Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 164 in total

  1. Zainal Ariffin SH, Yamamoto Z, Zainol Abidin IZ, Megat Abdul Wahab R, Zainal Ariffin Z
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2011;11:1788-803.
    PMID: 22125437 DOI: 10.1100/2011/761768
    Tooth movement induced by orthodontic treatment can cause sequential reactions involving the periodontal tissue and alveolar bone, resulting in the release of numerous substances from the dental tissues and surrounding structures. To better understand the biological processes involved in orthodontic treatment, improve treatment, and reduce adverse side effects, several of these substances have been proposed as biomarkers. Potential biological markers can be collected from different tissue samples, and suitable sampling is important to accurately reflect biological processes. This paper covers the tissue changes that are involved during orthodontic tooth movement such as at compression region (involving osteoblasts), tension region (involving osteoclasts), dental root, and pulp tissues. Besides, the involvement of stem cells and their development towards osteoblasts and osteoclasts during orthodontic treatment have also been explained. Several possible biomarkers representing these biological changes during specific phenomenon, that is, bone remodelling (formation and resorption), inflammation, and root resorption have also been proposed. The knowledge of these biomarkers could be used in accelerating orthodontic treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism*
  2. Abdul-Hamid NA, Abas F, Maulidiani M, Ismail IS, Tham CL, Swarup S, et al.
    Anal Biochem, 2019 07 01;576:20-32.
    PMID: 30970239 DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2019.04.001
    The variation in the extracellular metabolites of RAW 264.7 cells obtained from different passage numbers (passage 9, 12 and 14) was examined. The impact of different harvesting protocols (trypsinization and scraping) on recovery of intracellular metabolites was then assessed. The similarity and variation in the cell metabolome was investigated using 1H NMR metabolic profiling modeled using multivariate data analysis. The characterization and quantification of metabolites was performed to determine the passage-related and harvesting-dependent effects on impacted metabolic networks. The trypsinized RAW cells from lower passages gave higher intensities of most identified metabolites, including asparagine, serine and tryptophan. Principal component analysis revealed variation between cells from different passages and harvesting methods, as indicated by the formation of clusters in score plot. Analysis of S-plots revealed metabolites that acted as biomarkers in discriminating cells from different passages including acetate, serine, lactate and choline. Meanwhile lactate, glutamine and pyruvate served as biomarkers for differentiating trypsinized and scraped cells. In passage-dependent effects, glycolysis and TCA cycle were influential, whereas glycerophospholipid metabolism was affected by the harvesting method. Overall, it is proposed that typsinized RAW cells from lower passage numbers are more appropriate when conducting experiments related to NMR metabolomics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism
  3. Tegginamani AS, Kallarakkal TG, Vanishree HS, Muttalib KBA
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2019 Jul;29(7):688.
    PMID: 31253228 DOI: 10.29271/jcpsp.2019.07.688
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism
  4. Lee LK, Foo KY
    Clin Biochem, 2014 Jul;47(10-11):973-82.
    PMID: 24875852 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2014.05.053
    Infertility is a worldwide reproductive health problem which affects approximately 15% of couples, with male factor infertility dominating nearly 50% of the affected population. The nature of the phenomenon is underscored by a complex array of transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic differences which interact in unknown ways. Many causes of male factor infertility are still defined as idiopathic, and most diagnosis tends to be more descriptive rather than specific. As such, the emergence of novel transcriptomic and metabolomic studies may hold the key to more accurately diagnose and treat male factor infertility. This paper provides the most recent evidence underlying the role of transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis in the management of male infertility. A summary of the current knowledge and new discovery of noninvasive, highly sensitive and specific biomarkers which allow the expansion of this area is outlined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism
  5. Judson JP, Nadarajah VD, Bong YC, Subramaniam K, Sivalingam N
    Med J Malaysia, 2006 Jun;61(2):173-80.
