPE showed higher FRAP value and lower EC50 value which were 79.37 mmoles/g and 0.11 mg/ml, respectively, as compared to SCE extract with FRAP value, 25.66 mmoles/g and EC50 value, 0.22 mg/ml. Total monomeric anthocyanin (tmAcy) exhibited a strong correlation between FRAP assay (r2 = 0.998) and DPPH assay (r2 = 0.859). GMPE showed high CD (1.63 AU), moderate PC (0.18 AU) but low in DI (1.19 AU) while SCE exhibited low in CD (0.55 AU) and PC (0.07 AU) but moderate DI (1.26 AU). CTE exhibited high in DI (5.39 AU) and PC (0.19 AU) but moderate in CD (0.55). Hence, it can be concluded that colour pigment obtained from GMPE exhibited high antioxidant activity and better colour properties as compared to SCE and the strong correlation between tmAcy and two antioxidant activity assays which are FRAP and DPPH indicated that monomeric anthocyanin plays a major role in antioxidant activity of these plant extracts.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins
  17. Tee YK, Balasundram SK, Ding P, M Hanif AH, Bariah K
    J Sci Food Agric, 2019 Mar 15;99(4):1700-1708.
    PMID: 30206959 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.9359
    BACKGROUND: A series of fluorescence indices (anthocyanin, flavonol, chlorophyll and nitrogen balance) were deployed to detect the pigments and colourless flavonoids in cacao pods of three commercial cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) genotypes (QH1003, KKM22 and MCBC1) using a fast and non-destructive multiparametric fluorescence sensor. The aim was to determine optimum harvest periods (either 4 or 5 months after pod emergence) of commercial cacao based on fluorescence indices of cacao development and bean quality.

    RESULTS: As pod developed, cacao exhibited a rise with the peak of flavonol occurring at months 4 and 5 after pod maturity was initiated while nitrogen balance showed a decreasing trend during maturity. Cacao pods contained high chlorophyll as they developed but chlorophyll content declined significantly on pods that ripened at month 5.

    CONCLUSION: Cacao pods harvested at months 4 and 5 can be considered as commercially-ready as the beans have developed good quality and comply with the Malaysian standard on cacao bean specification. Thus, cacao pods can be harvested earlier when they reach maturity at month 4 after pod emergence to avoid germinated beans and over fermentation in ripe pods harvested at month 5. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins
  18. Si LY, Ali SAM, Latip J, Fauzi NM, Budin SB, Zainalabidin S
    Life Sci, 2017 Dec 15;191:157-165.
    PMID: 29066253 DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2017.10.030
    AIMS: Obesity increase the risks of hypertension and myocardial infarction (MI) mediated by oxidative stress. This study was undertaken to investigate the actions of roselle aqueous extract (R) on cardiotoxicity in obese (OB) rats and thereon OB rats subjected to MI.

    MAIN METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with either normal diet or high-fat diet for 8weeks. Firstly, OB rats were divided into (1) OB and (2) OB+R (100mg/kg, p.o, 28days). Then, OB rats were subjected to MI (ISO, 85mg/kg, s.c, 2days) and divided into three groups: (1) OB+MI, (2) OB+MI+R and (3) OB+MI+enalapril for another 4weeks.

    KEY FINDINGS: Roselle ameliorated OB and OB+MI's cardiac systolic dysfunction and reduced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. The increased oxidative markers and decreased antioxidant enzymes in OB and OB+MI groups were all attenuated by roselle.

    SIGNIFICANCE: These observations indicate the protective effect of roselle on cardiac dysfunction in OB and OB+MI rats, which suggest its potential to be developed as a nutraceutical product for obese and obese patients with MI in the future.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins/isolation & purification; Anthocyanins/therapeutic use*; Anthocyanins/chemistry
  19. Aishah, B., Nursabrina, M., Noriham, A., Norizzah, A.R., Mohamad Shahrimi, H.
    There are many factors influencing the stability and color variation of natural colorant anthocyanin and pH is among the most significant factor. This study aims to determine the stability of the anthocyanins in freeze-dried Hibiscus sabdariffa, Melastoma malabathricum and Ipomoea batatas in various acidic pH (pH 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5). Total monomeric anthocyanin, degradation index, color density and percent polymeric color were analyzed to determine anthocyanins degradation and their color variations. Among the samples, H.sabdariffa contain the highest monomeric anthocyanins (163.3 mg/L) followed by M. malabathricum (49.9 mg/L) and the lowest is I.batatas (13.8 mg/L). Monomeric anthocyanins from I.batatas were found to be very stable and not affected by changes in pH than in H. sabdariffa and M. malabathricum. However, degradation index (DI) of H. sabdariffa was the lowest with value of 0.365 ± 0.049 at pH 3.5. The lowest percentage of polymeric color (4.94 ± 0.64) was also shown by H. sabdariffa at pH 2.5 and maintained a deep red color with increasing pH indicating higher color stability compared to M. malabathricum and I. batatas. Overall, natural pigment in H. sabdariffa was found to be the most stable in both monomeric anthocyanin content and chromaticity properties. These results provided information that will further proven the potential usage of H. sabdariffa, M. malabathricum and I. batatas as natural coloring agents to replace the synthetic colorant in food and beverage industries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins
  20. Netramai S, Kijchavengkul T, Samsudin H, Lertsiri S
    Data Brief, 2020 Aug;31:105906.
    PMID: 32637506 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2020.105906
    Crude extracts of fresh Dendrobium Sonia 'Earsakul' orchid flowers (DSE) were prepared using microwave assisted extraction (MAE; using household microwave oven) and hot water extraction (HWE; at constant 80 °C). The obtained DSEs were measured their absorbance at λmax of 543 and 583 nm and determined their total monomeric anthocyanin contents (TAC). Mathematical models of MAE of Dendrobium Sonia 'Earsakul' orchid flower were constructed using response surface methodology - Box-Behnken design. Studied parameters included flower to water ratio, microwave power, and extraction time, with absorbance at λmax as response. The data generated were 1) visible spectrum (400-700 nm) of DSE; 2) absorbance values at λmax and 3) TAC of DSEs obtained from various extraction conditions of MAE and HWE; 4) linear equations describing correlations between TAC and absorbance at λmax of DSEs; and 5) mathematical models of MAE of Dendrobium Sonia 'Earsakul' orchid.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anthocyanins
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