We describe the characteristics of complete mitogenome of C. brachyotis in this article. The complete mitogenome of C. brachyotis is 16,701 bp long with a total base composition of 32.4% A, 25.7% T, 27.7% C and 14.2% G. The mitogenome consists of 13 protein-coding genes (11,408 bp), (KM659865) two rRNA (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA) genes (2,539 bp), 22 tRNA genes (1518 bp) and one control region (1239 bp).
The mitochondrial genome sequence of the ghost crab, Ocypode ceratophthalmus, is documented (GenBank accession number: LN611669) in this article. This is the first mitogenome for the family Ocypodidae and the second for the order Ocypodoidea. Ocypode ceratophthalmus has a mitogenome of 15,564 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of the O. ceratophthalmus mitogenome is 35.78% for T, 19.36% for C, 33.73% for A and 11.13% for G, with an AT bias of 69.51% and the gene order is the typical arrangement for brachyuran crabs.
The Mictyris longicarpus (soldier crab) complete mitochondrial genome sequence is reported making it the first for the family Mictyridae and the second for the superfamily Ocypodoidea. The mitogenome is 15,548 base pairs made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. The soldier crab mitogenome gene order is characteristic of brachyuran crabs with a base composition of 36.58% for T, 19.15% for C, 32.43% for A and 11.83% for G, with an AT bias of 69.01%.
The mitogenome of the Australian freshwater blackfish, Gadopsis marmoratus was recovered coverage by genome skimming using the MiSeq sequencer (GenBank Accession Number: NC_024436). The blackfish mitogenome has 16,407 base pairs made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a 819 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This is the 5th mitogenome sequence to be reported for the family Percichthyidae.
The mitochondrial genome sequence of the Australian tadpole shrimp, Triops australiensis is presented (GenBank Accession Number: NC_024439) and compared with other Triops species. Triops australiensis has a mitochondrial genome of 15,125 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The T. australiensis mitogenome is composed of 36.4% A, 16.1% C, 12.3% G and 35.1% T. The mitogenome gene order conforms to the primitive arrangement for Branchiopod crustaceans, which is also conserved within the Pancrustacean.
The mitochondrial genome sequence of the Australian crayfish, Euastacus yarraensis, is documented and compared with other Australian crayfish genera. Euastacus yarraensis has a mitogenome of 15,548 base pairs consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a non-coding AT-rich region. The base composition of E. yarraensis mitogenome is 32.39% for T, 22.45% for C, 34.43% for A, and 10.73% for G, with an AT bias of 66.82%. The mitogenome gene order conforms to what is considered the primitive arrangement for parastacid crayfish.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram negative bacterium and causes gastrointestinal illness in humans. In this study, twenty five out of fifty cockle samples from Padang, Indonesia produced purple colonies when they were grown on selective medium, CHROMagarTM Vibrio. Specific–PCR for toxR gene detection gave positive results in which a band with 368 base pairs size appeared on the gel for all the isolates that confirmed the presence of V. parahaemolyticus. In the virulence properties test, all the isolates showed negative results for tdh and trh genes detection. The results indicate that the isolates under this study do not contain virulence properties that correlate to the ability of infection and diseases, which means that they are nonpathogenic.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, endogenous, non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by base pairing with mRNA targets. Altered miRNA expression profiles have been observed in several diseases, including neurodegeneration. Multiple studies have reported altered expressions of miRNAs in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) as compared to those of healthy elderly adults. Some of the miRNAs found to be dysregulated in AD have been reported to correlate with neuropathological changes, including plaque and tangle accumulation, as well as altered expressions of species that are known to be involved in AD pathology. To examine the potentially pathogenic functions of several dysregulated miRNAs in AD, we review the current literature with a focus on the activities of ten miRNAs in biological pathways involved in AD pathogenesis. Comprehensive understandings of the expression profiles and activities of these miRNAs will illuminate their roles as potential therapeutic targets in AD brain and may lead to the discovery of breakthrough treatment strategies for AD.
