Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 28 in total

  1. Saad B, Bee-Leng Y, Saleh MI, Rahman IA, Mansor SM
    J AOAC Int, 2001 8 15;84(4):1151-7.
    PMID: 11501917
    Potentiometric response characteristics were evaluated for quinine selective sensors based on a lipophilic ion-exchanger potassium tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethylphenyl)]borate (PTFB) immobilized together with plasticizing solvents in polyvinyl chloride membranes. The use of dioctyl phthalate (DOP), 2-nitrophenyl phenyl ether (NPPE), and bis(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (BEHA) plasticizers produced good quality quinine sensors that were sensitive and fast responding, and exhibited near Nernstian responses when used as batch-sensors. These membranes were further tested in a wall-jet flow-through potentiometric flow injection analysis (FIA) detector. Quinine sensors containing BEHA were the most suitable membrane, with no noticeable differences in sensitivity even after 5 h of continuous exposure to solutions. Interference by foreign species such as alkali, alkaline earth metal ions, sugars, and sodium benzoate was minimal in either the batch-mode (log selectivity coefficients
    Matched MeSH terms: Beverages/analysis*
  2. Hashim AK, Hatif AR, Ahmed NM, Wadi IA, Al Qaaod AA
    Appl Radiat Isot, 2021 Jan;167:109410.
    PMID: 33065401 DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2020.109410
    Radon and progeny concentration measurements in various drink samples are intrinsically important for assessing the health risks resulting from daily consumption of these drinks. In this study the comparison between two Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs), the CR-39 and the CN-85 has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the radon concentration, annual effective dose, the rate of exhalation of radon and the effective radium content in thirty-two different samples of soft drink, water, and milk available in the local Iraq markets. The results showed that there are significant differences in the measurement results for the two detectors. The annual effective dose of the investigated samples is still below the limit of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendation in the measurements of both detectors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Beverages/analysis*
  3. Santhirasegaram V, Razali Z, Somasundram C
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2013 Sep;20(5):1276-82.
    PMID: 23538119 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2013.02.005
    Ultrasonic treatment is an emerging food processing technology that has growing interest among health-conscious consumers. Freshly squeezed Chokanan mango juice was thermally treated (at 90 °C for 30 and 60s) and sonicated (for 15, 30 and 60 min at 25 °C, 40 kHz frequency, 130 W) to compare the effect on microbial inactivation, physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and other quality parameters. After sonication and thermal treatment, no significant changes occurred in pH, total soluble solids and titratable acidity. Sonication for 15 and 30 min showed significant improvement in selected quality parameters except color and ascorbic acid content, when compared to freshly squeezed juice (control). A significant increase in extractability of carotenoids (4-9%) and polyphenols (30-35%) was observed for juice subjected to ultrasonic treatment for 15 and 30 min, when compared to the control. In addition, enhancement of radical scavenging activity and reducing power was observed in all sonicated juice samples regardless of treatment time. Thermal and ultrasonic treatment exhibited significant reduction in microbial count of the juice. The results obtained support the use of sonication to improve the quality of Chokanan mango juice along with safety standard as an alternative to thermal treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Beverages/analysis*
  4. Cheong MW, Zhu D, Sng J, Liu SQ, Zhou W, Curran P, et al.
    Food Chem, 2012 Sep 15;134(2):696-703.
    PMID: 23107680 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.139
    Calamansi juices from three countries (Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam) were characterised through measuring volatiles, physicochemical properties and non-volatiles (sugars, organic acids and phenolic acids). The volatile components of manually squeezed calamansi juices were extracted using dichloromethane and headspace solid-phase microextraction, and then analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionisation detector, respectively. A total of 60 volatile compounds were identified. The results indicated that the Vietnam calamansi juice contained the highest amount of volatiles. Two principal components obtained from principal component analysis (PCA) represented 89.65% of the cumulative total variations of the volatiles. Among the non-volatile components, these three calamansi juices could be, to some extent, differentiated according to fructose and glucose concentrations. Hence, this study of calamansi juices could lead to a better understanding of calamansi fruits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Beverages/analysis*
  5. Bhat R, Kamaruddin NS, Min-Tze L, Karim AA
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2011 Nov;18(6):1295-300.