    PMID: 16898308
    Pre-eclampsia or pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) affects 6-8% of all pregnancies. Although the underlying mechanism of PIH is still unknown, it is widely believed that the placenta plays an important role. It was thought that an ischemic placenta due to poor perfusion can precipitate the signs and symptoms of PIH. This study aims to investigate the possible role of Type 1(AT1) and Type 2 (AT2) angiotensin II receptor subtypes in the mechanism of PIH. AT1 receptor stimulation causes vasoconstriction and AT2 receptor stimulation causes vasodilatation. Investigating the interactions of these two receptors in the placenta provides an insight as to the balance that may exist between AT1 and AT2 receptors in normal pregnancy. Any disruption to the balance might cause a disruption of the blood flow in the placenta, leading to PIH. Placentas were collected from 11 PIH patients and 11 normal patients. Immunohistochemistry techniques were performed on the placental tissue to determine the distribution of AT1 and AT2 receptors in the placental tissue qualitatively and quantitatively. It was observed that in normal patients, the balance between AT1 and AT2 receptors is that the level of AT2 receptors is higher than the level of AT1 receptors. However in the PIH patient, it was observed that the normal balance was disrupted. In PIH patients the level of AT1 receptors was observed to be higher than the level of AT2 receptors. This study suggests that disruption of the balance between AT1 and AT2 receptors observed in PIH placentas might cause a decrease in blood flow to the placenta, causing it to be poorly perfused. This may cause placental ischemia which may lead to PIH.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism
  6. Gopinath SC, Lakshmipriya T, Chen Y, Arshad MK, Kerishnan JP, Ruslinda AR, et al.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2016 Aug;100(16):6955-69.
    PMID: 27350620 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-016-7686-2
    Aptamers are single-stranded nucleic acids or peptides identified from a randomized combinatorial library through specific interaction with the target of interest. Targets can be of any size, from small molecules to whole cells, attesting to the versatility of aptamers for binding a wide range of targets. Aptamers show drug properties that are analogous to antibodies, with high specificity and affinity to their target molecules. Aptamers can penetrate disease-causing microbial and mammalian cells. Generated aptamers that target surface biomarkers act as cell-targeting agents and intracellular delivery vehicles. Within this context, the "cell-internalizing aptamers" are widely investigated via the process of cell uptake with selective binding during in vivo systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) or by cell-internalization SELEX, which targets cell surface antigens to be receptors. These internalizing aptamers are highly preferable for the localization and functional analyses of multiple targets. In this overview, we discuss the ways by which internalizing aptamers are generated and their successful applications. Furthermore, theranostic approaches featuring cell-internalized aptamers are discussed with the purpose of analyzing and diagnosing disease-causing pathogens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism
  7. Deo P, Fenech M, Dhillon VS
    Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res, 2021 01 29;787:108369.
    PMID: 34083054 DOI: 10.1016/j.mrrev.2021.108369
    Micronucleus assay has been used as a biomarker of DNA damage, chromosomal instability, cancer risk and accelerated aging. In this review, a meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between micronuclei (MNi) and diseases with increased advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and HbA1c. The review identified eight studies with 632 subjects with disease and 547 controls. The Mean Ratio (MRi) for AGE levels (MRi = 2.92, 95 %CI: 2.06-4.13, P < 0.00001) and HbA1c levels (MRi = 1.32, 95 %CI: 1.12-1.56, P = 0.001) were significantly higher in the disease group compared to healthy controls. The meta-analysis indicated that the overall estimates of MRi for MNi was 1.83 (95 %CI: 1.38-2.42, p < 0.0001) in subjects with disease compared to controls. Significant increases in MRi for MNi were also observed in the following sub-groups: subjects with disease for elevated AGEs (MRi = 1.62, 95 %CI: 1.12-2.35, P = 0.01), elevated HbA1c (MRi = 2.13, 95 %CI: 1.33-3.39, P = 0.002), lymphocytes MNi (MRi = 1.74, 95 %CI: 1.29-2.33, P = 0.0003), exfoliated buccal cells MNi (MRi = 2.86, 95 %CI: 1.19-6.87, P = 0.02), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (MRi = 1.99, 95 %CI: 1.17-3.39, P = 0.01), chronic renal disease (MRi = 1.68, 95 %CI: 1.18-2.38, P = 0.004) and other disease groups (MRi = 2.52, 95 %CI: 1.28-4.96, P = 0.008). The results of this review suggest that MNi could be used as a biomarker of DNA damage and chromosomal instability in degenerative disease where increased AGEs and HbA1c are implicated. The lack of heterogeneity for MN frequency when considered either for all studies or subgroup strengthened the MRi of the meta-analysis. However, the lack of significant association between MRi for MNi and MRi for AGEs or HbA1c indicates that the case-control studies investigated may be confounded by other variables. Thus, larger studies with long term AGE exposure is warranted to further understand the role of MN formation in the initiation and progression of diseases caused by excessive glycation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism*
  8. Akram Z, Abduljabbar T, Abu Hassan MI, Javed F, Vohra F
    Dis Markers, 2016;2016:4801418.
