Malnutrition is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century, with one in three people in the world malnourished, combined with poor diets being the leading cause of the global burden of disease. Fish is an under-recognised and undervalued source of micronutrients, which could play a more significant role in addressing this global challenge. With rising pressures on capture fisheries, demand is increasingly being met from aquaculture. However, aquaculture systems are designed to maximise productivity, with little consideration for nutritional quality of fish produced. A global shift away from diverse capture species towards consumption of few farmed species, has implications for diet quality that are yet to be fully explored. Bangladesh provides a useful case study of this transition, as fish is the most important animal-source food in diets, and is increasingly supplied from aquaculture. We conducted a temporal analysis of fish consumption and nutrient intakes from fish in Bangladesh, using nationally representative household expenditure surveys from 1991, 2000 and 2010 (n = 25,425 households), combined with detailed species-level nutrient composition data. Fish consumption increased by 30% from 1991-2010. Consumption of non-farmed species declined by 33% over this period, compensated (in terms of quantity) by large increases in consumption of farmed species. Despite increased total fish consumption, there were significant decreases in iron and calcium intakes from fish (P<0.01); and no significant change in intakes of zinc, vitamin A and vitamin B12 from fish, reflecting lower overall nutritional quality of fish available for consumption over time. Our results challenge the conventional narrative that increases in food supply lead to improvements in diet and nutrition. As aquaculture becomes an increasingly important food source, it must embrace a nutrition-sensitive approach, moving beyond maximising productivity to also consider nutritional quality. Doing so will optimise the complementary role that aquaculture and capture fisheries play in improving nutrition and health.
The aquaculture industry has become increasingly important and is rapidly growing in terms of providing a protein food source for human consumption. With the increase in the global population, demand for aquaculture is high and is estimated to reach 62% of the total global production by 2030. In 2018, it was reported that the demand for aquaculture was 46% of the total production, and with the current positive trends, it may be possible to increase tremendously in the coming years. China is still one of the main players in global aquaculture production. Due to high demand, aquaculture production generates large volumes of effluent, posing a great danger to the environment. Aquaculture effluent comprises solid waste and dissolved constituents, including nutrients and contaminants of emerging concern, thereby bringing detrimental impacts such as eutrophication, chemical toxicity, and food insecurity. Waste can be removed through culture systems, constructed wetlands, biofloc, and other treatment technologies. Some methods have the potential to be applied as zero-waste discharge treatment. Thus, this article analyses the supply and demand for aquaculture products, the best practices adopted in the aquaculture industry, effluent characteristics, current issues, and effluent treatment technology.
Development of thermophilic composting for maximizing NH3 gas recovery would enable the production of a nitrogen source which is free from pathogen/heavy metal, for the cultivation of high-value microalgae. The present study examined the effect of NH3 recovery, nitrogen mass balance, and microbial community dynamics on thermophilic composting of shrimp aquaculture sludge. The emission of NH3 gas at 60 and 70 °C was 14.7% and 15.6%, respectively, which was higher than that at 50 °C (9.0%). The nitrogen mass balance analysis revealed that higher temperatures enhanced the solubilization of non-dissolved nitrogen and liberation of NH3 gas from the produced NH4+-N. High-throughput microbial community analysis revealed the shift of the dominant bacterial group from Bacillus to Geobacillus with the rise of composting temperature. In conclusion, thermophilic composting of shrimp aquaculture sludge at 60-70 °C was the most favorable condition for enhancing NH3 gas recovery.
Asian arowana, Scleropages formosus is a highly valued aquarium fish in the world, particularly in Asian countries, and has been listed as one of the most highly endangered species. This is a freshwater, carnivorous, fairly large mouth breeding fish belonging to the family Osteoglossidae. Arowana can be found in different colour varieties such as green, red, silver and golden. Among these varieties, Malaysian golden is the most valuable fish and is endemic to the Krian riverine system, Malaysia. However, overexploitation, habitat change and pollution have caused a serious decline of this arowana variety. Recently, arowana aquaculture industry is expanding rapidly in Southeast Asian countries. However, difficulties in an accurate differentiation of sex and strains, causing imbalanced stocking ratios for optimum spawning, remain major obstacles in maximizing arowana production. In addition, problems in sustainable water sources of suitable quality and prevention of diseases need to be addressed. Recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) and bioremediation are two possible technologies that could be used to minimize pollution and ensure adequate high-quality water for arowana culture. In addition, the application of appropriate molecular markers for sex and strain identification is also an important strategy required for the improvement of captive breeding. This review discusses several issues such as the importance of arowana as an aquarium fish, its market demand, current problems in the arowana aquaculture industry and the possible technologies to enhance reproductive capacity and increase culture production. ?
