Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 295 in total

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  1. Niek WK, Teh CSJ, Idris N, Thong KL, Ngoi ST, Ponnampalavanar SSS
    Folia Microbiol (Praha), 2021 Oct;66(5):741-749.
    PMID: 34089493 DOI: 10.1007/s12223-021-00877-x
    Biofilm formation is an important physiological process in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) that can cause infections in humans. In this study, the ability of 36 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates to form biofilm was studied based on genotypic and phenotypic approaches. These isolates were genotyped based on the microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs) and biofilm-associated genes (icaAD) via polymerase chain reactions. Phenotyping was performed based on the determination of the strength of biofilm formation of MRSA isolates in vitro. The most prevalent MSCRAMMs and biofilm-associated genes were clfA, eno, and icaD, followed by clfB. The fnbB (38.9%) and ebpS (11.1%) occurred less frequently among the MRSA isolates, while bbp and fnbA genes were absent from all isolates. The MRSA isolates were mostly moderate to strong biofilm formers, despite the heterogeneity of the MSCRAMM profiles. MRSA isolates from different infection sources (primary, catheter-related bloodstream, or secondary infections) were capable of forming strong biofilms. However, persistent bacteraemia was observed only in 19.4% of the MRSA-infected individuals. This study suggested that persistent MRSA bacteraemia in patients might not be associated with the biofilm-forming ability of the isolates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biofilms*
  2. Mohd Ali MKFB, Abu Bakar A, Md Noor N, Yahaya N, Ismail M, Rashid AS
    Environ Technol, 2017 Oct;38(19):2427-2439.
    PMID: 27875932 DOI: 10.1080/09593330.2016.1264486
    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is among the common corrosion types for buried and deep-water pipelines that result in costly repair and pipeline failure. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are commonly known as the culprit of MIC. The aim of this work is to investigate the performance of combination of ultrasound (US) irradiation and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (known as Hybrid soliwave technique, HyST) at pilot scale to inactivate SRB. The influence of different reaction times with respect to US irradiation and UV radiation and synergistic effect toward SRB consortium was tested and discussed. In this research, the effect of HyST treatment toward SRB extermination and corrosion studies of carbon steel coupon upon SRB activity before and after the treatment were performed using weight loss method. The carbon steel coupons immersed in SRB sample were exposed to HyST treatment at different time of exposure. Additionally, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy were used to investigate the corrosion morphology in verifying the end product of SRB activity and corrosion formation after treatment. Results have shown that the US irradiation treatment gives a synergistic effect when combined with UV radiation in mitigating the SRB consortium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biofilms*
  3. Arij Y, Fatihah S, Rakmi AR
    Bioresour Technol, 2018 Jul;260:213-220.
    PMID: 29626780 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.03.131
    The anaerobic treatment of leachate from a municipal waste transfer station in Malaysia was tested using a pilot scale anaerobic biofilm digester system that was operated under HRT sequence of 30-day, 25-day, 20-day and 10-day for 163 days under mesophilic conditions. Despite the leachate's complex characteristics, the system showed great performance given its maximum COD, BOD5 and total phosphorus removal efficiencies of 98 ± 1%, 99 ± 1% and 92 ± 9% respectively. The system was stable throughout its operation and showed optimal average values for the monitored parameters such as pH (7.53 ± 0.14), total VFA (79 ± 66 mg HOAc/L), alkalinity (10,919 ± 1556 mg CaCO3/L) and a non-toxic value for accumulated ammonia (960 ± 106 mg NH3-N/L). Measurement of the average daily biogas production yielded a value of 25 ± 1 m3/day throughout the system's operation with a composition of 57 ± 12% methane and 26 ± 6% carbon dioxide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biofilms*
  4. Nawar A, Khoja AH, Akbar N, Ansari AA, Qayyum M, Ali E
    BMC Res Notes, 2017 Dec 02;10(1):666.
    PMID: 29197425 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-017-2995-9
    OBJECTIVE: A major factor in practical application of photobioreactors (PBR) is the adhesion of algal cells onto their inner walls. Optimized algal growth requires an adequate sunlight for the photosynthesis and cell growth. Limitation in light exposure adversely affects the algal biomass yield. The removal of the biofilm from PBR is a challenging and expansive task. This study was designed to develop an inexpensive technique to prevent adhesion of algal biofilm on tubular PBR to ensure high efficiency of light utilization. Rubber balls with surface projections were introduced into the reactor, to remove the adherent biofilm by physical abrasion technique.