Wild-cultivated medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum was morphologically identified and sequenced using phylogenetic software. In submerged-liquid fermentation (SLF), biomass, exopolysaccharide (EPS) and intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) production of the identified G.lucidum was optimised based on initial pH, starting glucose concentration and agitation rate parameters using response surface methodology (RSM). Molecularly, the G. lucidum strain QRS 5120 generated 637 base pairs, which was commensurate with related Ganoderma species. In RSM, by applying central composite design (CCD), a polynomial model was fitted to the experimental data and was found to be significant in all parameters investigated. The strongest effect (p < 0.0001) was observed for initial pH for biomass, EPS and IPS production, while agitation showed a significant value (p < 0.005) for biomass. By applying the optimized conditions, the model was validated and generated 5.12 g/L of biomass (initial pH 4.01, 32.09 g/L of glucose and 102 rpm), 2.49 g/L EPS (initial pH 4, 24.25 g/L of glucose and 110 rpm) and 1.52 g/L of IPS (and initial pH 4, 40.43 g/L of glucose, 103 rpm) in 500 mL shake flask fermentation. The optimized parameters can be upscaled for efficient biomass, EPS and IPS production using G. lucidum.
Extrachromosomal (ec) DNA in eukaryotic cells has been known for decades. The structures described range from linear double stranded (ds) DNA to circular dsDNA, distinct from mitochondrial (mt) DNA. The sizes of circular forms are described from some hundred base pairs (bp) up to more than 150 kbp. The number of molecules per cell ranges from several hundred to a thousand. Semi-quantitative determinations of circular dsDNA show proportions as high as several percentages of the total DNA per cell. These ecDNA fractions harbor sequences that are known to be present in chromosomal DNA (chrDNA) too. Sequencing projects on, for example the human genome, have to take into account the ecDNA sequences which are simultaneously ascertained; corrections cannot be performed retrospectively. Concerning the results of sequencings derived from extracted whole DNA: if the ecDNA fractions contained therein are not taken into account, erroneous conclusions at the chromosomal level may result.
Interest in harvesting potential benefits from microalgae renders it necessary to have the many ecological niches of a single species to be investigated. This dataset comprises de novo whole genome assembly of two mangrove-isolated microalgae (from division Chlorophyta); Chlorella vulgaris UMT-M1 and Messastrum gracile SE-MC4 from Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia. Library runs were carried out with 2 × 150 base paired-ends reads, whereas sequencing was conducted using Illumina Novaseq 2500 platform. Sequencing yielded raw reads amounting to ∼11 Gb in total bases for both species and was further assembled de novo. Genome assembly resulted in a 50.15 Mbp and 60.83 Mbp genome size for UMT-M1 and SE-MC4, respectively. All filtered and assembled genomic data sequences have been submitted to National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and can be located at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession of VJNP00000000 (UMT-M1) and VIYE00000000 (SE-MC4).
The intra- and inter-specific variation of Acetes shrimps were evaluated based on samples collected from in-shore catches and off-shore trawling around the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Species captured were identified as Acetes indicus, A. serrulatus, A. japonicus and A. sibogae. A region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene comprising 552 base pairs (bp) was amplified from 159 Acetes specimens. The sequence alignment analysis generated phylogenetic trees which depicted the four major clades that were consistent with the species identified morphologically. These four species varied considerably for haplotype and nucleotide diversity, with A. indicus and A. serrulatus showing different demographic histories. Furthermore, the observation of two clades in the A. indicus and A. sibogae lineages, with relatively high levels of intraspecific divergence, suggests that cryptic diversity is possibly present in these two taxa. This study has contributed to the knowledge of the distribution patterns and molecular phylogenetics of four Acetes spp. in the Straits of Malacca.
The phylogenetic relationships of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis) populations distributed in Peninsular Malaysia in relation to other regions remain unknown. The aim of this study was to reveal the phylogeography and population genetics of Peninsular Malaysia's M. f. fascicularis based on the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA. Sixty-five haplotypes were detected in all populations, with only Vietnam and Cambodia sharing four haplotypes. The minimum-spanning network projected a distant relationship between Peninsular Malaysian and insular populations. Genetic differentiation (F(ST), Nst) results suggested that the gene flow among Peninsular Malaysian and the other populations is very low. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions indicated a monophyletic clade of Malaysia's population with continental populations (NJ = 97%, MP = 76%, and Bayesian = 1.00 posterior probabilities). The results demonstrate that Peninsular Malaysia's M. f. fascicularis belonged to Indochinese populations as opposed to the previously claimed Sundaic populations. M. f. fascicularis groups are estimated to have colonized Peninsular Malaysia ~0.47 million years ago (MYA) directly from Indochina through seaways, by means of natural sea rafting, or through terrestrial radiation during continental shelf emersion. Here, the Isthmus of Kra played a central part as biogeographical barriers that then separated it from the remaining continental populations.
