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  1. Ray JD, Subandiyah S, Rincon-Florez VA, Prakoso AB, Mudita IW, Carvalhais LC, et al.
    Plant Dis, 2021 Oct;105(10):2792-2800.
    PMID: 33973808 DOI: 10.1094/PDIS-01-21-0149-RE
    Blood disease in bananas caused by Ralstonia syzygii subsp. celebesensis is a bacterial wilt causing significant crop losses in Indonesia and Malaysia. Disease symptoms include wilting of the plant and red-brown vascular staining, internal rot, and discoloration of green banana fruit. There is no known varietal resistance to this disease in the Musa genus, although variation in susceptibility has been observed, with the popular Indonesian cooking banana variety Kepok being highly susceptible. This study established the current geographic distribution of Blood disease in Indonesia and confirmed the pathogenicity of isolates by Koch's postulates. The long-distance distribution of the disease followed an arbitrary pattern indicative of human-assisted movement of infected banana materials. In contrast, local or short-distance spread radiated from a single infection source, indicative of dispersal by insects and possibly contaminated tools, water, or soil. The rapid expansion of its geographical range makes Blood disease an emerging threat to banana production in Southeast Asia and beyond.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern
  2. Muthiah YD, Ong CE, Sulaiman SA, Ismail R
    Pharmacognosy Res, 2016 Oct-Dec;8(4):292-297.
    PMID: 27695271
    In Southeast Asia and many parts of the world, herbal products are increasingly used in parallel with modern medicine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern
  3. Goh LPW, Chong ETJ, Lee PC
    PMID: 33050119 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17207354
    Alpha(α)-thalassemia is a blood disorder caused by many types of inheritable α-globin gene mutations which causes no-to-severe clinical symptoms, such as Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis that leads to early foetal death. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to provide an update from year 2010 to 2020 on the prevalence of α-thalassemia in Southeast Asia. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed and SCOPUS databases for related studies published from 2010 to 2020, based on specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of included studies was examined with the I2 index and Q-test. Funnel plots and Egger's tests were performed in order to determine publication bias in this meta-analysis. Twenty-nine studies with 83,674 subjects were included and pooled prevalence rates in this meta-analysis were calculated using random effect models based on high observed heterogeneity (I2 > 99.5, p-value < 0.1). Overall, the prevalence of α-thalassemia is 22.6%. The highest α-thalassemia prevalence was observed in Vietnam (51.5%) followed by Cambodia (39.5%), Laos (26.8%), Thailand (20.1%), and Malaysia (17.3%). No publication bias was detected. Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggested that a high prevalence of α-thalassemia occurred in selected Southeast Asia countries. This meta-analysis data are useful for designing thalassemia screening programs and improve the disease management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  4. Kazim AR, Houssaini J, Ehlers J, Tappe D, Heo CC
    Acta Trop, 2021 Nov;223:106085.
    PMID: 34389326 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.106085
    Soft ticks (Acari: Argasidae) are the second major family of the blood feeding metastriates and vectors of a number of viral and bacterial pathogens for both humans and animals. Despite the growing effort on tick surveillance and studies worldwide, there is still limited information on the soft tick distribution in the island nations of Southeast Asia, especially species that are medically and veterinarily important. With the aim to provide an overview of the current status of knowledge on soft tick distribution in the island nations of Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippines and Timor-Leste), this article reviews the species of soft ticks (Acari: Argasidae) and their associated hosts and pathogens, with the addition of a pictorial summary and list of tick species discovered in this region. The most prevalent soft tick genus is Carios, and the host species most associated with findings of soft ticks in this region are bats, particularly of the Pteropodidae and Vespertilionidae families. Furthermore, the only known pathogen originating from soft ticks in the island nations of Southeast Asia was the Keterah virus, which was isolated from Argas pusillus tick in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  5. Rampal S, Rampal L, Jayaraj VJ, Pramanick A, Choolani M, Liew BS, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2021 11;76(6):783-791.
    PMID: 34806661
    INTRODUCTION: Periodic benchmarking of the epidemiology of COVID-19 in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries is critical for the continuous understanding of the transmission and control of COVID-19 in the region. The incidence, mortality, testing and vaccination rates within the ASEAN region from 1 January 2020 to 15 October 2021 is analysed in this paper.