    PMID: 27795608
    To investigate the cytokine profile as biomarkers in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of chronic periodontitis (CP) patients with and without obesity, MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, and SCOPUS databases were combined with handsearching of articles published from 1977 up to May 2016 using relevant MeSH terms. Meta-analyses were conducted separately for each of the cytokines: resistin, adiponectin, TNF-α, leptin, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1β. Forest plots were produced reporting standardized mean difference of outcomes and 95% confidence intervals. Eleven studies were included. Three studies showed comparable levels of leptin among obese and nonobese patients with CP. Four studies reported comparable levels of interleukin- (IL-) 6 and resistin whereas five studies reported comparable levels of adiponectin. Two studies reported similar levels of CRP in patients with periodontitis with and without obesity. One study showed higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in obese patients with CP. One study showed higher levels of IL-1β and IL-8 in obese patients with CP. The level of localized periodontal inflammation may have a greater influence on the GCF proinflammatory biomarker levels as compared to systemic obesity. Whether patients having chronic periodontitis with obesity have elevated proinflammatory GCF biomarkers levels compared to nonobese individuals remains debatable.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism*
  9. Ching HS, Luddin N, Rahman IA, Ponnuraj KT
    Curr Stem Cell Res Ther, 2017;12(1):71-79.
    PMID: 27527527
    The odontogenic and osteogenic potential of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous tooth (SHED) have been shown clearly by various in vitro and in vivo studies. The findings are promising and demonstrated that dental tissue engineering can give a new hope to the individuals suffering from tooth loss and dental diseases. The evaluation of odontogenic and osteogenic differentiation of DPSCs and SHED is commonly carried out by an illustration of the expression of varied related markers. In this review, few commonly used markers such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), collagen type 1 (Col I), dentin matrix acid phosphoprotein 1 (DMP1), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE), osteocalcin (OCN), and osteopontin (OPN). DSPP, DMP1, and MEPE (odontogenic markers), which play an important role during early odontoblastic differentiation and late dentin mineralization, have been highlighted. Osteoblastic proliferation and early/late osteoblastic differentiation can be assessed by estimating the expression of Col I, ALP, OCN and OPN. Despite that, till date, there is no marker which could demonstrate for certain, the differentiation of human DPSCs and SHED towards the odontogenic and osteogenic lineage. This review suggests that SHED are noticeably different from DPSCs and exhibited higher capacity for osteogenic differentiation compared to DPSCs. On the other hand, different expression levels are shown by SHED and DPSCs with regards to the osteoblast markers for osteoblastic differentiation, where, SHED expressed higher levels of ALP, Col I and OCN compared to DPSCs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism*
  10. Vaezzadeh V, Zakaria MP, Bong CW
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2017 Nov 15;124(1):33-42.
    PMID: 28693809 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.07.008
    The Straits of Malacca is one of the world's busiest shipping routes where frequent oil spills occur. Rapid development in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia is the other major source of petroleum pollution in this narrow waterway. In order to identify occurrence and origin of hydrocarbons in the Straits, mangrove oysters (Crassostrea belcheri) were collected from five sampling locations and analysed for n-alkanes and biomarkers. Soxhlet apparatus and two step column chromatography were used for extraction, purification and fractionation of the oysters. Petroleum origin n-alkanes were detected in majority of the sampling locations which is indicative of anthropogenic activities in this region. Using source and maturity diagnostic ratios for hopanes revealed used crankcase oil as the main source of petroleum hydrocarbons in oysters from all sampling locations except for the Pulau Merambong where signature of South East Asia crude oil (SEACO) was detected.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism
  11. Abboud MM, Al-Rawashde FA, Al-Zayadneh EM
    J Asthma, 2022 Nov;59(11):2154-2161.