Seafood is seen as promising for more sustainable diets. The increasing production in land-based closed Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RASs) has overcome many local environmental challenges with traditional open net-pen systems such as eutrophication. The energy needed to maintain suitable water quality, with associated emissions, has however been seen as challenging from a global perspective. This study uses Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to investigate the environmental performance and improvement potentials of a commercial RAS farm of tilapia and Clarias in Sweden. The environmental impact categories and indicators considered were freshwater eutrophication, climate change, energy demand, land use, and dependency on animal-source feed inputs per kg of fillet. We found that feed production contributed most to all environmental impacts (between 67 and 98%) except for energy demand for tilapia, contradicting previous findings that farm-level energy use is a driver of environmental pressures. The main improvement potentials include improved by-product utilization and use of a larger proportion of plant-based feed ingredients. Together with further smaller improvement potential identified, this suggests that RASs may play a more important role in a future, environmentally sustainable food system.
Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis in cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon is caused by the newly emerged pathogen Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP). It has been detected in shrimp cultured in China, Vietnam and Thailand and is suspected to have occurred in Malaysia and Indonesia and to be associated with severely retarded growth. Due to retarded shrimp growth being reported at farms in the major grow-out states of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha in India, shrimp were sampled from a total of 235 affected ponds between March 2014 and April 2015 to identify the presence of EHP. PCR and histology detected a high prevalence of EHP in both P. monodon and L. vannamei, and infection was confirmed by in situ hybridization using an EHP-specific DNA probe. Histology revealed basophilic inclusions in hepatopancreas tubule epithelial cells in which EHP was observed at various developmental stages ranging from plasmodia to mature spores. The sequence of a region of the small subunit rDNA gene amplified by PCR was found to be identical to EHP sequences deposited in GenBank. Bioassays confirmed that EHP infection could be transmitted orally to healthy shrimp. Histology also identified bacterial co-infections in EHP-infected shrimp sampled from slow-growth ponds with low-level mortality. The data confirm that hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis caused by EHP is prevalent in shrimp being cultivated in India. EHP infection control measures thus need to be implemented urgently to limit impacts of slowed shrimp growth.
An aquaponic system is considered to be a sustainable food production solution that follows circular economy principles and the biomimetic natural system to reduce input and waste. It is the combination of two mainly productive systems, a recirculating aquaculture system consists of fish and crustaceans farmed in a tank and hydroponic cultivation consists of vegetable cultured in medium other than soil. Both these systems are well-known around the globe by their performance of production, quality, and verified food safety. An aquaponic system is an industrious mechanism which incorporates impeccably with sustainable growth of intensive agriculture. The existing literature regarding the aquaponic production covers different species of vegetables and fish, a variety of layouts of system, and climate conditions. However, there is a lack of knowledge that can systematically present the existing state-of-the-artwork in a systematic manner. So to overcome this limitation, the proposed research presents a systematic literature review in the field of urban aquaponics. This systematic literature review will help practitioners to take help from the existing literature and propose new solutions based on the available evidence in urban aquaponics.
The causative agent responsible for vibriosis in tropical fish aquaculture, Vibrio harveyi, has become a major bacterial pathogen. Studies suggest that this bacterium has developed resistance to antibiotics commonly used in aquaculture. In view of this situation and the requirement for the proposed postantibiotic era, bacteriophage therapy seems to be a promising control strategy for fish vibriosis. In this study, a lytic Vibrio phage VhKM4 belonging to a member of large, marine Myoviridae was successfully isolated. It exhibited bacteriolysis to both V. harveyi VHJR7 and V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802. The latent period of the VhKM4 phage was recorded at 60 min. It also recorded average burst size of approximately 52 plaque-forming units per infected cell. A strong bacteriolytic activity at low multiplicity of infection of 0.01 indicates the effectiveness of this large marine myovirid against fish pathogenic strain of V. harveyi VHJR7. Received June 16, 2016; accepted October 7, 2016.
