In 1998 an outbreak of fatal encephalitis among pig farm workers in Malaysia and Singapore led to the discovery of Nipah henipavirus (NiV), a novel paramyxovirus closely related to Hendra henipavirus with case fatality rates of nearly 40%. Following its initial emergence nearly annual outbreaks of NiV have occurred in Bangladesh with a different, NiV Bangladesh, genotype, where the role of pigs in its transmission remains unknown. The present study provides the first report on susceptibility of domestic pigs to NiV Bangladesh following experimental infection, characterizing acute and long-term phases of disease and pathogenesis. All pigs were successfully infected with NiV Bangladesh following oronasal inoculation, with viral shedding confirmed by a novel genotype-specific qRT-PCR in oral, nasal and rectal excretions and dissemination from the upper respiratory tract to the brain, lungs, and associated lymphatic tissues. Unlike previous NiV Malaysia findings in pigs, clinical signs were absent, viremia was undetectable throughout the study, and only low level neutralizing antibody titers were measured by 28/29 days post-NiV-B infection. Results obtained highlight the need for continued and enhanced NiV surveillance in pigs in endemic and at-risk regions, and raise questions regarding applicability of current serological assays to detect animals with previous NiV-B exposure.
Dengue is one of the commonest viral diseases of Africa and tropical Asia. This disease is characterized by headache, fever, generalized body pain, severe malaise and back pain. The uncomplicated Dengue which is also named the classical dengue fever usually begins 3-8 days after biting of an infected mosquito. This is a cross sectional study on clinical presentation of Dengue in a general hospital in Bangladesh. The total number of patients was 198. The study period was 6 months (July 2004 to December 2004). All the patients who were admitted in the ‘Dengue ward’ and diagnosed as Dengue by serological test were included in this study. The aim of this study was to evaluate the common clinical presentations of Dengue in a General hospital in Bangladesh. The aim and objective was to compare the clinical presentations of Dengue in Bangladesh patients with those of other international studies. Most of the patients were male (3.7 :1) in sex and young adult(s) in age (80.3%). Fever and severe backache were the commonest clinical features. Nearly two-third (74%) patients presented with hemorrhagic features. Gum bleeding (20.2%) was the commonest bleeding feature. The result of this study showed a similarity with that of other international studies.
Long term physical training has been considered to adversely affect the performance of athletes especially the females. It may be due to the iron depletion caused by hemolysis or hemodilution results from plasma volume expansion. This study aims to assess the effect of heavy exercise on hemoglobin concentration and some other hematological parameters in female athletes.
The objective of this paper is to apply the Translog Stochastic Frontier production model (SFA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to estimate efficiencies over time and the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth rate for Bangladeshi rice crops (Aus, Aman and Boro) throughout the most recent data available comprising the period 1989-2008. Results indicate that technical efficiency was observed as higher for Boro among the three types of rice, but the overall technical efficiency of rice production was found around 50%. Although positive changes exist in TFP for the sample analyzed, the average growth rate of TFP for rice production was estimated at almost the same levels for both Translog SFA with half normal distribution and DEA. Estimated TFP from SFA is forecasted with ARIMA (2, 0, 0) model. ARIMA (1, 0, 0) model is used to forecast TFP of Aman from DEA estimation.
Malnutrition is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century, with one in three people in the world malnourished, combined with poor diets being the leading cause of the global burden of disease. Fish is an under-recognised and undervalued source of micronutrients, which could play a more significant role in addressing this global challenge. With rising pressures on capture fisheries, demand is increasingly being met from aquaculture. However, aquaculture systems are designed to maximise productivity, with little consideration for nutritional quality of fish produced. A global shift away from diverse capture species towards consumption of few farmed species, has implications for diet quality that are yet to be fully explored. Bangladesh provides a useful case study of this transition, as fish is the most important animal-source food in diets, and is increasingly supplied from aquaculture. We conducted a temporal analysis of fish consumption and nutrient intakes from fish in Bangladesh, using nationally representative household expenditure surveys from 1991, 2000 and 2010 (n = 25,425 households), combined with detailed species-level nutrient composition data. Fish consumption increased by 30% from 1991-2010. Consumption of non-farmed species declined by 33% over this period, compensated (in terms of quantity) by large increases in consumption of farmed species. Despite increased total fish consumption, there were significant decreases in iron and calcium intakes from fish (P<0.01); and no significant change in intakes of zinc, vitamin A and vitamin B12 from fish, reflecting lower overall nutritional quality of fish available for consumption over time. Our results challenge the conventional narrative that increases in food supply lead to improvements in diet and nutrition. As aquaculture becomes an increasingly important food source, it must embrace a nutrition-sensitive approach, moving beyond maximising productivity to also consider nutritional quality. Doing so will optimise the complementary role that aquaculture and capture fisheries play in improving nutrition and health.