The secondary structure of RNA pseudoknots has been extensively inferred and scrutinized by computational approaches. Experimental methods for determining RNA structure are time consuming and tedious; therefore, predictive computational approaches are required. Predicting the most accurate and energy-stable pseudoknot RNA secondary structure has been proven to be an NP-hard problem. In this paper, a new RNA folding approach, termed MSeeker, is presented; it includes KnotSeeker (a heuristic method) and Mfold (a thermodynamic algorithm). The global optimization of this thermodynamic heuristic approach was further enhanced by using a case-based reasoning technique as a local optimization method. MSeeker is a proposed algorithm for predicting RNA pseudoknot structure from individual sequences, especially long ones. This research demonstrates that MSeeker improves the sensitivity and specificity of existing RNA pseudoknot structure predictions. The performance and structural results from this proposed method were evaluated against seven other state-of-the-art pseudoknot prediction methods. The MSeeker method had better sensitivity than the DotKnot, FlexStem, HotKnots, pknotsRG, ILM, NUPACK and pknotsRE methods, with 79% of the predicted pseudoknot base-pairs being correct.
DNA barcoding of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was utilized to assess the species diversity of the freshwater halfbeak genus Hemirhamphodon. A total of 201 individuals from 46 locations in Peninsular Malaysia, north Borneo (Sarawak) and Sumatra were successfully amplified for 616 base pairs of the COI gene revealing 231 variable and 213 parsimony informative sites. COI gene trees showed that most recognized species form monophyletic clades with high bootstrap support. Pairwise within species comparisons exhibited a wide range of intraspecific diversity from 0.0% to 14.8%, suggesting presence of cryptic diversity. This finding was further supported by barcode gap analysis, ABGD and the constructed COI gene trees. In particular, H. pogonognathus from Kelantan (northeast Peninsular Malaysia) diverged from the other H. pogonognathus groups with distances ranging from 7.8 to 11.8%, exceeding the nearest neighbor taxon. High intraspecific diversity was also observed in H. byssus and H. kuekanthali, but of a lower magnitude. This study also provides insights into endemism and phylogeographic structuring, and limited support for the Paleo-drainage divergence hypothesis as a driver of speciation in the genus Hemirhamphodon.
This article contains data of the sequence variation in the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region of the Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki), locally known as the seladang, from two captive centers. Thirty fecal samples of Malayan gaur were collected from Jenderak Selatan Wildlife Conservation Center (Pahang) and the Sungkai Wildlife Reserve (Perak) for DNA extraction and amplification with polymerase chain reactions. DNA sequences were then analyzed using neighbor joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP) methods. Based on the 652 base pairs obtained, we found seven variable characters with a value of 1%. The genetic distance between the two captive centers was 0.001. Haplotype analyses detected only four haplotypes between these two captive centers. Both NJ and MP trees demonstrate that all individuals in the Jenderak and Sungkai captive centers are in the same clade. Genetic variation of the Malayan gaur in these centers is considered low, possibly because individuals share the same common parent. This sequence variation data are of paramount importance for designing a proper breeding and management program of the Malayan gaur in the future.
A method for species identification from pork and lard samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of a conserved region in the mitochondrial (mt) cytochrome b (cyt b) gene has been developed. Genomic DNA of pork and lard were extracted using Qiagen DNeasy(®) Tissue Kits and subjected to PCR amplification targeting the mt cyt b gene. The genomic DNA from lard was found to be of good quality and produced clear PCR products on the amplification of the mt cyt b gene of approximately 360 base pairs. To distinguish between species, the amplified PCR products were cut with restriction enzyme BsaJI resulting in porcine-specific restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). The cyt b PCR-RFLP species identification assay yielded excellent results for identification of pig species. It is a potentially reliable technique for detection of pig meat and fat from other animals for Halal authentication.