    PMID: 21550834 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2011.04.002
    Freshly squeezed kasturi lime fruit juice was sonicated (for 0, 30 and 60min at 20°C, 25kHz frequency) to evaluate its impact on selected physico-chemical and antioxidant properties, such as pH, °Brix, titratable acidity, Hunter color values (L(∗), a(∗), b(∗)), ascorbic acid, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, flavonoids and flavonols. Additionally, the effect of sonication treatments on the microbial load (TPC, yeast and mold) were also evaluated. Sonication of juice samples for 60min showed enhancement in most of the bioactive compounds compared to samples treated for 30min and control samples (untreated). Significant reductions in the microbial load corresponding to sonication time were also recorded. Results of the present study indicate that sonication may be employed as a suitable technique for kasturi lime juice processing, where antioxidant and other bioactive compound retention or enhancement is desired, along with the achievement of safety and quality standards.
    Matched MeSH terms: Beverages/analysis*
  6. Ariffin F, Heong Chew S, Bhupinder K, Karim AA, Huda N
    J Sci Food Agric, 2011 Dec;91(15):2731-9.
    PMID: 21987075 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4454
    C. asiatica was exposed to various fermentations: no fermentation (0 min), partial fermentation (120 min) and full fermentation (24 h). Total phenolic content (TPC) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of C. asiatica infusions were studied as a function of water temperature (60, 80 or 100 °C), the brewing stage (one, two or three) and the brewing time (1, 3, 5, 10, 15 or 20 min). The optimum brewing procedure was adopted to study the antioxidant properties and phenolic compounds in C. asiatica infusions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Beverages/analysis*
  7. Lawal A, Tan GH, Alsharif AM
    J AOAC Int, 2016 Nov 01;99(6):1383-1394.
    PMID: 27667201 DOI: 10.5740/jaoacint.16-0272
    Food quality and food safety are major challenges affecting agricultural and industrial aspects of production. Many contaminants from different sources contaminate foods and drinks, leading to disastrous health problems like gene mutations and cancer. Previously, many different methods have been used for the analysis of these contaminants. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) has been the most well-known conventional technique used, but its limitations are its tediousness, time required, and the use of large quantities of toxic organic solvents. These limitations have led to the search for other, efficient techniques that are more environmentally friendly. Hence, this review highlights recent advances in liquid-phase (single-drop, hollow fiber, and dispersive liquid-liquid) microextraction procedures for food and drink analyses. Such modifications can be justified for solving limitations associated with the traditional LLE method. The objective of this review is to serve as a reference platform for providing effective management tools for solving problems of pollution, clean-up, and control of food quality and safety globally.
    Matched MeSH terms: Beverages/analysis*
  8. Zakaria NZ, Masnan MJ, Zakaria A, Shakaff AY
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(7):12233-55.
    PMID: 25010697 DOI: 10.3390/s140712233
    Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers' performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied.
    Matched MeSH terms: Beverages/analysis*
  9. Sulaiman SF, Ooi KL
    J Agric Food Chem, 2014 Oct 1;62(39):9576-85.
    PMID: 25198055 DOI: 10.1021/jf502912t
    The present study compared pH, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of 40 fresh juices. The juice of Baccaurea polyneura showed the highest yield (74.17 ± 1.44%) and total soluble solids (32.83 ± 0.27 °Brix). The highest and lowest pH values were respectively measured from the juices of Dimocarpus longan (6.87 ± 0.01) and Averrhoa bilimbi (1.67 ± 0.67). The juice of Psidium guajava gave the highest total phenolic (857.24 ± 12.65 μg GAE/g sample) and vitamin C contents (590.31 ± 7.44 μg AAE/g sample). The juice of Phyllanthus acidus with moderate contents of total phenolics and vitamin C was found to exhibit the greatest scavenging (613.71 ± 2.59 μg VCEAC/g sample), reducing (2784.89 ± 3.93 μg TEAC/g sample), and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (95.37 ± 0.15%). The juice of Barringtonia racemosa was ranked second in the activities and total phenolic content. Gallic and ellagic acids, which were quantified as the major phenolics of the respective juices, are suggested to be the main contributors to the antioxidant activities. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the juices could be derived from myricetin and quercetin (that were previously reported as potent α-glucosidase inhibitors) in the hydrolyzed juice extracts. The juice of Syzygium samarangense, which was found to be highest in metal chelating activity (82.28 ± 0.10%), also was found to have these phenolics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Beverages/analysis*
  10. Hajian R, Yusof NA, Faragi T, Shams N
    PLoS One, 2014;9(5):e96686.