    RESULTS: The floatation of spike balls created a turbulent flow, thereby inhibiting further biofilm formation. The parameters such as, specific growth rate and doubling time of the algae before introducing the balls were 0.451 day-1 and 1.5 days respectively. Visible biofilm impeding light transmission was formed by 15-20 days. The removal of the biofilm commenced immediately after the introduction of the spike balls with visibly reduced deposits in 3 days. This was also validated by enhance cell count (6.95 × 106 cells mL-1) in the medium. The employment of spike balls in PBR is an environmental friendly and economical method for the removal of biofilm.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biofilms*
  5. Abdalla SSI, Katas H, Azmi F, Busra MFM
    Curr Drug Deliv, 2020;17(2):88-100.
    PMID: 31880259 DOI: 10.2174/1567201817666191227094334
    Fast progress in nanoscience and nanotechnology has contributed to the way in which people diagnose, combat, and overcome various diseases differently from the conventional methods. Metal nanoparticles, mainly silver and gold nanoparticles (AgNPs and AuNPs, respectively), are currently developed for many applications in the medical and pharmaceutical area including as antibacterial, antibiofilm as well as anti-leshmanial agents, drug delivery systems, diagnostics tools, as well as being included in personal care products and cosmetics. In this review, the preparation of AgNPs and AuNPs using different methods is discussed, particularly the green or bio- synthesis method as well as common methods used for their physical and chemical characterization. In addition, the mechanisms of the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity of AgNPs and AuNPs are discussed, along with the toxicity of both nanoparticles. The review will provide insight into the potential of biosynthesized AgNPs and AuNPs as antimicrobial nanomaterial agents for future use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biofilms/drug effects
  6. Lahiri D, Nag M, Banerjee R, Mukherjee D, Garai S, Sarkar T, et al.
    PMID: 33987107 DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.660048
    Biofilm is a syntrophic association of sessile groups of microbial cells that adhere to biotic and abiotic surfaces with the help of pili and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). EPSs also prevent penetration of antimicrobials/antibiotics into the sessile groups of cells. Hence, methods and agents to avoid or remove biofilms are urgently needed. Enzymes play important roles in the removal of biofilm in natural environments and may be promising agents for this purpose. As the major component of the EPS is polysaccharide, amylase has inhibited EPS by preventing the adherence of the microbial cells, thus making amylase a suitable antimicrobial agent. On the other hand, salivary amylase binds to amylase-binding protein of plaque-forming Streptococci and initiates the formation of biofilm. This review investigates the contradictory actions and microbe-associated genes of amylases, with emphasis on their structural and functional characteristics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biofilms*
  7. Samrot AV, Abubakar Mohamed A, Faradjeva E, Si Jie L, Hooi Sze C, Arif A, et al.
    Medicina (Kaunas), 2021 Aug 18;57(8).
    PMID: 34441045 DOI: 10.3390/medicina57080839
    Biofilms comprising aggregates of microorganisms or multicellular communities have been a major issue as they cause resistance against antimicrobial agents and biofouling. To date, numerous biofilm-forming microorganisms have been identified, which have been shown to result in major effects including biofouling and biofilm-related infections. Quorum sensing (which describes the cell communication within biofilms) plays a vital role in the regulation of biofilm formation and its virulence. As such, elucidating the various mechanisms responsible for biofilm resistance (including quorum sensing) will assist in developing strategies to inhibit and control the formation of biofilms in nature. Employing biological control measures (such as the use of bioactive compounds) in targeting biofilms is of great interest since they naturally possess antimicrobial activity among other favorable attributes and can also possibly act as potent antibiofilm agents. As an effort to re-establish the current notion and understanding of biofilms, the present review discuss the stages involved in biofilm formation, the factors contributing to its development, the effects of biofilms in various industries, and the use of various bioactive compounds and their strategies in biofilm inhibition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biofilms*
  8. Ruiz-Sorribas A, Poilvache H, Kamarudin NHN, Braem A, Van Bambeke F
    Biofouling, 2021 05;37(5):481-493.