    PMID: 34855555 DOI: 10.1080/02770903.2021.2008426
    BACKGROUNDS: The development of asthma is highly affected by exposure to exogenous and endogenous oxidative molecules, but the impact of this exposure on the pathophysiology of asthma has received little attention.

    OBJECTIVES: Evaluating group of selective oxidative stress markers as a tool in the management of asthma disease.

    METHODS: In comparison with matched healthy controls, levels of the oxidant and antioxidant markers: lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA), Total glutathione (tGSH), Uric acid (UA), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Catalase (CAT) superoxide dismutase (SOD), and Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were assessed in serum and saliva of different asthma groups.

    RESULTS: All oxidative markers in serum and saliva of asthma patients showed significant alterations from normal healthy controls (P  0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Determination of the oxidative markers GPx, CAT, UA in serum or saliva can distinguish asthma from healthy states. The serum levels of UA and TAC are highly effective in monitoring asthma severity, while the salivary GPx, CAT, UA, MDA are beneficial in the management of childhood asthma. Discrimination of the age factor between asthma groups can be achieved by testing GPx, SOD, TAC in serum.

    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism
  12. Ellulu MS, Khaza'ai H, Abed Y, Rahmat A, Ismail P, Ranneh Y
    Inflammopharmacology, 2015 Jun;23(2-3):79-89.
    PMID: 25676565 DOI: 10.1007/s10787-015-0228-1
    The roles of Omega-3 FAs are inflammation antagonists, while Omega-6 FAs are precursors for inflammation. The plant form of Omega-3 FAs is the short-chain α-linolenic acid, and the marine forms are the long-chain fatty acids: docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Omega-3 FAs have unlimited usages, and they are considered as omnipotent since they may benefit heart health, improve brain function, reduce cancer risks and improve people's moods. Omega-3 FAs also have several important biological effects on a range of cellular functions that may decrease the onset of heart diseases and reduce mortality among patients with coronary heart disease, possibly by stabilizing the heart's rhythm and by reducing blood clotting. Some review studies have described the beneficial roles of Omega-3 FAs in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancer, diabetes, and other conditions, including inflammation. Studies of the effect of Omega-3 FAs gathered from studies in diseased and healthy population. CVDs including atherosclerosis, coronary heart diseases, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome were the major fields of investigation. In studies of obesity, as the central obesity increased, the level of adipocyte synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were increased and the level of anti-inflammatory adiponectin was decreased indicating a state of inflammation. The level of C reactive protein (CRP) synthesized from hepatocyte is increased by the influence of IL-6. CRP can be considered as a marker of systemic inflammation associated with increased risks of CVDs. In molecular studies, Omega-3 FAs have direct effects on reducing the inflammatory state by reducing IL-6, TNF-α, CRP and many other factors. While the appropriate dosage along with the administrative duration is not known, the scientific evidence-based recommendations for daily intake are not modified.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism
  13. Shariat A, Kargarfard M, Danaee M, Bahri Mohd Tamrin S
    J Strength Cond Res, 2015 Jan;29(1):151-8.
    PMID: 25051005 DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000632
    Strength and morphological adaptations to resistance exercise are mediated in part by anabolic hormones such as testosterone, yet the time course of variability in circadian hormone concentrations is not well characterized. This study, investigated how the circadian rhythm of salivary testosterone is altered by resistance exercise in young men. Twenty healthy young male recreational lifters (age, 18.0 ± 1.3 years) with 2 years of experience in weightlifting were recruited. A randomized controlled trial was conducted, and subjects were randomly assigned to either the resistance exercise group (n = 10), who completed a series of resistance exercise (3 times a week, in the afternoon, 6-7 repetitions, at 85% of 1 repetition maximum for 3 weeks), or a control group (n = 10), who did not exercise during the 3 weeks. Before and after the study, an unstimulated saliva sample (2 ml) was taken every 2 hours for a maximum of 16 hours during each day. A significant decrease was observed in the resistance exercise (44.2%, p = 0.001) and control group (46.1%, p = 0.001) for salivary testosterone at each time point compared with baseline (p = 0.001). There was also no significant difference between the exercise and resting conditions in both groups for salivary testosterone (p > 0.05), except a significantly higher increase by 38.4% vs. -0.02% (p = 0.001), at 1730 hours during exercise sessions in the resistance exercise group compared with the control group. Resistance exercise has no noteworthy effect on circadian secretion of salivary testosterone throughout the 16 waking hours. These results indicate that athletes can undertake resistance exercise in either the morning or afternoon with the knowledge that a similar testosterone response can be expected regardless of the time of day.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism
  14. Chan HH, Rahim ZH, Jessie K, Hashim OH, Taiyeb-Ali TB
    Int J Mol Sci, 2012;13(4):4642-54.