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are increasing in low- and middle-income countries, while underweight remains a significant health problems. However, the association between double burden of nutrition and risk of adverse birth and health outcomes is still unclear in Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal undernutrition and excessive body weight on a range of maternal and child health outcomes.
METHODS: In this study, we used Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011 and 2014 data sets to cover the maternal, child and non-communicable diseases related health outcomes. The study considered a range of outcome variables including pregnancy complication, cesarean delivery, diabetes, hypertension, stunting, and wasting, low birth weight, genital discharge, genital sore/ulcer, stillbirth, early neonatal mortality, perinatal mortality, preterm birth and prolonged labor. The key exposure variable was maternal body mass index. Multilevel regression analysis was performed to examine the association between outcomes and exposure variables.
RESULTS: Maternal overweight and obesity has increased from 10% in 2004 to 24% in 2014, a 240% increase in 10 years. Between 2004 and 2014, maternal undernutrition declined from 33% to 18%, a reduction rate of only 54% in 10 years. Compared to normal-weight women, overweight and obese women were more likely to have experienced pregnancy complication, cesarean delivery, diabetes, and hypertension. Underweight women were 1.3 times more likely to have children with stunting and 1.6 times more likely to experience wasting compared to normal weight women. Maternal BMI was not significantly associated with increased risk of genital sore or ulcer, genital discharge, menstrual irregularities, or low birth weight though in certain cases risk was higher.
CONCLUSIONS: High maternal overweight and obesity were observed to have significant adverse effects on health outcomes, while underweight was a risk factor for newborn health. The findings show that weight management is necessary to prevent adverse birth and health outcomes in Bangladesh.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Data related to health was collected by following the guidelines of ICF international and Bangladesh Medical Research Council. The registration number of data collection is 132989.0.000 and the data-request was registered on March 11, 2015.
Wild stocks of endangered mrigal carp, Cirrhinus cirrhosus (Bloch 1795), continues to decline rapidly in the Indo-Ganges river basin. With an objective to evaluate its population status, landmark-based morphometric and meristic variations among three different stocks viz., hatchery (Jessore), baor (Gopalganj) and river (Faridpur) in Bangladesh were studied. Significant differences were observed in 10 of the 15 morphometric measurements viz., head length, standard length, fork length, length of base of spinous, pre-orbital length, eye length, post-orbital length, length of upper jaw, height of pelvic fin and barbel length, two of the 8 meristic counts viz., scales above the lateral line and pectoral fin rays and 10 of the 22 truss network measurements viz., 1 to 10, 2 to 3, 2 to 8, 2 to 9, 2 to 10, 3 to 4, 3 to 8, 4 to 5, 4 to 7 and 9 to 10 among the stocks. For morphometric and landmark measurements, the 1st discriminant function (DF) accounted for 58.1% and the 2nd DF accounted for 41.9% of the among-group variability. In discriminant space, the river stock was isolated from the other two stocks. On the other hand, baor and hatchery stocks formed a very compact cluster. A dendrogram based on the hierarchical cluster analysis using morphometric and truss distance data placed the hatchery and baor in one cluster and the river in another cluster and the distance between the river and hatchery populations was the highest. Morphological differences among stocks are expected, because of their geographical isolation and their origin from different ancestors. The baseline information derived from the present study would be useful for genetic studies and in the assessment of environmental impacts on C. cirrhosus populations in Bangladesh.