    PMID: 34225500 DOI: 10.1080/08927014.2021.1919301
    Biofilms are an important medical burden, notably for patients with orthopaedic device-related infections. When polymicrobial, these infections are more lethal and recalcitrant. Inter-kingdom biofilm infections are poorly understood and challenging to treat. Here, an in vitro three-species model including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans was developed, to represent part of the diversity observed in orthopaedic infections or other clinical contexts. The importance of fungal hyphae for biofilm formation and virulence factor expression was explored. Two protocols were set up, allowing, or not, for hyphal formation. Culturable cells and biomass were characterised in both models, and biofilms were imaged in bright-field, confocal and electron microscopes. The expression of genes related to virulence, adhesion, exopolysaccharide synthesis and stress response was analysed in early-stage and mature biofilms. It was found that biofilms enriched in hyphae had larger biomass and showed higher expression levels of genes related to bacterial virulence or exopolysaccharides synthesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biofilms*
  9. Ng FL, Jaafar MM, Phang SM, Chan Z, Salleh NA, Azmi SZ, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2014;4:7562.
    PMID: 25531093 DOI: 10.1038/srep07562
    The search for renewable energy sources has become challenging in the current era, as conventional fuel sources are of finite origins. Recent research interest has focused on various biophotovoltaic (BPV) platforms utilizing algae, which are then used to harvest solar energy and generate electrical power. The majority of BPV platforms incorporate indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for the purpose of charge transfer due to its inherent optical and electrical properties. However, other materials such as reduced graphene oxide (RGO) could provide higher efficiency due to their intrinsic electrical properties and biological compatibility. In this work, the performance of algae biofilms grown on RGO and ITO anodes were measured and discussed. Results indicate improved peak power of 0.1481 mWm(-2) using the RGO electrode and an increase in efficiency of 119%, illustrating the potential of RGO as an anode material for applications in biofilm derived devices and systems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biofilms*
  10. Murali V, Ong SA, Ho LN, Wong YS
    Bioresour Technol, 2013 Sep;143:104-11.
    PMID: 23792659 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.05.122
    This study was to investigate the mineralization of wastewater containing methyl orange (MO) in integrated anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactor with coconut fiber as bio-material. Different aeration periods (3h in phase 1 and 2; 3, 6 and 15 h in phase 3; 24 h in phase 4 and 5) in aerobic chamber were studied with different MO concentration 50, 100, 200, 200 and 300 mg/L as influent from phase 1-5. The color removals estimated from the standard curve of dye versus optical density at its maximum absorption wavelength were 97%, 96%, 97%, 97%, and 96% and COD removals were 75%, 72%, 63%, 81%, and 73% in phase 1-5, respectively. The MO decolorization and COD degradation followed first-order kinetic model and second-order kinetic model, respectively. GC-MS analysis indicated the symmetrical cleavage of azo bond and the reduction in aromatic peak ensured the partial mineralization of MO.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biofilms*
  11. Ismail Z, Aziz MMA, Mahmood NAN, Ismail S, Umor NA, Faua'ad Syed Muhammad SA
    J Environ Manage, 2018 Nov 15;226:156-162.
    PMID: 30119039 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.08.003
    Oleochemicals industry effluence mainly contains a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) in a range of 6000-20,000 ppm. An effective biological wastewater treatment process must be carried out before wastewater is discharged into the environment. In this study, a submerged bed biofilm reactor (SBBR) was adapted to the biological oleochemical wastewater treatment plant observed in the present study. The effect of wastewater flow rate (100-300 mL/min), Cosmoball® percentage in the SBBR system (25-75%), and percentage of activated sludge (0-50%) were investigated in terms of COD reduction. The Box-Behnken design was used for response surface methodology (RSM) and to create a set of 18 experimental runs, which was needed for optimising the biological oleochemical wastewater treatment. A quadratic polynomial model with estimated coefficients was developed to describe COD reduction patterns. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the wastewater flow rate was the most effective factor in reducing COD, followed by activated sludge percentage and Cosmoball® carrier percentage. Under the optimum conditions (i.e., a wastewater flow rate of 103.25 mL/min a Cosmoball® carrier percentage of 71.94%, and an activated sludge percentage of 40.50%) a COD reduction of 98% was achieved. Thus, under optimum conditions, as suggested by the BBD, SBBR systems can be used as a viable means of biological wastewater treatment in the oleochemicals industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biofilms*
  12. Chan WT, Domenech M, Moreno-Córdoba I, Navarro-Martínez V, Nieto C, Moscoso M, et al.
    Toxins (Basel), 2018 09 18;10(9).
