Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 318 in total

  1. Chang CY, Wahid AA, Ong ELC
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop, 2021 03 22;54:e0896-2020.
    PMID: 33759937 DOI: 10.1590/0037-8682-0896-2020
    Matched MeSH terms: Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
  2. Syed Shahzad Hasan, Syed Imran Ahmed, Kow, Chia Siang
    Matched MeSH terms: Antifungal Agents*
  3. Mohd Nizam T, Binting RA, Mohd Saari S, Kumar TV, Muhammad M, Satim H, et al.
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 May;23(3):32-9.
    PMID: 27418867 MyJurnal
    This study aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of various antifungal agents against moulds isolated from dermatological specimens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antifungal Agents
  4. Al-Amiery AA, Kadhum AA, Mohamad AB
    Molecules, 2012;17(5):5713-23.
    PMID: 22628043 DOI: 10.3390/molecules17055713
    Newly synthesized coumarins 4-((5-mercapto-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)-methoxy)-2H-chromen-2-one and 4-((5-(phenylamino)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-methoxy)-2H-chromen-2-one were tested against selected types of fungi and showed significant activities. DFT calculations of the synthesized coumarins were performed using molecular structures with optimized geometries. Molecular orbital calculations provide a detailed description of the orbitals, including spatial characteristics, nodal patterns, and the contributions of individual atoms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antifungal Agents/pharmacology*; Antifungal Agents/chemistry
  5. Yuen KH, Wong JW, Billa N, Choy WP, Julianto T
    Med J Malaysia, 1999 Dec;54(4):482-6.
    PMID: 11072466
    The bioavailability of a generic preparation of ketoconazole (Zorinax from Xepa-Soul Pattinson, Malaysia) was evaluated in comparison with the innovator product (Nizoral from Janssen Pharmaceutica, Switzerland). Eighteen healthy male volunteers participated in the study conducted according to a two-way crossover design. The bioavailability was compared using the parameters, total area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-infinity), peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and time to reach peak plasma concentration (Tmax). No statistically significant difference was observed between the values of the two products in all the three parameters. Moreover, the 90% confidence interval for the ratio of the logarithmic transformed AUC0-infinity and Cmax values of Zorinax over Nizoral was found to lie between 0.82-1.04 and 0.83-1.02, respectively, being within the acceptable equivalence limit of 0.80-1.25. These findings indicate that the two preparations are comparable in the extent and rate of absorption. In addition, the elimination rate constant (ke) and apparent volume of distribution (Vd) were calculated. For both parameters, there was no statistically significant difference between the values obtained from the data of the two preparations. Moreover, the values are comparable to those reported in the literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antifungal Agents/blood; Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics*
  6. Saleem A, Khan A, Ahmad A, Khan MU, Babar ZU
    Res Social Adm Pharm, 2017 Nov;13(6):1218.
    PMID: 28768574 DOI: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2017.07.010
    Matched MeSH terms: Antifungal Agents/economics; Antifungal Agents/supply & distribution*
  7. Maluin FN, Hussein MZ, Yusof NA, Fakurazi S, Idris AS, Hilmi NHZ, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019 May 07;20(9).