The article identifies the relationship among different agile software development approaches such as response extensiveness, response efficiency, team autonomy, team diversity, and software functionality that software teams face difficult challenges in associating and achieving the right balance between the two agility dimensions. This research strategy, in terms of quantity, is descriptive and correlational. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out, using SmartPLS 3.0. Statistical population, consist of employees of software industries in Bangladesh, who were engaged in 2017 and their total number is about 100 people. The data show that the response extensiveness, response efficiency, team autonomy, team diversity, and software functionality have impact on software development agility and software development performance.
The study was aimed to determine the variation in taxonomic diversity of Polynemus paradiseus based on morphometric and meristic analyses of samples collected from three coastal rivers of Bangladesh (Payra, Tentulia and Kirtonkhola). A total of 105 individuals ranging at 10-20 cm in total length (TL) and 7.91-60.64 g in body weight (BW) were sampled using Been nets and Kachal and Veshal nets. Significant differences were observed in 24 out of 25 morphometric measurements and 6 out of 10 meristic counts among the populations. In morphometric measurements, the first discriminant function (DF1) was accounted for 78.6% and the second discriminant function (DF2) was accounted for 21.4% of among groups variability, explaining 100% of total among group variability. A dendrogram based on morphometric data showed that the Tentulia and Kirtankhola populations showed high degree of overlapping and these two populations were highly different from Payra river population. The canonical graph also showed that the populations of Tentulia and Kirtankhola rivers were more closely related comparing with Payra river population for isometric condition. These findings may provide useful information for the conservation and sustainable management of this important fish.
The presence of cutaneous nodules is reported in vulnerable populations of Irrawaddy dolphins Orcaella brevirostris from Malaysia (Kuching, Bintulu-Similajau, Kinabatangan-Segama and Penang Island), India (Chilika Lagoon) and Bangladesh (Sundarbans). Approximately 5700 images taken for photo-identification studies in 2004 to 2013 were examined for skin disorders. Nodules were detected in 6 populations. They appeared as circumscribed elevations of the skin and varied in size from 2 to >30 mm, were sparse or numerous and occurred on all visible body areas. In 8 photo-identified (PI) dolphins from India and Malaysia, the lesions remained stable (N = 2) or progressed (N = 6) over months but did not regress. The 2 most severely affected individuals were seen in Kuching and the Chilika Lagoon. Their fate is unknown. Cutaneous nodules were sampled in a female that died in a gillnet in Kuching in 2012. Histologically, the lesions consisted of thick collagen bundles covered by a moderately hyperplasic epithelium and were diagnosed as fibropapillomas. Whether the nodules observed in the other O. brevirostris were also fibropapillomas remains to be investigated. Disease prevalence ranged from 2.2% (N = 46; Bintulu-Similajau) to 13.9% (N = 72; Chilika) in 4 populations from Malaysia and India. It was not significantly different in 3 study areas in eastern Malaysia. In Chilika, prevalence was significantly higher (p = 0.00078) in 2009 to 2011 (13.9%) than in 2004 to 2006 (2.8%) in 72 PI dolphins. The emergence of a novel disease in vulnerable O. brevirostris populations is of concern.
Nipah virus is a highly pathogenic but poorly known paramyxovirus from South and Southeast Asia. In spite of the risks that it poses to human health, the geography and ecology of its occurrence remain little understood-the virus is basically known from Bangladesh and peninsular Malaysia, and little in between. In this contribution, I use documented occurrences of the virus to develop ecological niche-based maps summarizing its likely broader occurrence-although rangewide maps could not be developed that had significant predictive abilities, reflecting minimal sample sizes available, maps within Bangladesh were quite successful in identifying areas in which the virus is predictably present and likely transmitted.