    PMID: 30231554 DOI: 10.3390/toxins10090378
    Type II (proteic) toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) are widely distributed among bacteria and archaea. They are generally organized as operons integrated by two genes, the first encoding the antitoxin that binds to its cognate toxin to generate a harmless protein⁻protein complex. Under stress conditions, the unstable antitoxin is degraded by host proteases, releasing the toxin to achieve its toxic effect. In the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae we have characterized four TAs: pezAT, relBE, yefM-yoeB, and phD-doc, although the latter is missing in strain R6. We have assessed the role of the two yefM-yoeB and relBE systems encoded by S. pneumoniae R6 by construction of isogenic strains lacking one or two of the operons, and by complementation assays. We have analyzed the phenotypes of the wild type and mutants in terms of cell growth, response to environmental stress, and ability to generate biofilms. Compared to the wild-type, the mutants exhibited lower resistance to oxidative stress. Further, strains deleted in yefM-yoeB and the double mutant lacking yefM-yoeB and relBE exhibited a significant reduction in their ability for biofilm formation. Complementation assays showed that defective phenotypes were restored to wild type levels. We conclude that these two loci may play a relevant role in these aspects of the S. pneumoniae lifestyle and contribute to the bacterial colonization of new niches.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biofilms*
  13. Daood U, Burrow MF, Yiu CKY
    Clin Oral Investig, 2020 Feb;24(2):649-661.
    PMID: 31115692 DOI: 10.1007/s00784-019-02928-7
    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate effect of quaternary ammonium silane (QAS) cavity disinfectant on cariogenic biofilm.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single- (Streptococcus mutans or Lactobacillus acidophilus), dual- (Streptococcus mutans/Lactobacillus Acidophilus), and multi-species (Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Streptococcus sanguis) biofilms were grown on acid-etched dentine discs. Biofilms were incubated (120 min/37 °C) and allowed to grow for 3 days anaerobically. Discs (no treatment) served as control (group 1). Groups II, III, IV, and V were then treated with 2% chlorhexidine, and 2%, 5%, and 10% QAS (20 s). Discs were returned to well plates with 300 μL of bacterial suspension and placed in anaerobic incubator at 37 °C and biofilms redeveloped for 4 days. Confocal microscopy, Raman, CFU, and MTT assay were performed.

    RESULTS: Raman peaks show shifts at 1450 cm-1, 1453 cm-1, 1457 cm-1, 1460 cm-1, and 1462 cm-1 for control, 2% CHX, 2%, 5%, and 10% QAS groups in multi-species biofilms. There was reduction of 484 cm-1 band in 10% QAS group. CLSM revealed densely clustered green colonies in control group and red confluent QAS-treated biofilms with significantly lower log CFU for single/dual species. Metabolic activities of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus decreased with increasing QAS exposure time.

    CONCLUSION: Quaternary ammonium silanes possess antimicrobial activities and inhibit growth of cariogenic biofilms.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Available data demonstrated use of QAS as potential antibacterial cavity disinfectant in adhesive dentistry. Experimental QAS can effectively eliminate caries-forming bacteria, when used inside a prepared cavity, and can definitely overcome problems associated with present available cavity disinfectants.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biofilms*
  14. Gagliano MC, Ismail SB, Stams AJM, Plugge CM, Temmink H, Van Lier JB
    Water Res, 2017 09 15;121:61-71.
