The diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and monitoring of the vaccination efficiency against HBV require real-time analysis. The presence of antibody against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBsAg) as a result of HBV infection and/or immunization may indicate individual immune status towards HBV. This study investigated the ability of a bio-nanogate-based displacement immunosensing strategy in detecting anti-HBsAg antibody, via nonspecific-binding between polyamidoamine dendrimers encapsulated gold nanoparticles (PAMAM-Au) and the 'antigenic determinant' region (aD) of HBsAg. For this purpose, maltose binding protein harbouring the aD region (MBP-aD) was synthesized as a bioreceptor and immobilized on the screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Following that, PAMAM-Au was deposited on MBP-aD, forming the 'gate' and was used as a monitoring agent. Under optimal conditions, the high specificity of anti-HBsAg antibody towards MBP-aD displaced PAMAM-Au causing the decrement of anodic peak in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis. The signal changes were proportionally related to the concentration of anti-HBsAg antibody, in a range of 1 - 1000 mIU/mL with a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.5 mIU/mL. The results also showed high specificity and selectivity of the immunosensor platform in detecting anti-HBsAg antibody both in spiked buffer and human serum samples.
Animal senses cover a broad range of signal types and signal bandwidths and have inspired various sensors and bioinstrumentation devices for biological and medical applications. Insects, such as desert ants and honeybees, for example, utilize polarized skylight pattern-based information in their navigation activities. They reliably return to their nests and hives from places many kilometers away. The insect navigation system involves the dorsal rim area in their compound eyes and the corresponding polarization sensitive neurons in the brain. The dorsal rim area is equipped with photoreceptors, which have orthogonally arranged small hair-like structures termed microvilli. These are the specialized sensors for the detection of polarized skylight patterns (e-vector orientation). Various research groups have been working on the development of novel navigation systems inspired by polarized skylight-based navigation in animals. Their major contributions are critically reviewed. One focus of current research activities is on imitating the integration path mechanism in desert ants. The potential for simple, high performance miniaturized bioinstrumentation that can assist people in navigation will be explored.
Life was once normal before the first announcement of COVID-19's first case in Wuhan, China, and what was slowly spreading became an overnight worldwide pandemic. Ever since the virus spread at the end of 2019, it has been morphing and rapidly adapting to human nature changes which cause difficult conundrums in the efforts of fighting it. Thus, researchers were steered to investigate the virus in order to contain the outbreak considering its novelty and there being no known cure. In contribution to that, this paper extensively reviewed, compared, and analyzed two main points; SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission in humans and detection methods of COVID-19 in the human body. SARS-CoV-2 human exchange transmission methods reviewed four modes of transmission which are Respiratory Transmission, Fecal-Oral Transmission, Ocular transmission, and Vertical Transmission. The latter point particularly sheds light on the latest discoveries and advancements in the aim of COVID-19 diagnosis and detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus associated with this disease in the human body. The methods in this review paper were classified into two categories which are RNA-based detection including RT-PCR, LAMP, CRISPR, and NGS and secondly, biosensors detection including, electrochemical biosensors, electronic biosensors, piezoelectric biosensors, and optical biosensors.
Kajian pemegunan enzim peroksidase dalam membran hibrid sol-gel-kitosan untuk penyediaan transduser optik hidrogen peroksida telah dilakukan dalam pembinaan biosensor. Kajian ini merangkumi pengoptimuman nisbah sol-gel-kitosan, pencirian enzim dalam larutan bebas dan pemegunan enzim dalam hibrid sol-gel-kitosan serta penciriannya. Spektrum serapan bagi setiap pencirian ditentukan menggunakan Spektrofotometer uL-Nampak. Hasil kajian menunjukkan aktiviti enzim tidak berubah selepas pemegunan. Nisbah optimum hibrid sol-gel-kitosan adalah 4:6. Nilai sisihan piawai relatif (RSD) untuk kebolehulangan kaedah ini adalah 2.71% dan 3.76%, masing-masingnya untuk enzim bebas dan enzim terpegun.
Optical chemical sensors have promoted escalating interest in the determination of various pollutants in the environment, which are creating toxicity and may cause serious health problems. This review paper focuses particularly on the recent progress and developments in this field; the working principles and basic classes of optical chemical sensors have been briefly described.