    PMID: 31067720 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20092247
    The use of nanotechnology could play a significant role in the agriculture sector, especially in the preparation of new-generation agronanochemicals. Currently, the economically important plant of Malaysia, the oil palm, faces the threat of a devastating disease which is particularly caused by a pathogenic fungus, Ganoderma boninense. For the development of an effective antifungal agent, a series of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with a fumigant, dazomet, were prepared using various concentrations of sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP)-2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg/mL, abbreviated as CDEN2.5, CDEN5, CDEN10, and CDEN20, respectively. The effect of TPP as a crosslinking agent on the resulting particle size of the synthesized nanoparticles was investigated using a particle size analyzer and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Both methods confirmed that increasing the TPP concentration resulted in smaller particles. In addition, in vitro fumigant release at pH 5.5 showed that the release of the fumigant from the nanoparticles was of a sustained manner, with a prolonged release time up to 24 h. Furthermore, the relationship between the chitosan-dazomet nanoparticles and the in vitro antifungal activity against G. boninense was also explored, where the nanoparticles of the smallest size, CDEN20, gave the highest antifungal efficacy with the lowest half maximum effective concentration (EC50) value of 13.7 ± 1.76 ppb. This indicates that the smaller-sized agronanoparticles were more effective as an antifungal agent. The size can be altered, which plays a crucial role in combatting the Ganoderma disease. The agronanoparticles have controlled release properties and high antifungal efficacy on G. boninense, thus making them a promising candidate to be applied in the field for Ganoderma treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antifungal Agents/pharmacology; Antifungal Agents/chemistry*
  8. Aziz H, Adam NL, Karim NA
    BMJ Case Rep, 2021 Dec 08;14(12).
    PMID: 34880036 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2021-245025
    We report an elderly man who presented with giddiness and right-sided weakness, constipation and constitutional symptoms for 6 months duration. Blood investigations indicated hypercalcaemia with normal serum phosphate and acute kidney injury. Serum intact parathyroid hormone was suppressed. CT revealed bilateral tiny lung nodules with right upper lobe tree in bud appearance and incidental findings of bilateral adrenal lesion. Tuberculosis was ruled out. CT adrenal showed multiseptated hypodense rim enhancement adrenal lesion bilaterally. Adrenal function tests were normal except for low dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Right-sided cervical lymph node biopsy confirmed fungal infection with the presence of intracellular and extracellular fungal yeast. Serum cryptococcus antigen titre was positive. Our final diagnosis was disseminated cryptococcosis with lungs, bilateral adrenal gland and lymph nodes involvement. The patient was then treated with antifungal treatment. Serum calcium was normalised after 1 month with marked clinical improvement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
  9. Lim SJ, Mohamad Ali MS, Sabri S, Muhd Noor ND, Salleh AB, Oslan SN
    Med Mycol, 2021 Dec 03;59(12):1127-1144.
    PMID: 34506621 DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myab053
    Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by Candida spp. especially Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. Although the medicinal therapeutic strategies have rapidly improved, the mortality rate as candidiasis has continuously increased. The secreted and membrane-bound virulence factors (VFs) are responsible for fungal invasion, damage and translocation through the host enterocytes besides the evasion from host immune system. VFs such as agglutinin-like sequences (Als), heat shock protein 70, phospholipases, secreted aspartyl proteinases (Sap), lipases, enolases and phytases are mostly hydrolases which degrade or interact with the enterocyte membrane components. Candidalysin, however, acts as a peptide toxin to induce necrotic cell lysis. To date, structural studies of the VFs remain underexplored, hindering their functional analyses. Among the VFs, only Sap and Als have their structures deposited in Protein Data Bank (PDB). Therefore, this review scrutinizes the mechanisms of these VFs by discussing the VF-deficient studies of several Candida spp. and their abilities to produce these VFs. Nonetheless, their latest reported sequential and structural analyses are discussed to impart a wider perception of the host-pathogen interactions and potential vaccine or antifungal drug targets. This review signifies that more VFs structural investigations and mining in the emerging Candida spp. are required to decipher their pathogenicity and virulence mechanisms compared to the prominent C. albicans.

    LAY SUMMARY: Candida virulence factors (VFs) including mainly enzymes and proteins play vital roles in breaching the human intestinal barrier and causing deadly invasive candidiasis. Limited VFs' structural studies hinder deeper comprehension of their mechanisms and thus the design of vaccines and antifungal drugs against fungal infections.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
  10. Mohamed N, Ding CH, Wahab AA, Tzar MN, Hassan M
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2022 Oct 31;16(10):1668-1670.