    PMID: 24809346 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096686
    In this paper, the electrochemical behavior of myricetin on a gold nanoparticle/ethylenediamine/multi-walled carbon-nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (AuNPs/en/MWCNTs/GCE) has been investigated. Myricetin effectively accumulated on the AuNPs/en/MWCNTs/GCE and caused a pair of irreversible redox peaks at around 0.408 V and 0.191 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 0.1 mol L-1 phosphate buffer solution (pH 3.5) for oxidation and reduction reactions respectively. The heights of the redox peaks were significantly higher on AuNPs/en/MWNTs/GCE compare with MWCNTs/GC and there was no peak on bare GC. The electron-transfer reaction for myricetin on the surface of electrochemical sensor was controlled by adsorption. Some parameters including pH, accumulation potential, accumulation time and scan rate have been optimized. Under the optimum conditions, anodic peak current was proportional to myricetin concentration in the dynamic range of 5.0×10-8 to 4.0×10-5 mol L-1 with the detection limit of 1.2×10-8 mol L-1. The proposed method was successfully used for the determination of myricetin content in tea and fruit juices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Beverages/analysis*
  11. Kuswandi B, Irmawati T, Hidayat MA, Jayus, Ahmad M
    Sensors (Basel), 2014;14(2):2135-49.
    PMID: 24473284 DOI: 10.3390/s140202135
    A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase (AOX) immobilised onto polyaniline (PANI) film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples is described. This biosensor responds to ethanol via a colour change from green to blue, due to the enzymatic reaction of ethanol that produces acetaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, when the latter oxidizes the PANI film. The procedure to obtain this biosensor consists of the immobilization of AOX onto PANI film by adsorption. For the immobilisation, an AOX solution is deposited on the PANI film and left at room temperature until dried (30 min). The biosensor was constructed as a dip stick for visual and simple use. The colour changes of the films have been scanned and analysed using image analysis software (i.e., ImageJ) to study the characteristics of the biosensor's response toward ethanol. The biosensor has a linear response in an ethanol concentration range of 0.01%-0.8%, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.996. The limit detection of the biosensor was 0.001%, with reproducibility (RSD) of 1.6% and a life time up to seven weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor provides accurate results for ethanol determination in fermented drinks and was in good agreement with the standard method (gas chromatography) results. Thus, the biosensor could be used as a simple visual method for ethanol determination in fermented beverage samples that can be useful for Muslim community for halal verification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Beverages/analysis*
  12. Khayoon WS, Saad B, Salleh B, Manaf NH, Latiff AA
    Food Chem, 2014 Mar 15;147:287-94.
    PMID: 24206720 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.09.049
    A single step extraction-cleanup procedure using porous membrane-protected micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) in conjunction with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the extraction and determination of aflatoxins (AFs) B1, B2, G1 and G2 from food was successfully developed. After the extraction, AFs were desorbed from the μ-SPE device by ultrasonication using acetonitrile. The optimum extraction conditions were: sorbent material, C8; sorbent mass, 20mg; extraction time, 90 min; stirring speed, 1,000 rpm; sample volume, 10 mL; desorption solvent, acetonitrile; solvent volume, 350 μL and ultrasonication period, 25 min without salt addition. Under the optimum conditions, enrichment factor of 11, 9, 9 and 10 for AFG2, AFG1, AFB2 and AFB1, respectively were achieved. Good linearity and correlation coefficient was obtained over the concentration range of 0.4-50 ng g(-1) (r(2) 0.9988-0.9999). Good recoveries for AFs ranging from 86.0-109% were obtained. The method was applied to 40 samples involving malt beverage (19) and canned coffee (21). No AFs were detected in the selected samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Beverages/analysis*
  13. Musa KH, Abdullah A, Kuswandi B, Hidayat MA
    Food Chem, 2013 Dec 15;141(4):4102-6.
    PMID: 23993591 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.06.112
    A stable chromogenic radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) is commonly used for the determination of antioxidant activity. In this paper, DPPH was dried into 96 well microplate to produce DPPH dry reagent array plate, based on which the highly sensitive and high throughput determination of antioxidant activities was achieved. The spectrophotometric characterization of the microplate containing dried or fresh DPPH free radicals was reported. The response of the DPPH dry reagent array towards different standard antioxidants was studied. The reaction for DPPH in fresh or dry reagent array with Trolox was reported and compared. The DPPH dry reagent array was used to study the antioxidant activity of banana, green tea, pink guava, and honeydew and the results were compared to the samples reacted with freshly prepared DPPH. The proposed method is comparable to the classical DPPH method, more convenient, simple to operate with minimal solvent required and excellent sensitivity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Beverages/analysis*
  14. Loh SH, Sanagi MM, Wan Ibrahim WA, Hasan MN
    Talanta, 2013 Mar 15;106:200-5.