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which can be congenital or acquired, results from the failure of the kidney to respond to the anti-diuretic hormone (ADH). This will lead to excessive water loss from the body in the form of urine. The kidney, therefore, has a crucial role in maintaining water balance and it is vital to restore this function in an artificial kidney. Herein, an ultrasensitive and highly selective aptameric graphene-based field-effect transistor (GFET) sensor for ADH detection was developed by directly immobilizing ADH-specific aptamer on a surface-modified suspended graphene channel. This direct immobilization of aptamer on the graphene surface is an attempt to mimic the functionality of collecting tube V 2 receptors in the ADH biosensor. This aptamer was then used as a probe to capture ADH peptide at the sensing area which leads to changes in the concentration of charge carriers in the graphene channel. The biosensor shows a significant increment in the relative change of current ratio from 5.76 to 22.60 with the increase of ADH concentration ranging from 10 ag/mL to 1 pg/mL. The ADH biosensor thus exhibits a sensitivity of 50.00 µA· ( g / mL ) - 1 with a limit of detection as low as 3.55 ag/mL. In specificity analysis, the ADH biosensor demonstrated a higher current value which is 338.64 µA for ADH-spiked in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and 557.89 µA for ADH-spiked in human serum in comparison with other biomolecules tested. This experimental evidence shows that the ADH biosensor is ultrasensitive and highly selective towards ADH in PBS buffer and ADH-spiked in human serum.
The race towards the development of user-friendly, portable, fast-detection, and low-cost devices for healthcare systems has become the focus of effective screening efforts since the pandemic attack in December 2019, which is known as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Currently existing techniques such as RT-PCR, antigen-antibody-based detection, and CT scans are prompt solutions for diagnosing infected patients. However, the limitations of currently available indicators have enticed researchers to search for adjunct or additional solutions for COVID-19 diagnosis. Meanwhile, identifying biomarkers or indicators is necessary for understanding the severity of the disease and aids in developing efficient drugs and vaccines. Therefore, clinical studies on infected patients revealed that infection-mediated clinical biomarkers, especially pro-inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins, are highly associated with COVID-19. These biomarkers are undermined or overlooked in the context of diagnosis and prognosis evaluation of infected patients. Hence, this review discusses the potential implementation of these biomarkers for COVID-19 electrical biosensing platforms. The secretion range for each biomarker is reviewed based on clinical studies. Currently available electrical biosensors comprising electrochemical and electronic biosensors associated with these biomarkers are discussed, and insights into the use of infection-mediated clinical biomarkers as prognostic and adjunct diagnostic indicators in developing an electrical-based COVID-19 biosensor are provided.
High sensitivity and capturing ratio are strongly demanded for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors when applied in detection of small molecules. Herein, an SPR sensor is combined with a novel smart material, namely, MoS2 nanoflowers (MNFs), to demonstrate programmable adsorption/desorption of small bipolar molecules, i.e., amino acids. The MNFs overcoated on the plasmonic gold layer increase the sensitivity by 25% compared to an unmodified SPR sensor, because of the electric field enhancement at the gold surface. Furthermore, as the MNFs have rich edge sites and negatively charged surfaces, the MNF-SPR sensors exhibit not only much higher bipolar-molecule adsorption capability, but also efficient desorption of these molecules. It is demonstrated that the MNF-SPR sensors enable controllable detection of amino acids by adjusting solution pH according to their isoelectric points. In addition, the MNFs decorated on the plasmonic interface can be as nanostructure frameworks and modified with antibody, which allows for specific detection of proteins. This novel SPR sensor provides a new simple strategy for pre-screening of amino acid disorders in blood plasma and a universal high-sensitive platform for immunoassay.