    PMID: 28511041 DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2017.05.016
    For the anaerobic biological treatment of saline wastewater, Anaerobic Digestion (AD) is currently a possibility, even though elevated salt concentrations can be a major obstacle. Anaerobic consortia and especially methanogenic archaea are very sensitive to fluctuations in salinity. When working with Upflow Sludge Blanket Reactor (UASB) technology, in which the microorganisms are aggregated and retained in the system as a granular biofilm, high sodium concentration negatively affects aggregation and consequently process performances. In this research, we analysed the structure of the biofilm and granules formed during the anaerobic treatment of high salinity (at 10 and 20 g/L of sodium) synthetic wastewater at lab scale. The acclimated inoculum was able to accomplish high rates of organics removal at all the salinity levels tested. 16S rRNA gene clonal analysis and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analyses identified the acetoclastic Methanosaeta harundinacea as the key player involved acetate degradation and microbial attachment/granulation. When additional calcium (1 g/L) was added to overcome the negative effect of sodium on microbial aggregation, during the biofilm formation process microbial attachment and acetate degradation decreased. The same result was observed on granules formation: while calcium had a positive effect on granules strength when added to UASB reactors, Methanosaeta filaments were not present and the degradation of the partially acidified substrate was negatively influenced. This research demonstrated the possibility to get granulation at high salinity, bringing to the forefront the importance of a selection towards Methanosaeta cells growing in filamentous form to obtain strong and healthy granules.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biofilms*
  15. Jalilsood T, Baradaran A, Song AA, Foo HL, Mustafa S, Saad WZ, et al.
    Microb Cell Fact, 2015;14:96.
    PMID: 26150120 DOI: 10.1186/s12934-015-0283-8
    Bacterial biofilms are a preferred mode of growth for many types of microorganisms in their natural environments. The ability of pathogens to integrate within a biofilm is pivotal to their survival. The possibility of biofilm formation in Lactobacillus communities is also important in various industrial and medical settings. Lactobacilli can eliminate the colonization of different pathogenic microorganisms. Alternatively, new opportunities are now arising with the rapidly expanding potential of lactic acid bacteria biofilms as bio-control agents against food-borne pathogens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biofilms
  16. Kalai Chelvam K, Chai LC, Thong KL
    Gut Pathog, 2014;6(1):2.
    PMID: 24499680 DOI: 10.1186/1757-4749-6-2
    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) exhibits unique characteristics as an intracellular human pathogen. It causes both acute and chronic infection with various disease manifestations in the human host only. The principal factors underlying the unique lifestyle of motility and biofilm forming ability of S. Typhi remain largely unknown. The main objective of this study was to explore and investigate the motility and biofilm forming behaviour among S. Typhi strains of diverse background.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biofilms
  17. Arzmi MH, Dashper S, McCullough M
    J Oral Pathol Med, 2019 Aug;48(7):546-551.
    PMID: 31183906 DOI: 10.1111/jop.12905
    The oral microbiome is composed of microorganisms residing in the oral cavity, which are critical components of health and disease. Disruption of the oral microbiome has been proven to influence the course of oral diseases, especially among immunocompromised patients. Oral microbiome is comprised of inter-kingdom microorganisms, including yeasts such as Candida albicans, bacteria, archaea and viruses. These microorganisms can interact synergistically, mutualistically and antagonistically, wherein the sum of these interactions dictates the composition of the oral microbiome. For instance, polymicrobial interactions can improve the ability of C albicans to form biofilm, which subsequently increases the colonisation of oral mucosa by the yeast. Polymicrobial interactions of C albicans with other members of the oral microbiome have been reported to enhance the malignant phenotype of oral cancer cells, such as the attachment to extracellular matrix molecules (ECM) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Polymicrobial interactions may also exacerbate an inflammatory response in oral epithelial cells, which may play a role in carcinogenesis. This review focuses on the role of polymicrobial interactions between C albicans and other oral microorganisms, including its role in promoting oral carcinogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biofilms
  18. Baranitharan E, Khan MR, Prasad DM, Teo WF, Tan GY, Jose R
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 2015 Jan;38(1):15-24.