Family Scolopacidae includes the sandpipers, shanks, snipes, godwits and curlews. Systematic classifications of shorebirds
at the higher level have been successfully resolved. Nevertheless, the phylogeny of shorebirds in the familial level is still
poorly understood. Thus, this phylogenetic study on Scolopacidae was conducted upon the framework provided by the first
sequence-based species-level phylogeny within the shorebirds to determine the phylogenetic relationships among family
members of Scolopacidae in West Borneo, Sarawak using combined gene markers, mtDNA Cytochrome Oxidise I (COI)
and nucDNA Recombinant Activating Gene 1 (RAG1). A total of 1,342 base pair (bp) were inferred from both COI and RAG1
gene from 45 sequences constituted of 15 species Scolopacidae sampled from Sarawak namely Xenus cinereus, Actitis
hypoleucos, Tringa totanus, Tringa glareola, Tringa stagnatilis, Heteroscelus brevipes, Calidris alba, Calidris ruficollis,
Calidris ferruginea, Calidris tenuirostris, Calidris alpina, Gallinago stenura, Gallinago megala, Numenius arquata, and
Numenius phaeopus. The phylogenetic tree was constructed with Charadrius mongulus derived as an outgroup. The
Bayesian Inference (BI) tree constructed supported grouping of species into several lineages of Numeniinae, Calidrinae,
Scolopacinae and Tringinae. The groupings of species into several lineages correlate with morphological features that
contribute to their adaptation and ability of the species to fit to their ecosystems.
Present study investigates the genetic diversity and genetic distribution of the longtail tuna Thunnus tonggol collected from east Malaysia (Borneo states of Sabah and Sarawak) based on mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence analysis. 58 fish samples were obtained, specifically from Kota Kinabalu, KK (n = 22), Miri, MR (n=20) and Bintulu, BT (n = 17). DNA template was isolated using the salt extraction method. Final length of 404 base pair (bp) D-loop sequences revealed 52 haplotypes that comprise of 77 variable sites (38 of parsimony informative and 39 singleton). A total of 20 haplotypes were found in KK, 19 haplotypes in MR and 16 haplotypes in BT. Molecular diversity indices revealed high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity in all populations; KK (h = 0.9913 ± 0.0165, π = 0.00239 ± 0.0127), MR (h = 0.9942 ± 0.0193, π = 0.0226 ± 0.0121) and BT (h = 0.9926 ± 0.0230, π = 0.0196 ± 0.0171). Population comparison pairwise FST show that KK and BT were significantly genetically differentiated. The result from this study will be beneficial for fisheries management and also to provide information on the population genetics of T. tonggol in East Malaysian waters.
Malaysia is one of the countries that are loaded with mega biodiversity which includes microbial communities. Phages constitute the major component in the microbial communities and yet the numbers of discovered phages are just a minute fraction of its population in the biosphere. Taking into account of a huge numbers of waiting to be discovered phages, a new bacteriophage designated as Escherichia phage YD-2008.s was successfully isolated using Escherichia coli ATCC 11303 as the host. Phage YD-2008.s poses icosahedral head measured at 57nm in diameter with a long non-contractile flexible tail measured at 107nm; proving the phage as one of the members of Siphoviridae family under the order of Caudovirales. Genomic sequence analyses revealed phage YD-2008.s genome as linear dsDNA of 44,613 base pairs with 54.6% G+C content. Sixty-two open reading frames (ORFs) were identified on phage YD-2008.s full genome, using bioinformatics annotation software; Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST). Among the ORFs, twenty-eight of them code for functional proteins. Thirty two are classified as hypothetical proteins and there are two unidentified proteins. Even though majority of the coded putative proteins have high amino acids similarities to phages from the genus Hk578likevirus of the Siphoviridae family, yet phage YD-2008.s stands with its' own distinctiveness. Therefore, this is another new finding to Siphoviridae family as well as to the growing list of viruses in International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) database.