    PMID: 36332225 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.17016
    Parengyodontium album is a very rarely encountered opportunistic fungal pathogen. A severely neutropenic 11-year-old boy with acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma was febrile and lethargic during his admission for elective chemotherapy. No cutaneous lesion or obvious source of infection was noted, and clinical examination was otherwise unremarkable. A blood specimen was sent for culture and fungal elements were visualized. Amphotericin B was administered empirically while awaiting fungal identification. Morphologically, a hyaline mould with thin septate hyphae plus smooth-walled conidiophores and conidiogenous cells arranged in whorls of up to four was cultured. Internal transcribed spacer region sequencing identified the fungus conclusively as P. album. Repeat blood culture was also positive for the same fungus. Following a two-week course of amphotericin B, fungemia clearance was attained.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
  11. Al-Fakih AM, Algamal ZY, Lee MH, Aziz M, Ali HTM
    SAR QSAR Environ Res, 2019 Feb;30(2):131-143.
    PMID: 30734580 DOI: 10.1080/1062936X.2019.1568298
    An improved binary differential search (improved BDS) algorithm is proposed for QSAR classification of diverse series of antimicrobial compounds against Candida albicans inhibitors. The transfer functions is the most important component of the BDS algorithm, and converts continuous values of the donor into discrete values. In this paper, the eight types of transfer functions are investigated to verify their efficiency in improving BDS algorithm performance in QSAR classification. The performance was evaluated using three metrics: classification accuracy (CA), geometric mean of sensitivity and specificity (G-mean), and area under the curve. The Kruskal-Wallis test was also applied to show the statistical differences between the functions. Two functions, S1 and V4, show the best classification achievement, with a slightly better performance of V4 than S1. The V4 function takes the lowest iterations and selects the fewest descriptors. In addition, the V4 function yields the best CA and G-mean of 98.07% and 0.977%, respectively. The results prove that the V4 transfer function significantly improves the performance of the original BDS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antifungal Agents/classification; Antifungal Agents/pharmacology; Antifungal Agents/chemistry*
  12. Gan HM, Parthasarathy A, Henry KR, Savka MA, Thomas BN, Hudson AO
    Microbiol Resour Announc, 2020 Feb 27;9(9).
    PMID: 32107300 DOI: 10.1128/MRA.01468-19
    In this study, we report the isolation, identification, characterization, and whole-genome sequence of the endophyte Pantoea sp. strain RIT388, isolated from Distemonanthus benthamianus, a plant known for its antifungal and antibacterial properties that is commonly used for chewing sticks.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antifungal Agents
  13. Raju Y P, N H, Chowdary V H, Nair RS, Basha D J, N T
    Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol, 2017 Dec;45(8):1539-1547.
    PMID: 27887040 DOI: 10.1080/21691401.2016.1260579
    Research was aimed on microemulsion-based hydrogel for voriconazole. Oleic acid and isopropyl myristate as lipid phases; tween 20: tween 80 as surfactants and PEG600 as cosurfactant were selected to formulate voriconazole microemulsions. The promising microemulsions in terms of zeta potential, pH, viscosity, and drug release were selected and developed into hydrogels using carbopol 934. Resulting microemulsion-based hydrogel (MBH) of voriconazole were evaluated for in vitro diffusion and ex vivo permeation. Antifungal potentials of MBH were assessed against selected fungal strains. Optimal MBH formulations, O6 and O8 had displayed their antifungal potentials with enlarged zone of inhibition against selected fungal strains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antifungal Agents/metabolism; Antifungal Agents/pharmacology; Antifungal Agents/toxicity*; Antifungal Agents/chemistry*
  14. Moghadamtousi SZ, Kadir HA, Hassandarvish P, Tajik H, Abubakar S, Zandi K
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:186864.