The aquaculture sector in Bangladesh is an important employer and a significant source of foreign exchange. In addition, it contributes significantly to food security due to the role of fish in peoples' diets, the most important source of protein and micronutrients. However, infectious diseases represent an important barrier to sector development due to economic losses and vulnerability of smallholders. The aim of this study was to gain an overview of the impact of infectious diseases in the aquaculture sector, and to assess the usefulness and use of impact studies in decision making for animal health management and biosecurity governance in Bangladesh. A review of scientific and grey literature on infectious disease impact in different aquaculture systems was conducted and their methodologies and findings summarised. Subsequently, interviews with 28 stakeholders from the private and public sector were conducted to enquire about decision-making structures in animal health management. The data were analysed using the framework method to allow the development of themes, by using the information, experiences and opinions inductively obtained from interviewees, deductively through the reviewed literature. Results showed a substantial socio-economic impact of infectious diseases. The numerous stakeholders involved in the decision-making process explained that key barriers to effective aquaculture health management were insufficient resources to investigate and tackle infectious aquatic animal diseases, a dearth of legislation and capacity for disease surveillance, a reliance on reactive response, and a lack of impact and evidence-based approaches for prioritising problem-solving, commonly based on anecdotal evidence. Furthermore, communication among the multiple stakeholders involved was reported to be weak. This complex situation requires a multi-level response, which should span from strengthening the knowledge of farmers and professionals in the field to the improvement of surveillance and diagnostic systems. Improved systems along with evidence on disease impact could inform the prioritisation of diseases and resource allocation for disease control in Bangladesh. Further, this evidence needs to be used to advise decisions to have a true value, for which establishing and strengthening communication pathways and processes is critical to make systematic use of the information and improve animal health management. In the light of future threats to Bangladesh such as climate change, increasing population density and demand for animal source foods, it is crucial to strengthen animal health management systems to reduce livelihoods vulnerability, food insecurity and the likelihood of disease emergence.
Hepatitis and AIDS are major public health problem globally. The aim of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of hepatitis B, C virus and HIV infection among Bangladeshi overseas job seekers. This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology of Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh from February 2013 to August 2013. A total of 2254 adult (18-45 years) male job seekers to Malaysia attending for health check up were enrolled. HBsAg, Anti-HCV, Anti-HIV were detected from venous blood by ELISA method using commercial kits. From the positive people, further history and information were collected by predesigned questionnaire. Prevalence of HBV was 2.35%, HCV was 0.13% and none was found positive for HIV. Prevalence of hepatitis was higher in the age group of 21-30 year and infection was more prevalent in married group. No significant relationship was found between hepatitis infection and religion, localities, profession. Only a few cases had history of possible major known route of transmission of virus. But most of them had history of taking injection or sharing blades in barber shop and history of circumcision. About 96% population had no history of hepatitis B vaccination. None was co-infected with HBV and HCV. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in adult population appears to be on decline and hepatitis C and HIV infection is still low in Bangladesh. In majority of the positive person, routes of transmission of viruses were not well established.
Developing cities like Khulna, the third largest metropolitan city in Bangladesh, have now begun to confess the environmental and public health risks associated with uncontrolled dumping of solid wastes mainly due to the active participation of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and community-based organizations (CBOs) in municipal solid waste (MSW) management.
Experiments were conducted to determine the field and economic performances of machines and techniques for crop establishment in lowland paddy in Bangladesh. In machine seeded field, the crops were grown in rows to allow the operation of rotary type weeder for weed control. In hand broadcasted field, crops were not arranged in rows and weed control operation was therefore done through traditional means. Results obtained showed that the effect of rice seeding techniques, using pre-germinated rice seed of BR-1 variety on the effective field capacity, was highly significant. The work rate of hand broadcasting was found to be one to one and a half times faster than that of seeding by manually driven drum type row seeder. Field efficiency of hand broadcasting was about 90 percent, and this was found to be significantly higher than those of machine seeding which ranged from 70-80 percent at both seed rates, since no time was lost in turning. BRRI modified drum type row seeder, with a seeding rate of 60 kg/ha, was shown to be better for an optimum crop yield. Based on partial budget analysis, a farmer can save about US$53.34 per hectare in a year using the BRRI modified drum type row seeder, followed by a rotary weeder as compared to hand seeding, followed by hand weeding.