    METHODS: COVID-19 data on cases, deaths, testing, and vaccinations were extracted from the Our World in Data (OWID) COVID-19 data repository for all the ten ASEAN countries. Comparative time-trends of the epidemiology of COVID-19 using the incidence rate, cumulative case fatality rate (CFR), delay-adjusted case fatality rate, cumulative mortality rate (MR), test positivity rate (TPR), cumulative testing rate (TR) and vaccination rate was carried out.

    RESULTS: Over the study period, a total of 12,720,661 cases and 271,475 deaths was reported within the ASEAN region. Trends of daily per capita cases were observed to peak between July and September 2021 for the ASEAN region. The cumulative case fatality rate (CFR) in Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam, was of 0.9% (N=68), 2.2% (N=2,610), 3.5% (N=142,889), 0.1% (N=36), 1.2% (N=27,700), 4.0% (N=18,297), 1.6% (N=40,424), 0.1% (N=215), 1.7% (N=18,123), and 2.6% (N=21,043), respectively. CFR was consistently highest between January-June 2020. The cumulative mortality rate (MR) was 9.5, 13.7, 51.4, 0.2, 80.3, 32.4, 34.5, 1.6, 23.9 and 19.7 per 100,000 population, respectively. The cumulative test positivity rate (TPR) was 8.4%, 16.9%, 4.6%, 7.5%, 11.1%, 12.9%, 0.5%, 11.7%, and 3.6%, with the cumulative testing rate (TR) at 25.0, 90.1, 27.4, 917.7, 75.8, 177.8, 3303.3, 195.2, and 224.9 tests per 1,000 population in Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam, respectively. The percentage of population that completed vaccinations (VR) was 44.5%, 65.3%, 18.5%, 28.2%, 61.8%, 6.8%, 19.2%, 76.8%, 22.7%, and 10% in Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: In 2020, most countries in ASEAN had higher case fatality rates but lower mortalities per population when compared to the third quarter of 2021 where higher mortalities per population were observed. Low testing rates have been one of the factors leading to high test positivity rates. Slow initiation of vaccination programs was found to be the key factor leading to high incidence and case fatality rate in most countries in ASEAN. Effective public health measures were able to interrupt the transmission of this novel virus to some extent. Increasing preparedness capacity within the ASEAN region is critical to ensure that any future similar outbreaks can be dealt with collectively.