    PMID: 22606001 DOI: 10.3390/ijms13044642
    The objective of this study was to investigate the salivary proteins that are associated with periodontitis in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Volunteers for the study were patients from the Diabetic Unit, University of Malaya Medical Centre, whose periodontal status was determined. The diabetic volunteers were divided into two groups, i.e., patients with periodontitis and those who were periodontally healthy. Saliva samples were collected and treated with 10% TCA/acetone/20 mM DTT to precipitate the proteins, which were then separated using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Gel images were scanned using the GS-800(TM) Calibrated Densitometer. The protein spots were analyzed and expressed in percentage volumes. The percentage volume of each protein spot was subjected to Mann-Whitney statistical analysis using SPSS software and false discovery rate correction. When the expression of the salivary proteins was compared between the T2DM patients with periodontitis with those who were periodontally healthy, seven proteins, including polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, plastin-2, actin related protein 3, leukocyte elastase inhibitor, carbonic anhydrases 6, immunoglobulin J and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, were found to be differentially expressed (p < 0.01304). This implies that the proteins may have the potential to be used as biomarkers for the prediction of T2DM patients who may be prone to periodontitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism
  15. Abdul Wahab RM, Zainal Ariffin SH, Yeen WW, Ahmad NA, Senafi S
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:236427.
    PMID: 22629122 DOI: 10.1100/2012/236427
    Three specific orthodontic tooth movement genes, that is, FCRL1, HSPG2, and LAMB2 were detected at upper first premolar (with appliance) dental pulp tissue by using GeneFishing technique as compared to lower first premolar (without appliance). These three differentially expressed genes have the potential as molecular markers during orthodontic tooth movement by looking at molecular changes of pulp tissue.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism
  16. Mamidi MK, Pal R, Bhonde R, Zakaria Z, Totey S
    J Biomol Screen, 2010 Jul;15(6):630-43.
    PMID: 20530724 DOI: 10.1177/1087057110370211
    Techniques to evaluate gene expression profiling, including real-time quantitative PCR, TaqMan low-density arrays, and sufficiently sensitive cDNA microarrays, are efficient methods for monitoring human embryonic stem cell (hESC) cultures. However, most of these high-throughput tests have a limited use due to high cost, extended turnaround time, and the involvement of highly specialized technical expertise. Hence, there is a paucity of rapid, cost-effective, robust, yet sensitive methods for routine screening of hESCs. A critical requirement in hESC cultures is to maintain a uniform undifferentiated state and to determine their differentiation capacity by showing the expression of gene markers representing all germ layers, including ecto-, meso-, and endoderm. To quantify the modulation of gene expression in hESCs during their propagation, expansion, and differentiation via embryoid body (EB) formation, the authors developed a simple, rapid, inexpensive, and definitive multimarker, semiquantitative multiplex RT-PCR (mxPCR) platform technology. Among the 15 gene primers tested, 4 were pluripotent markers comprising set 1, and 3 lineage-specific markers from each ecto-, meso-, and endoderm layers were combined as sets 2 to 4, respectively. The authors found that these 4 sets were not only effective in determining the relative differentiation in hESCs, but were easily reproducible. In this study, they used the HUES-7 cell line to standardize the technique, which was subsequently validated with HUES-9, NTERA-2, and mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. This single-reaction mxPCR assay was flexible and, by selecting appropriate reporter genes, can be designed for characterization of different hESC lines during routine maintenance and directed differentiation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism
  17. Yap CK, Ismail A, Cheng WH, Tan SG
    Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 2006 Mar;63(3):413-23.