    PMID: 24877064 DOI: 10.1155/2014/186864
    Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae family) and its polyphenolic compound curcumin have been subjected to a variety of antimicrobial investigations due to extensive traditional uses and low side effects. Antimicrobial activities for curcumin and rhizome extract of C. longa against different bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites have been reported. The promising results for antimicrobial activity of curcumin made it a good candidate to enhance the inhibitory effect of existing antimicrobial agents through synergism. Indeed, different investigations have been done to increase the antimicrobial activity of curcumin, including synthesis of different chemical derivatives to increase its water solubility as well ass cell up take of curcumin. This review aims to summarize previous antimicrobial studies of curcumin towards its application in the future studies as a natural antimicrobial agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antifungal Agents/pharmacology*
  15. James JE, Santhanam J, Lee MC, Wong CX, Sabaratnam P, Yusoff H, et al.
    Mycopathologia, 2017 Apr;182(3-4):305-313.
    PMID: 27815659 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-016-0085-5
    Neoscytalidium dimidiatum is an opportunistic fungus causing cutaneous infections mostly, which are difficult to treat due to antifungal resistance. In Malaysia, N. dimidiatum is associated with skin and nail infections, especially in the elderly. These infections may be mistaken for dermatophyte infections due to similar clinical appearance. In this study, Neoscytalidium isolates from cutaneous specimens, identified using morphological and molecular methods (28 Neoscytalidium dimidiatum and 1 Neoscytalidium sp.), were evaluated for susceptibility towards antifungal agents using the CLSI broth microdilution (M38-A2) and Etest methods. Amphotericin B, voriconazole, miconazole and clotrimazole showed high in vitro activity against all isolates with MIC ranging from 0.0313 to 1 µg/mL. Susceptibility towards fluconazole and itraconazole was noted in up to 10% of isolates, while ketoconazole was inactive against all isolates. Clinical breakpoints for antifungal drugs are not yet available for most filamentous fungi, including Neoscytalidium species. However, the results indicate that clinical isolates of N. dimidiatum in Malaysia were sensitive towards miconazole, clotrimazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B, in vitro.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antifungal Agents/pharmacology*
  16. Abd Rashed A, Rathi DG, Ahmad Nasir NAH, Abd Rahman AZ
    Molecules, 2021 Feb 19;26(4).
    PMID: 33669627 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26041093
    Essential oils (EOs) are known to have varying degrees of antimicrobial properties that are mainly due to the presence of bioactive compounds. These include antiviral, nematicidal, antifungal, insecticidal and antioxidant properties. This review highlights the potential of EOs and their compounds for application as antifungal agents for the treatment of skin diseases via conventional and nonconventional approaches. A search was conducted using three databases (Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar), and all relevant articles from the period of 2010-2020 that are freely available in English were extracted. In our findings, EOs with a high percentage of monoterpenes showed strong ability as potential antifungal agents. Lavandula sp., Salvia sp., Thymus sp., Citrus sp., and Cymbopogon sp. were among the various species found to show excellent antifungal properties against various skin diseases. Some researchers developed advanced formulations such as gel, semi-solid, and ointment bases to further evaluate the effectiveness of EOs as antifungal agents. To date, most studies on the application of EOs as antifungal agents were performed using in vitro techniques, and only a limited number pursued in vivo and intervention-based research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use*
  17. Leung AKC, Leong KF, Lam JM
    Curr Pediatr Rev, 2019;15(3):170-174.
    PMID: 30734680 DOI: 10.2174/1573396315666190207151941
    BACKGROUND: Tinea imbricata is a chronic superficial mycosis caused mainly by Trichophyton concentricum. The condition mainly affects individuals living in primitive and isolated environment in developing countries and is rarely seen in developed countries. Physicians in nonendemic areas might not be aware of this fungal infection.

    OBJECTIVE: To familiarize physicians with the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of tinea imbricata.

    METHODS: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key terms "Tinea imbricata" and "Trichophyton concentricum". The search strategy included meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, observational studies, reviews, and case reports. The information retrieved from the above search was used in the compilation of the present article.