    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  6. Winterton SL, Wang Y
    Zookeys, 2016.
    PMID: 27667953 DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.617.10165
    The charismatic lance lacewing genus Gryposmylus Krüger, 1913 (Osmylidae: Protosmylinae) from South East Asia is revised with a new species (Gryposmylus pennyi sp. n.) described from Malaysia. The genus is diagnosed and both species in the genus redescribed and figured. An extraordinary example of morphological convergence is presented, with disruptive camouflaging wing markings in Gryposmylus pennyi sp. n. being remarkably similar to the South American green lacewing Vieira leschenaulti Navás (Chrysopidae).
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern
  7. Baticulon RE, Nga VDW, Sobana M, Bahuri NFA, Wittayanakorn N
    World Neurosurg, 2021 02;146:427.
    PMID: 33607747 DOI: 10.1016/j.wneu.2020.11.056
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern
  8. Polunin I, Sneah PHA
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern
  9. Praveena SM, Aris AZ
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2021 Dec;28(45):63829-63836.
    PMID: 33410033 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-020-11774-0
    This study examined the impacts of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the environment in the Southeast Asia region using qualitative content analysis to analyze the textual data of published studies and other online references such as the organizational reports. Besides, the materiality assessment particularly the Global Reporting Initiative was conducted by analyzing short- and long-term impacts from the stakeholders' (local and regional policymakers) perspective. The positive effects of COVID-19 lockdown and movement restriction on the regional environment identified in this study included a reduction in air pollution, improvement of air and water quality, lower noise levels, and reduced land surface temperature. In contrast, the negative effects encompassed a rise in the use of plastics and the generation of medical waste in Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Vietnam. Materiality assessment findings have offered insights on the need of stakeholders' importance for further to deal with huge amount of waste, inadequate waste management facilities and system, explore the effectiveness of such sustainable work and lifestyle changes, utilize real-time monitoring air quality data and future prediction responses for climate change mitigation and adaptation policies as well as consideration towards new green technologies for clean energy in each Southeast Asian country and at regional level. It is anticipated that this study will contribute towards a better understanding of the impacts of COVID-19 on environmental sustainability in the Southeast Asia region, particularly from the perspective of the stakeholders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern
  10. van Panhuis WG, Choisy M, Xiong X, Chok NS, Akarasewi P, Iamsirithaworn S, et al.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2015 Oct 20;112(42):13069-74.
    PMID: 26438851 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1501375112
    Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted virus infection that causes epidemics of febrile illness and hemorrhagic fever across the tropics and subtropics worldwide. Annual epidemics are commonly observed, but there is substantial spatiotemporal heterogeneity in intensity. A better understanding of this heterogeneity in dengue transmission could lead to improved epidemic prediction and disease control. Time series decomposition methods enable the isolation and study of temporal epidemic dynamics with a specific periodicity (e.g., annual cycles related to climatic drivers and multiannual cycles caused by dynamics in population immunity). We collected and analyzed up to 18 y of monthly dengue surveillance reports on a total of 3.5 million reported dengue cases from 273 provinces in eight countries in Southeast Asia, covering ∼ 10(7) km(2). We detected strong patterns of synchronous dengue transmission across the entire region, most markedly during a period of high incidence in 1997-1998, which was followed by a period of extremely low incidence in 2001-2002. This synchrony in dengue incidence coincided with elevated temperatures throughout the region in 1997-1998 and the strongest El Niño episode of the century. Multiannual dengue cycles (2-5 y) were highly coherent with the Oceanic Niño Index, and synchrony of these cycles increased with temperature. We also detected localized traveling waves of multiannual dengue epidemic cycles in Thailand, Laos, and the Philippines that were dependent on temperature. This study reveals forcing mechanisms that drive synchronization of dengue epidemics on a continental scale across Southeast Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
    MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep., 1997 Nov 28;46(47):1113-7.
    PMID: 9393657
    In 1988, the World Health Assembly adopted the goal of global poliomyelitis eradication by 2000, which was endorsed in each of the six regions of the World Health Organization (WHO). In the Western Pacific Region (WPR), where the last known case of polio associated with isolation of wild poliovirus occurred in March 1997, the reported number of cases decreased from 5963 in 1990 to 197 in 1996. This report documents progress toward polio eradication in WPR from January 1, 1996, through September 27, 1997, in countries where polio is endemic (Cambodia, China, Laos, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, and Vietnam) or recently was endemic (Malaysia and Mongolia) and describes the routine and supplemental vaccination activities necessary to interrupt wild poliovirus transmission in the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  12. Lim VK
    Med J Malaysia, 1991 Dec;46(4):298-300.
    PMID: 1840435
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  13. Wartel TA, Prayitno A, Hadinegoro SR, Capeding MR, Thisyakorn U, Tran NH, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2017 Jan;29(1):7-16.
    PMID: 28198645 DOI: 10.1177/1010539516675701
    We described and quantified epidemiologic trends in dengue disease burden in 5 Asian countries (Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam) and identified and estimated outbreaks impact over the last 3 decades. Dengue surveillance data from 1980 to 2010 were retrieved from DengueNet and from World Health Organization sources. Trends in incidence, mortality, and case fatality rate (CFR) were systematically analyzed using annual average percent change (AAPC), and the contribution of epidemic years identified over the observation period was quantified. Over the 30-year period, incidence increased in all countries (AAPC 1980-2010: 6.7% in Thailand, 10.4% in Vietnam, 12.0% in Indonesia, 18.1% in Malaysia, 24.4% in Philippines). Mortality also increased in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Philippines (AAPC: 6.8%, 7.0%, and 29.2%, respectively), but slightly decreased in Thailand and Vietnam (AAPC: -1.3% and -2.5%), and CFR decreased in all countries (AAPC: -4.2% to -8.3%). Epidemic years, despite representing less than a third of the observation period, contributed from 1 to 3 times more cases versus nonepidemic years. Implementation of more sensitive surveillance methods over the study period may have contributed to a reporting or ascertainment bias in some countries. Nonetheless, these data support the urgent need for novel, integrated, or otherwise effective dengue prevention and control tools and approaches.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  14. Daneshvar C, William T, Davis TME
    Parasitology, 2018 01;145(1):18-31.
    PMID: 28122651 DOI: 10.1017/S0031182016002638
    Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian malaria of primarily the macaque species of South East Asia. While it was known that human infections could be induced during the years of malariotherapy, naturally occurring P. knowlesi human infections were thought to be rare. However, in 2004, knowlesi infections became recognized as an important infection amongst human populations in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Since then, it has become recognized as a disease affecting people living and visiting endemic areas across South East Asia. Over the last 12 years, clinical studies have improved our understanding of this potentially fatal disease. In this review article the current literature is reviewed to give a comprehensive description of the disease and treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  15. Rampal L, Liew BS, Choolani M, Ganasegeran K, Pramanick A, Vallibhakara SA, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 11;75(6):613-625.
    PMID: 33219168
    INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has caused unprecedented public health concerns, triggering an escalated burden to health systems worldwide. The pandemic has altered people's living norms, yet coherently escalating countries' socioeconomic instability. This real-time consensus review aims to describe the epidemiological trends of COVID-19 pandemic across six South-East Asian nations, and countryspecific experiences on pandemic preparedness, responses and interventions.