Rapid development and industrialization in Southeast (SE) Asia has led to environmental pollution, potentially exposing the general population to environmental contaminants. Human biomonitoring (HBM), measurement of chemical and/or their metabolites in human tissues and fluids, is an important tool for assessing cumulative exposure to complex mixtures of chemicals and for monitoring chemical exposures in the general population. While there are national HBM programs in several developed countries, there are no such national programs in most of the SE Asian countries. However, in recent years there has been progress in the field of HBM in many of the SE Asian countries. In this review, we present recent HBM studies in five selected SE Asian countries: Bangladesh, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar and Thailand. While there is extensive HBM research in several SE Asian countries, such as Thailand, in other countries HBM studies are limited and focus on traditional environmental pollutants (such as lead, arsenic and mercury). Further development of this field in SE Asia would be benefited by establishment of laboratory capacity, improving quality control and assurance, collaboration with international experts and consortiums, and sharing of protocols and training both for pre-analytical and analytical phases. This review highlights the impressive progress in HBM research in selected SE Asian countries and provides recommendations for development of this field.
Larvae of a gall midge were found feeding on the fungal rust Maravalia pterocarpi (Pucciniomycetes: Pucciniales: Chaconiaceae) infesting the economically important sua tree Dalbergia tonkinensis (Fabaceae) on Hainan Island, China. The adults, pupae and larvae were collected, their morphology was studied and a segment of the Cytochrome Oxidase unit I (COI) mitochondrial gene was sequenced. The gall midge proved to be a species new to science that belongs to the genus Mycodiplosis (Diptera: Cecdiomyiidae). Comparison of the sequence to published Cecdiomyiidae sequences revealed that, despite being undescribed and unnamed, it was previously found in east and south-east Asia to feed on several rust species: Puccinia coronata (Pucciniomycetes: Pucciniales: Pucciniaceae) that develops on Lolium multiflorum (Poaceae), Puccinia sp. on Zea mays (Poaceae), Puccinia arachidis on Arachis hypogaea (Fabaceae) and Puccinia allii on Allium fistulosum (Amaryllidaceae). The new species is described and named here Mycodiplosis puccinivora Jiao, Bu Kolesik. It occurs in China, Japan, Thailand, Bangladesh and possibly Malaysia and Australia. In Hainan it has four to five generations per year.
On 3 January 2008, one specimen of Goonch Bagarius yarrelli (Sykes 1839) (Siluriformes: Sisoridae) was caught by a conventional beach seine in the lower part of the Ganges River, NW Bangladesh. The specimen constitutes a new record of maximum length and weight for the Ganges River and the South Asia.
A field experiment was conducted from June to December, 2013 to study the genetic diversity of 15 modern T. Aman rice
varieties of Bangladesh (Oryza sativa L.) with a view to assess the superior genotype in future hybridization program
for developing new rice varieties that is suitable for the target environment. Analysis of variance for each trait showed
significant differences among the varieties. High heritability associated with high genetic advance in percent of mean
was observed for plant height and thousand seed weight which indicated that selection for these characters would be
effective. Hence, thrust has to be given for these characters in future breeding program to improve the yield trait in rice.
Multivariate analysis based on 10 agronomic characters indicated that the 15 varieties were grouped into four distant
clusters. The inter cluster distance was maximum between cluster II and cluster IV. The highest intra-cluster distance was
found in cluster IV. Based on positive value of vector 1 and vector 2, plant height and 1000-seed weight had maximum
contribution towards genetic divergence. From the results, it can be concluded that the varieties BRRI dhan40, BRRI
dhan44, BRRI dhan46, BRRI dhan49 and BINA dhan7 may be selected for future hybridization program.
Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative bacterium, found in tropical and subtropical regions. C. violaceum infection rarely occurs, but once occurs, it is associated with significant mortality due to severe systemic infection. Since the first human case from Malaysia in 1927, >150 cases of C. violaceum infection have been reported worldwide. We have described here a fatal case of C. violaceum infection in a tertiary care hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of C. violaceum infection in Bangladesh.