    RESULTS: The typical initial lesions of tinea imbricata consist of multiple, brownish red, scaly, pruritic papules. The papules then spread centrifugally to form annular and/or concentric rings that can extend to form serpinginous or polycyclic plaques with or without erythema. With time, multiple overlapping lesions develop, and the plaques become lamellar with abundant thick scales adhering to the interior of the lesion, giving rise to the appearance of overlapping roof tiles, lace, or fish scales. Lamellar detachment of the scales is common. The diagnosis is mainly clinical, based on the characteristic skin lesions. If necessary, the diagnosis can be confirmed by potassium hydroxide wet-mount examination of skin scrapings of the active border of the lesion which typically shows short septate hyphae, numerous chlamydoconidia, and no arthroconidia. Currently, oral terbinafine is the drug of choice for the treatment of tinea imbricata. Combined therapy of an oral antifungal agent with a topical antifungal and keratolytic agent may increase the cure rate.

    CONCLUSION: In most cases, a spot diagnosis of tinea imbricata can be made based on the characteristic skin lesions consisting of scaly, concentric annular rings and overlapping plaques that are pruritic. Due to popularity of international travel, physicians involved in patient care should be aware of this fungal infection previously restricted to limited geographical areas.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use*
  18. Alharthi AM, Lee MH, Algamal ZY, Al-Fakih AM
    SAR QSAR Environ Res, 2020 Aug;31(8):571-583.
    PMID: 32628042 DOI: 10.1080/1062936X.2020.1782467
    One of the most challenging issues when facing a Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) classification model is to deal with the descriptor selection. Penalized methods have been adapted and have gained popularity as a key for simultaneously performing descriptor selection and QSAR classification model estimation. However, penalized methods have drawbacks such as having biases and inconsistencies that make they lack the oracle properties. This paper proposes an adaptive penalized logistic regression (APLR) to overcome these drawbacks. This is done by employing a ratio (BWR) of the descriptors between-groups sum of squares (BSS) to the within-groups sum of squares (WSS) for each descriptor as a weight inside the L1-norm. The proposed method was applied to one dataset that consists of a diverse series of antimicrobial agents with their respective bioactivities against Candida albicans. By experimental study, it has been shown that the proposed method (APLR) was more efficient in the selection of descriptors and classification accuracy than the other competitive methods that could be used in developing QSAR classification models. Another dataset was also successfully experienced. Therefore, it can be concluded that the APLR method had significant impact on QSAR analysis and studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antifungal Agents/chemistry*
  19. Walvekar S, Anwar A, Anwar A, Sridewi N, Khalid M, Yow YY, et al.
    Acta Trop, 2020 Nov;211:105618.
    PMID: 32628912 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105618
    Acanthamoeba spp. are free living amoeba (FLA) which are widely distributed in nature. They are opportunistic parasites and can cause severe infections to the eye, skin and central nervous system. The advances in drug discovery and modifications in the chemotherapeutic agents have shown little improvement in morbidity and mortality rates associated with Acanthamoeba infections. The mechanism-based process of drug discovery depends on the molecular drug targets present in the signaling pathways in the genome. Synthetic libraries provide a platform for broad spectrum of activities due to their desired structural modifications. Azoles, originally a class of synthetic anti-fungal drugs, disrupt the fungal cell membrane by inhibiting the biosynthesis of ergosterol through the inhibition of cytochrome P450 dependent 14α-lanosterol, a key step of the sterol pathway. Acanthamoeba and fungi share the presence of similar sterol intermediate, as ergosterol is also the major end-product in the sterol biosynthesis in Acanthamoeba. Sterols present in the eukaryotic cell membrane are one of the most essential lipids and exhibit important structural and signaling functions. Therefore, in this review we highlight the importance of specific targeting of ergosterol present in Acanthamoebic membrane by azole compounds for amoebicidal activity. Previously, azoles have also been repurposed to report antimicrobial, antiparasitic and antibacterial properties. Moreover, by loading the azoles into nanoparticles through advanced techniques in nanotechnology, such as physical encapsulation, adsorption, or chemical conjugation, the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic index of the drugs can be significantly improved. The current review proposes an important strategy to target Acanthamoeba using synthetic libraries of azoles and their conjugated nanoparticles for the first time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antifungal Agents/pharmacology*
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