    PMID: 23598117 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2012.12.032
    A new microextraction procedure termed multi-walled carbon nanotube-impregnated agarose film microextraction (MWCNT-AFME) has been developed. The method utilized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) immobilized in agarose film to serve as adsorbent in solid phase microextraction (SPME). The film was prepared by mixing the MWCNTs in agarose solution and drying the mixture in oven. Extraction of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was performed by inserting a needle through circular MWCNT-impregnated agarose films (5 mm diameter) and the assembly was dipped into an agitated sample solution prior to micro high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet analysis. Back extraction was then performed using ultrasonication of the films in 100 μL of solvent. The film was discarded after single use, thus avoiding any analyte carry-over effect. Due to the mesoporous nature of the agarose film, the MWCNTs were immobilized easily within the film and thus allowing for close contact between adsorbent and analytes. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the technique achieved trace LODs in the range of 0.1 to 50 ng L(-1) for the targeted analytes, namely fluoranthene, phenanthrene and benzo[a]pyrene. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of spiked green tea beverage samples with good relative recoveries in the range of 91.1 to 107.2%. The results supported the feasibility of agarose to serve as adsorbent holder in SPME which then minimizes the consumption of chemicals and disposal cost of organic wastes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Beverages/analysis*
  15. Lee TP, Saad B, Khayoon WS, Salleh B
    Talanta, 2012 Jan 15;88:129-35.
    PMID: 22265478 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2011.10.021
    A simple, environmental friendly and selective sample preparation technique employing porous membrane protected micro-solid phase extraction (μ-SPE) loaded with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) is described. After the extraction, the analyte was desorbed using ultrasonication and was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits of OTA for coffee, grape juice and urine were 0.06 ng g(-1), 0.02 and 0.02 ng mL(-1), respectively while the quantification limits were 0.19 ng g(-1), 0.06 and 0.08 ng mL(-1), respectively. The recoveries of OTA from coffee spiked at 1, 25 and 50 ng g(-1), grape juice and urine samples at 1, 25 and 50 ng mL(-1) ranged from 90.6 to 101.5%. The proposed method was applied to thirty-eight samples of coffee, grape juice and urine and the presence of OTA was found in eighteen samples. The levels found, however, were all below the legal limits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Beverages/analysis*
  16. Mirhosseini H, Tan CP, Yusof S, Hamid NS
    Phytochem Anal, 2008 Sep-Oct;19(5):429-37.
    PMID: 18435528 DOI: 10.1002/pca.1068
    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography has been applied for the headspace analysis (HS) of 12 target flavour compounds in a model orange beverage emulsion. The main volatile flavour compounds studied were: acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene, ethyl butyrate, beta-pinene, myrcene, limonene, gamma-terpinene, octanal, decanal, linalool and citral (neral plus geranial). After screening the fibre type, the effect of other HS-SPME variables such as adsorption temperature (25-55 degrees C), extraction time (10-40 min), sample concentration (1-100% w/w), sample amount (5-10 g) and salt amount (0-30% w/w) were determined using a two-level fractional factorial design (2(5-2)) that was expanded further to a central composite design. It was found that an extraction process using a carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane fibre coating at 15 masculineC for 50 min with 5 g of diluted emulsion 1% (w/w) and 30% (w/w) of sodium chloride under stirring mode resulted in the highest HS extraction efficiency. For all volatile flavour compounds, the linearity values were accurate in the concentration ranges studied (r(2) > 0.97). Average recoveries that ranged from 90.3 to 124.8% showed a good accuracy for the optimised method. The relative standard deviation for six replicates of all volatile flavour compounds was found to be less than 15%. For all volatile flavour compounds, the limit of detection ranged from 0.20 to 1.69 mg/L.
    Matched MeSH terms: Beverages/analysis*
  17. Mirhosseini H, Tan CP, Hamid NS, Yusof S
    J Agric Food Chem, 2007 Sep 19;55(19):7659-66.