The emerging technology of aptamers that is also known as synthetic antibodies is rivalling antibodies research in the recent years. The unique yet important features of aptamers are advancing antibodies in diverse applications, which include disease diagnosis, prophylactic and therapeutic. The versatility of aptamer has further extended its application to function as gene expression modulator, known as synthetic riboswitches. This report reviewed and discussed the applications of aptamers technology in the biosecurity of aquaculture, the promising developments in biosensor detection for disease diagnosis as well as prophylactic and therapeutic measurements. The application of aptamers technology in immunophenotyping study of aquatic animal is highlighted. Lastly, the future perspective of aptamers in the management of aquatic animal health is discussed, special emphasis on the potential application of aptamers as synthetic riboswitches to enhance host immunity, as well as the growth performance.
Microplastics pollution has become a threat to aquaculture practices, as nearly all farming systems are saturated with microplastics (MPs) particles. Current research on MPs is limited considering their effects on aquatic organisms and human health. However, limited research has been conducted on potential cures and treatments. In today's world, bioremediation of needful parameters in different culture systems is being successfully practiced by introducing floc-forming bacteria. Researchers had found that some bacteria are efficacious in degrading microplastics particles including polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), and polypropylene (PP). In addition, some bacteria that can form floc, are being used in fish and shellfish culture systems to treat toxic pollutants as the heterotrophic bacteria use organic compounds to grow and are effective in degrading microplastics and minimizing toxic nitrogen loads in aquaculture systems. In this review, the ability of biofloc bacteria to degrade microplastics has been summarized by collating the results of previous studies. The concept of this review may represent the efficacy of biofloc technology as an implicit tool in the fish culture system restricting the MPs contamination in water resources to safeguard ecological as well as human health.
Food production is a major driver of global environmental change and the overshoot of planetary sustainability boundaries. Greater affluence in developing nations and human population growth are also increasing demand for all foods, and for animal proteins in particular. Consequently, a growing body of literature calls for the sustainable intensification of food production, broadly defined as "producing more using less". Most assessments of the potential for sustainable intensification rely on only one or two indicators, meaning that ecological trade-offs among impact categories that occur as production intensifies may remain unaccounted for. The present study addresses this limitation using life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify six local and global environmental consequences of intensifying aquaculture production in Bangladesh. Production data are from a unique survey of 2,678 farms, and results show multidirectional associations between the intensification of aquaculture production and its environmental impacts. Intensification (measured in material and economic output per unit primary area farmed) is positively correlated with acidification, eutrophication, and ecotoxicological impacts in aquatic ecosystems; negatively correlated with freshwater consumption; and indifferent with regard to global warming and land occupation. As production intensifies, the geographical locations of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, acidifying emissions, freshwater consumption, and land occupation shift from the immediate vicinity of the farm to more geographically dispersed telecoupled locations across the globe. Simple changes in fish farming technology and management practices that could help make the global transition to more intensive forms of aquaculture be more sustainable are identified.
Cobia Rachycentron canadum, is one of the emerging aquaculture species but is usually a non-target resource in fisheries
industry and within Malaysia, their landings are among the highest worldwide. Identification of stocks with unique
morphological characters is important for effective management and sustainable utilization. Morphometric variations
among three different cobia populations from Kedah, Terengganu and Johor were studied. All the morphometric
characteristics varied among the three populations as all the elements of the first Eigen vector were positive. Discriminant
analysis suggested that head depth (HD) and maximum body depth, (MaxD) were the most varied among the populations.
Cobia populations from Kedah and Johor were in a single cluster in the dendrogram with a 63.69% similarity while
Terengganu was in another cluster with a similarity of 8.01% from Kedah and Johor. The differences in the observed
morphometry may be resulted from different trophic activities and/or habitat productiveness explored by each of the
Despite having high economical value and declining wild population, the aquaculture of the Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) is still way behind. Crucial information such as on its sexual dimorphism is scarce thus making its broodstock management in captivity challenging. The first step in studying fish sexual dimorphism is by observing and identifying the morphological differences between each sex. Thus, this article collected and described morphometric measurements data of broodstock reared in captive conditions. The broodstock were reared and raised in captivity for five years since they were bought from a local commercial supplier while they were five-inch fingerlings. Seven conventional and 21 Truss network morphometric measurements were taken from 27 male (TL: 53.88 ± 2.86 cm; W: 1.82 ± 0.23 kg) and 27 female (TL: 53.97 ± 3.62 cm; W: 1.86 ± 0.35 kg) T. tambroides broodstocks using digital image analysis. Photograph of the fish broodstocks were captured and the morphometric measurements were conducted using imageJ freeware. Statistical analysis was later conducted on the morphometric data to identify the morphological differences between the broodstocks. This dataset will not only aid the sex identification of this species but also in stock population studies thus accelerating the development of T. tambroides aquaculture while improving its conservation efforts.
Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) or formerly known as early mortality syndrome (EMS) is an emerging disease that has caused significant economic losses to the aquaculture industry. The primary causative agent of AHPND is Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium that has gained plasmids encoding the fatal binary toxins Pir A/Pir B that cause rapid death of the infected shrimp. In this review, the current research studies and information about AHPND in shrimps have been presented. Molecular diagnostic tools and potential treatments regarding AHPND were also included. This review also includes relevant findings which may serve as guidelines that can help for further investigation and studies on AHPND or other shrimp diseases.
Feed efficiency (FE) is the amount of body weight gain for a given feed intake. Improving FE through selective breeding is key for sustainable finfish aquaculture but its evaluation at individual level is technically challenging. We therefore investigated whether individual routine metabolic rate (RMR) was a predictor of individual FE in the European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, a major species in European mariculture. The European sea bass has three genetically distinct populations across its geographical range, namely Atlantic (AT), West Mediterranean (WM), and East Mediterranean (EM). We compared FE and RMR of fish from these three populations at 18 or 24 °C. We held 200 fish (62 AT, 66 WM, and 72 EM) in individual aquaria and fed them from ad libitum down to fasting. FI was assessed for an ad libitum feeding rate and for a fixed restricted ration (1% of metabolic body weight·day-1, with metabolic body weight = body weight0.8). After being refed 12 wk in a common tank, individual RMR was measured over 36 h by intermittent flow respirometry. There was a significant effect of temperature whereby fish at 18 °C had greater mean FE (P < 0.05) and lower RMR (P < 0.001). There was also a significant effect of population, where AT fish had lower FE (P < 0.05) and greater RMR (P < 0.001) than WM and EM, at both temperatures. Despite these differences in temperature and population means, individual FE and RMR were not significantly correlated (P > 0.05). Therefore, although the results provide evidence of an association between metabolic rate and FE, RMR was not a predictor of individual FE, for reasons that require further investigation.
Aquaculture is a growing industry with a great potential towards the contribution of the country’s total
fish requirement. Serious efforts have been done to develop and improve the production of fish by rearing high value fish in tanks or ponds. Under the Third National Agricultural Policy (1998-2010), the target is to annually produce 1.93 million tonnes of fish worth approximately RM8.3 billion by the year 2010. Consequently, the development of an automatic fish feeding machine can be very beneficial to the growth of the aquaculture industry. This device was developed to overcome labour problems in the industry and introduce a semi-automatic process in the aquaculture industry. It has the ability to dispense dried fish food in various forms such as pellets, sticks, tablets or granules into fish tanks or ponds in a controlled manner for a stipulated time. The automatic fish feeder is controlled by a digital timer and it is capable of feeding the fish in accordance with a pre-determined time schedule without the presence of an operator, and at a feeding rate of 250g/min. The feeder can be adjusted to the desired height and conveniently moved around to be positioned adjacent to the pond or tank. Meanwhile, its hopper can be covered and easily dissembled to change the size of the hopper to accommodate different capacities of feed. This automatic fish feeder can be implemented in aquaculture system to convenience to fish culturists.
The Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) is one of the most economically important aquaculture fish species in South East Asia. While the biology of the Asian seabass is widely studied, relatively little information is available at the molecular level. This lack of molecular information represents one obstacle to rapid progress in the study of immune responses particularly under aquaculture conditions. In light of this situation, we have undertaken an expressed sequence tag (EST) project on the Asian seabass spleen, the secondary lymphoid organ, for the identification of immune-related genes. A
total of 2932 ESTs were generated and grouped into 1063 unique transcripts (UTs), which consisted of 104 consensi and 959 singletons. Of these, 51.3% (545/1063) matched to previously identified genes, while 48.7% (518/1063) showed no match. Of the 545 homologous UTs, 102 (9.6%) can be putatively identified as immune-related genes. The identification of the putative immune-related genes provides a meaningful framework in the effort to comprehend the Asian seabass immune system that may lead to an increase in the understanding of the defense mechanisms of and our abilities to
manage this fish species.