    METHODS: Consensus-driven approach between authors from the six selected countries was applied. Country specific policy documents, official government media statements, mainstream news portals, global statistics databases and latest published literature available between January-October 2020 were utilised for information retrieval. Situational and epidemiological trend analyses were conducted. Country-specific interventions and challenges were described. Based on evidence appraised, a descriptive framework was considered through a consensus. The authors subsequently outlined the lessons learned, challenges ahead and interventions that needs to be in place to control the pandemic.

    RESULTS: The total number of people infected with COVID-19 between 1 January and 16 November 2020 had reached 48,520 in Malaysia, 58,124 in Singapore, 3,875 in Thailand, 470,648 in Indonesia, 409,574 in Philippines and 70,161 in Myanmar. The total number of people infected with COVID- 19 in the six countries from January to 31 October 2020 were 936,866 cases and the mortality rate was 2.42%. Indonesia had 410,088 cases with a mortality rate of 3.38%, Philippines had 380,729 cases with a mortality rate of 1.90%, Myanmar had 52,706 cases with a mortality rate of 2.34%, Thailand had 3,780 cases with a mortality rate of 1.56%, Malaysia had 31,548 cases with a mortality rate of 0.79%, and Singapore had 58,015 cases with a mortality rate of 0.05% over the 10- month period. Each country response varied depending on its real-time situations based on the number of active cases and economic situation of the country.

    CONCLUSION: The number of COVID-19 cases in these countries waxed and waned over the 10-month period, the number of cases may be coming down in one country, and vice versa in another. Each country, if acting alone, will not be able to control this pandemic. Sharing of information and resources across nations is the key to successful control of the pandemic. There is a need to reflect on how the pandemic affects individuals, families and the community as a whole. There are many people who cannot afford to be isolated from their families and daily wage workers who cannot afford to miss work. Are we as a medical community, only empathising with our patients or are we doing our utmost to uphold them during this time of crisis? Are there any other avenues which can curb the epidemic while reducing its impact on the health and socio-economic condition of the individual, community and the nation?