    PMID: 24981021 DOI: 10.1007/s00449-014-1239-9
    Anode biofilm is a crucial component in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for electrogenesis. Better knowledge about the biofilm development process on electrode surface is believed to improve MFC performance. In this study, double-chamber microbial fuel cell was operated with diluted POME (initial COD = 1,000 mg L(-1)) and polyacrylonitrile carbon felt was used as electrode. The maximum power density, COD removal efficiency and Coulombic efficiency were found as 22 mW m(-2), 70 and 24 %, respectively. FTIR and TGA analysis confirmed the formation of biofilm on the electrode surface during MFC operation. The impact of anode biofilm on anodic polarization resistance was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and microbial community changes during MFC operation using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The EIS-simulated results showed the reduction of charge transfer resistance (R ct) by 16.9 % after 14 days of operation of the cell, which confirms that the development of the microbial biofilm on the anode decreases the R ct and therefore improves power generation. DGGE analysis showed the variation in the biofilm composition during the biofilm growth until it forms an initial stable microbial community, thereafter the change in the diversity would be less. The power density showed was directly dependent on the biofilm development and increased significantly during the initial biofilm development period. Furthermore, DGGE patterns obtained from 7th and 14th day suggest the presence of less diversity and probable functional redundancy within the anodic communities possibly responsible for the stable MFC performance in changing environmental conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biofilms*
  19. Ng FL, Phang SM, Periasamy V, Yunus K, Fisher AC
    PLoS One, 2014;9(5):e97643.
    PMID: 24874081 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097643
    In photosynthesis, a very small amount of the solar energy absorbed is transformed into chemical energy, while the rest is wasted as heat and fluorescence. This excess energy can be harvested through biophotovoltaic platforms to generate electrical energy. In this study, algal biofilms formed on ITO anodes were investigated for use in the algal biophotovoltaic platforms. Sixteen algal strains, comprising local isolates and two diatoms obtained from the Culture Collection of Marine Phytoplankton (CCMP), USA, were screened and eight were selected based on the growth rate, biochemical composition and photosynthesis performance using suspension cultures. Differences in biofilm formation between the eight algal strains as well as their rapid light curve (RLC) generated using a pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) fluorometer, were examined. The RLC provides detailed information on the saturation characteristics of electron transport and overall photosynthetic performance of the algae. Four algal strains, belonging to the Cyanophyta (Cyanobacteria) Synechococcus elongatus (UMACC 105), Spirulina platensis. (UMACC 159) and the Chlorophyta Chlorella vulgaris (UMACC 051), and Chlorella sp. (UMACC 313) were finally selected for investigation using biophotovoltaic platforms. Based on power output per Chl-a content, the algae can be ranked as follows: Synechococcus elongatus (UMACC 105) (6.38×10(-5) Wm(-2)/µgChl-a)>Chlorella vulgaris UMACC 051 (2.24×10(-5) Wm(-2)/µgChl-a)>Chlorella sp.(UMACC 313) (1.43×10(-5) Wm(-2)/µgChl-a)>Spirulina platensis (UMACC 159) (4.90×10(-6) Wm(-2)/µgChl-a). Our study showed that local algal strains have potential for use in biophotovoltaic platforms due to their high photosynthetic performance, ability to produce biofilm and generation of electrical power.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biofilms*
  20. Ashraf MA, Ullah S, Ahmad I, Qureshi AK, Balkhair KS, Abdur Rehman M
    J Sci Food Agric, 2014 Feb;94(3):388-403.
    PMID: 23983055 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6371
    The study of biofilms has skyrocketed in recent years due to increased awareness of the pervasiveness and impact of biofilms. It costs the USA literally billions of dollars every year in energy losses, equipment damage, product contamination and medical infections. But biofilms also offer huge potential for cleaning up hazardous waste sites, filtering municipal and industrial water and wastewater, and forming biobarriers to protect soil and groundwater from contamination. The complexity of biofilm activity and behavior requires research contributions from many disciplines such as biochemistry, engineering, mathematics and microbiology. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive analysis of emerging novel antimicrobial techniques, including those using myriad organic and inorganic products as well as genetic engineering techniques, the use of coordination complex molecules, composite materials and antimicrobial peptides and the use of lasers as such or their modified use in combination treatments. This review also addresses advanced and recent modifications, including methodological changes, and biocide efficacy enhancing strategies. This review will provide future planners of biofilm control technologies with a broad understanding and perspective on the use of biocides in the field of green developments for a sustainable future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biofilms*
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