    PMID: 16406592
    The concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn in the crystalline style (CS) and in the remaining soft tissues (ST) of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from 10 geographical sites along the coastal waters off peninsular Malaysia were determined. The CS, compared with the remaining ST, accumulated higher levels of Cu in both contaminated and uncontaminated samples, indicating that the style has a higher affinity for the essential Cu to bind with metallothioneins. The similar pattern of Cu accumulation in the different ST of mussels collected from clean and Cu-contaminated sites indicated that the detoxification capacity of the metallothioneins had not been overloaded. For Pb, higher levels of the metal in the CS than in the remaining ST were found only in mussels collected from a contaminated site at Kg. Pasir Puteh. This indicated a tissue redistribution of Pb due to its binding to metallothioneins for Pb detoxification and the potential of the CS as an indicator organ of Pb bioavailability and contamination. For Zn, the above two phenomena were not found since no obvious patterns were observed (lower levels of Zn in the CS than in the remaining ST) in contaminated and uncontaminated samples due to the mechanism of partial regulation. Generally, all the different STs studied (foot, mantle, gonad, CS, gill, muscle, and byssus) are good biomonitoring tissues for Cu and Pb bioavailabilities and contamination. Among these organs, the CS was found to be the best organ for biomonitoring Cu. The present data also suggest the use of the tissue redistribution of Pb in P. viridis as an indicator of Pb bioavailability and contamination in coastal waters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism
  18. Fong SW, Few LL, See Too WC, Khoo BY, Nik Ibrahim NN, Yahaya SA, et al.
    BMC Res Notes, 2015;8:679.
    PMID: 26576922 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-015-1677-8
    Biomarkers play a pivotal role in the diagnosis and management of patients with acute coronary syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the differences in level of several biomarkers, i.e. C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase, soluble CD40 ligand and placental growth factor, between acute coronary syndrome and chronic stable angina patients. The relationship between these biomarkers in the coronary circulation and systemic circulation was also investigated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism
  19. Karami A, Courtenay SC
    Environ Monit Assess, 2015 Nov;187(11):681.
    PMID: 26452505 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-015-4906-7
    Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are considered among the most controversial biomarkers of water pollutants in fish with little known about factors influencing their activities. The objective of this study was to investigate how gender, dose, ploidy, and sampling time alter hepatic GST activities in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) following β-naphthoflavone (β-NF) injection. Newly matured male and female diploid and triploid fish were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 0, 15, or 75 mg/kg of β-NF, and livers were excised 24, 48, and 72 h post-injection. Results showed that hepatic GST activities were significantly inhibited by both doses of β-NF. Inhibition was greater in females than males, but no significant differences were observed between diploid and triploid fish. Enzymatic activities differed over time with lowest levels 72 h post-injection. These results extend our understanding of GST activity in fish and highlight the necessity of considering confounding factors when comparing different studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism
  20. Karami A, Goh YM, Jahromi MF, Lazorchak JM, Abdullah M, Courtenay SC
    Sci Total Environ, 2016 07 01;557-558:204-11.
    PMID: 26994807 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.03.030
    The impacts of environmental stressors on polyploid organisms are largely unknown. This study investigated changes in morphometric, molecular, and biochemical parameters in full-sibling diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in response to chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposures. Juvenile fish were exposed to three concentrations of CPF (mean measured μg/L (SD): 9.71 (2.27), 15.7 (3.69), 31.21 (5.04)) under a static-renewal condition for 21days. Diploid control groups had higher hepatosomatic index (HSI), plasma testosterone (T), and brain GnRH and cyp19a2 expression levels than triploids. In CPF-exposed groups, changes in HSI, total weight and length were different between the diploid and triploid fish. In contrast, condition factor did not alter in any of the treatments, while visceral-somatic index (VSI) changed only in diploids. In diploid fish, exposure to CPF did not change brain 11β-hsd2, ftz-f1, foxl2, GnRH or cyp19a2 mRNA levels, while reduced tph2 transcript levels compared to the control group. In contrast, 11β-hsd2 and foxl2 expression levels were changed in triploids following CPF exposures. In diploids, plasma T levels showed a linear dose-response reduction across CPF treatments correlating with liver weight and plasma total cholesterol concentrations. In contrast, no changes in plasma cholesterol and T concentrations were observed in triploids. Plasma cortisol and 17-β estradiol (E2) showed no response to CPF exposure in either ploidy. Results of this first comparison of biomarker responses to pesticide exposure in diploid and polyploid animals showed substantial differences between diploid and triploid C. gariepinus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Biomarkers/metabolism
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