    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  16. Lee HM, Okuda KS, González FE, Patel V
    Adv Exp Med Biol, 2019;1164:11-34.
    PMID: 31576537 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-22254-3_2
    Of the ~129,079 new cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and 72,987 associated deaths estimated for 2018, the majority will be geographically localized to South East Asia, and likely to show an upward trend annually. It is thought that disparities in dietary habits, lifestyle, and exposures to harmful environmental factors are likely the root cause of NPC incidence rates to differ geographically. Genetic differences due to ethnicity and the Epstein Barr virus (EBV) are likely contributing factors. Pertinently, NPC is associated with poor prognosis which is largely attributed to lack of awareness of the salient symptoms of NPC. These include nose hemorrhage and headaches and coupled with detection and the limited therapeutic options. Treatment options include radiotherapy or chemotherapy or combination of both. Surgical excision is generally the last option considered for advanced and metastatic disease, given the close proximity of nasopharynx to brain stem cell area, major blood vessels, and nerves. To improve outcome of NPC patients, novel cellular and in vivo systems are needed to allow an understanding of the underling molecular events causal for NPC pathogenesis and for identifying novel therapeutic targets and effective therapies. While challenges and gaps in current NPC research are noted, some advances in targeted therapies and immunotherapies targeting EBV NPCs are discussed in this chapter, which may offer improvements in outcome of NPC patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  17. Kunasegaran T, Balasubramaniam VRMT, Arasoo VJT, Palanisamy UD, Ramadas A
    PMID: 33572656 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18031272
    A rapid increase in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with various factors such as urbanization, lifestyle changes, adverse hyperglycemic intrauterine environment, and the resulting epigenetic changes. Despite this, the burden of GDM has not been well-assessed in Southeast Asia. We comprehensively reviewed published Southeast Asian studies to identify the current research trend in GDM in this region. Joanna Briggs Institute's methodology was used to guide the scoping review. The synthesis of literature findings demonstrates almost comparable clinical evidence in terms of risk factors and complications, challenges presented in diagnosing GDM, and its disease management, given the similarities of the underlying population characteristics in Southeast Asia. Evidence suggests that a large proportion of GDM risk in women may be preventable by lifestyle modifications. However, the GDM burden across countries is expected to rise, given the heterogeneity in screening approaches and diagnostic criteria, mainly influenced by economic status. There is an urgent need for concerted efforts by government and nongovernmental sectors to implement national programs to prevent, manage, and monitor the disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  18. Zhu M, Shen J, Zeng Q, Tan JW, Kleepbua J, Chew I, et al.
    Front Public Health, 2021 07 30;9:685315.
    PMID: 34395364 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.685315
    Background: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed an unprecedented challenge to public health in Southeast Asia, a tropical region with limited resources. This study aimed to investigate the evolutionary dynamics and spatiotemporal patterns of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the region. Materials and Methods: A total of 1491 complete SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences from 10 Southeast Asian countries were downloaded from the Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data (GISAID) database on November 17, 2020. The evolutionary relationships were assessed using maximum likelihood (ML) and time-scaled Bayesian phylogenetic analyses, and the phylogenetic clustering was tested using principal component analysis (PCA). The spatial patterns of SARS-CoV-2 spread within Southeast Asia were inferred using the Bayesian stochastic search variable selection (BSSVS) model. The effective population size (Ne) trajectory was inferred using the Bayesian Skygrid model. Results: Four major clades (including one potentially endemic) were identified based on the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree. Similar clustering was yielded by PCA; the first three PCs explained 46.9% of the total genomic variations among the samples. The time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) and the evolutionary rate of SARS-CoV-2 circulating in Southeast Asia were estimated to be November 28, 2019 (September 7, 2019 to January 4, 2020) and 1.446 × 10-3 (1.292 × 10-3 to 1.613 × 10-3) substitutions per site per year, respectively. Singapore and Thailand were the two most probable root positions, with posterior probabilities of 0.549 and 0.413, respectively. There were high-support transmission links (Bayes factors exceeding 1,000) in Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia; Malaysia involved the highest number (7) of inferred transmission links within the region. A twice-accelerated viral population expansion, followed by a temporary setback, was inferred during the early stages of the pandemic in Southeast Asia. Conclusions: With available genomic data, we illustrate the phylogeography and phylodynamics of SARS-CoV-2 circulating in Southeast Asia. Continuous genomic surveillance and enhanced strategic collaboration should be listed as priorities to curb the pandemic, especially for regional communities dominated by developing countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
  19. Wu J, Wang HL, Liu X, Ding C, Zhou Y, Fu X, et al.
    Liver Int, 2020 02;40(2):298-307.
    PMID: 31674705 DOI: 10.1111/liv.14289
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Trends in long-term mortality rates for viral hepatitis in East and Southeast Asia have been rarely reported. The aim of our study was to explore the long-term trends in viral hepatitis mortality rates in East and Southeast Asian countries between 1987 and 2015 and provide predictions of mortality to 2030.

    METHODS: We obtained viral hepatitis mortality data from the WHO Mortality Database for six East and Southeast Asian countries between 1987 and 2015. We produced choropleth maps of viral hepatitis mortality rates in 1987 and 2015 in East and Southeast Asia to illustrate geographic variations. We made predictions of mortality rates for each included country until the year 2030 using a series of joinpoint models.

    RESULTS: Viral hepatitis mortality rates declined in China (the average annual percent change (AAPC) = -5.1%, 95% CI: -7.5, -2.6), Singapore (AAPC = -5.4%, 95% CI: -7.5, -3.2), and the Philippines (AAPC = -3.4%, 95% CI: -4.9, -1.8). In contrast, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Malaysia have experienced increasing trends in mortality rates, followed by decreasing trends. Our predictions indicate that all countries will experience slight to moderate downward trends until 2030.

    CONCLUSION: Favourable decreasing trends have been noted in East and Southeast Asian countries, which may not only inform the control and management of viral hepatitis in this region but also guide the prevention of viral hepatitis deaths in another region with a similar viral hepatitis epidemic.

    Matched MeSH terms: Asia, Southeastern/epidemiology
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