    PMID: 17708646
    The possible relationships between the main emulsion components (namely, Arabic gum, xanthan gum, and orange oil) and the physicochemical properties of orange beverage emulsion were evaluated by using response surface methodology. The physicochemical emulsion property variables considered as response variables were emulsion stability, viscosity, fluid behavior, zeta-potential, and electrophoretic mobility. The independent variables had the most and least significant ( p < 0.05) effect on viscosity and zeta-potential, respectively. The quadratic effect of orange oil and Arabic gum, the interaction effect of Arabic gum and xanthan gum, and the main effect of Arabic gum were the most significant ( p < 0.05) effects on turbidity loss rate, viscosity, viscosity ratio, and mobility, respectively. The main effect of Arabic gum was found to be significant ( p < 0.05) in all response variables except for turbidity loss rate. The nonlinear regression equations were significantly ( p < 0.05) fitted for all response variables with high R (2) values (>0.86), which had no indication of lack of fit. The results indicated that a combined level of 10.78% (w/w) Arabic gum, 0.56% (w/w) xanthan gum, and 15.27% (w/w) orange oil was predicted to provide the overall optimum region in terms of physicochemical properties studied. No significant ( p > 0.05) difference between the experimental and the predicted values confirmed the adequacy of response surface equations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Beverages/analysis*
  18. Parthasarathy S, Ramanathan S, Murugaiyah V, Hamdan MR, Said MI, Lai CS, et al.
    Forensic Sci Int, 2013 Mar 10;226(1-3):183-7.
    PMID: 23385139 DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2013.01.014
    Mitragyna speciosa, a native plant of Thailand and Malaysia known as 'ketum', is a plant of considerable interest. It exhibits strong antinociceptive effect and yet, acts like a psychostimulant. Due to the affordability and its ease of availability, the abuse of this plant as a substitute for other banned narcotics has become a major concern in many societies. In countries such as Thailand, Myanmar, Australia and Malaysia, the use of ketum is illegal. However, for a person to be charged for possessing or selling ketum, a reliable analytical method is needed in order to detect and identify the plant and its products. Mitragynine is the major alkaloid of ketum. This compound manifests its antinociceptive effects by acting on the opioid receptors. Since M. speciosa contain large quantity of mitragynine and it is exclusive to the species, the present analytical method is developed and validated for the purpose of screening ketum products based on this unique compound as the analytical marker. The method uses a HPLC-DAD system with Inertsil C8 (4.6 mm × 150 mm, 5 μm) as the column and a mixture of acetonitrile and formic acid, 50:50 (v/v), as the mobile phase. This method not only detects mitragynine, it can also be used to quantify the amount of mitragynine in the sample. The limit of detection is 0.25 μg/ml, while the limit of quantification is 0.50 μg/ml. The method is quick, simple and reliable with an accuracy of 97.27-101.74% and coefficient of variations of between 0.91 and 3.96%. The method has been tested and found suitable for the identification and quantification of mitragynine in dried plants, a variety of ketum extracts, as well as ketum drink obtained from the market.
    Matched MeSH terms: Beverages/analysis
  19. Burdon CA, Johnson NA, Chapman PG, Munir Che Muhamed A, O'Connor HT
    Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2013 Aug;23(4):418-24.
    PMID: 23295183
    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of environmental conditions and aid-station beverage- cooling practices on the temperature of competitor beverages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Beverages/analysis*
  20. Singh D, Murugaiyah V, Hamid SBS, Kasinather V, Chan MSA, Ho ETW, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2018 Jul 15;221:30-36.
    PMID: 29626673 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.04.005
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) also known as kratom, is a native medicinal plant of Southeast Asia with opioid-like effects. Kratom tea/juice have been traditionally used as a folk remedy and for controlling opiate withdrawal in Malaysia. Long-term opioid use is associated with depletion in testosterone levels.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: Since kratom is reported to deform sperm morphology and reduce sperm motility, we aimed to clinically investigate the testosterone levels following long-term kratom tea/juice use in regular kratom users.

    METHODS: A total of 19 regular kratom users were recruited for this cross-sectional study. A full-blood test was conducted including determination of testosterone level, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) profile, as well as hematological and biochemical parameters of participants.

    RESULTS: We found long-term kratom tea/juice consumption with a daily mitragynine dose of 76.23-94.15 mg did not impair testosterone levels, or gonadotrophins, hematological and biochemical parameters in regular kratom users.

    CONCLUSION: Regular kratom tea/juice consumption over prolonged periods (>2 years) was not associated with testosterone impairing effects in humans.

    Matched MeSH terms: Beverages/analysis
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