Two chitosan samples (medium molecular weight (MMCHI) and low molecular weight (LMCHI)) were investigated as an enzyme immobilization matrix for the fabrication of a glucose biosensor. Chitosan membranes prepared from acetic acid were flexible, transparent, smooth and quick-drying. The FTIR spectra showed the existence of intermolecular interactions between chitosan and glucose oxidase (GOD). Higher catalytic activities were observed on for GOD-MMCHI than GOD-LMCHI and for those crosslinked with glutaraldehyde than using the adsorption technique. Enzyme loading greater than 0.6 mg decreased the activity. Under optimum conditions (pH 6.0, 35°C and applied potential of 0.6 V) response times of 85 s and 65 s were observed for medium molecular weight chitosan glucose biosensor (GOD-MMCHI/PT) and low molecular weight chitosan glucose biosensor (GOD-LMCHI/PT), respectively. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant ([Formula: see text]) was found to be 12.737 mM for GOD-MMCHI/PT and 17.692 mM for GOD-LMCHI/PT. This indicated that GOD-MMCHI/PT had greater affinity for the enzyme. Moreover, GOD-MMCHI/PT showed higher sensitivity (52.3666 nA/mM glucose) when compared with GOD-LMCHI/PT (9.8579 nA/mM glucose) at S/N>3. Better repeatability and reproducibility were achieved with GOD-MMCHI/PT than GOD-LMCHI/PT regarding glucose measurement. GOD-MMCHI/PT was found to give the highest enzymatic activity among the electrodes under investigation. The extent of interference encountered by GOD-MMCHI/PT and GOD-LMCHI/PT was not significantly different. Although the Nafion coated biosensor significantly reduced the signal due to the interferents under study, it also significantly reduced the response to glucose. The performance of the biosensors in the determination of glucose in rat serum was evaluated. Comparatively better accuracy and recovery results were obtained for GOD-MMCHI/PT. Hence, GOD-MMCHI/PT showed a better performance when compared with GOD-LMCHI/PT. In conclusion, chitosan membranes shave the potential to be a suitable matrix for the development of glucose biosensors.
Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is a label-free, accurate, fast, low-cost diagnostic technique that uses the principles of polarization and the motion of bioparticles in applied electric fields. This technique has been proven to be beneficial in various fields, including environmental research, polymer research, biosensors, microfluidics, medicine and diagnostics. Biomedical science research is one of the major research areas that could potentially benefit from DEP technology for diverse applications. Nevertheless, many medical science research investigations have yet to benefit from the possibilities offered by DEP. This paper critically reviews the fundamentals, recent progress, current challenges, future directions and potential applications of research investigations in the medical sciences utilizing DEP technique. This review will also act as a guide and reference for medical researchers and scientists to explore and utilize the DEP technique in their research fields.
The innovation of nanoparticles assumes a critical part of encouraging and giving open doors and conceivable outcomes to the headway of new era devices utilized as a part of biosensing. The focused on the quick and legitimate detecting of specific biomolecules using functionalized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has turned into a noteworthy research enthusiasm for the most recent decade. Sensors created with gold nanoparticles or carbon nanotubes or in some cases by utilizing both are relied upon to change the very establishments of detecting and distinguishing various analytes. In this review, we will examine the current utilization of functionalized AuNPs and CNTs with other synthetic mixes for the creation of biosensor prompting to the location of particular analytes with low discovery cutoff and quick reaction.
An optical urea biosensor was fabricated by stacking several layers of sol-gelfilms. The stacking of the sol-gel films allowed the immobilization of a Nile Bluechromoionophore (ETH 5294) and urease enzyme separately without the need of anychemical attachment procedure. The absorbance response of the biosensor was monitoredat 550 nm, i.e. the deprotonation of the chromoionophore. This multi-layer sol-gel filmformat enabled higher enzyme loading in the biosensor to be achieved. The urea opticalbiosensor constructed from three layers of sol-gel films that contained urease demonstrateda much wider linear response range of up to 100 mM urea when compared with biosensorsthat constructed from 1-2 layers of films. Analysis of urea in urine samples with thisoptical urea biosensor yielded results similar to that determined by a spectrophotometricmethod using the reagent p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde (R² = 0.982, n = 6). The averagerecovery of urea from urine samples using this urea biosensor is approximately 103%.
For the past 20 years, many authors have focused their investigations on wireless sensor networks. Various issues related to wireless sensor networks such as energy minimization (optimization), compression schemes, self-organizing network algorithms, routing protocols, quality of service management, security, energy harvesting, etc., have been extensively explored. The three most important issues among these are energy efficiency, quality of service and security management. To get the best possible results in one or more of these issues in wireless sensor networks optimization is necessary. Furthermore, in number of applications (e.g., body area sensor networks, vehicular ad hoc networks) these issues might conflict and require a trade-off amongst them. Due to the high energy consumption and data processing requirements, the use of classical algorithms has historically been disregarded. In this context contemporary researchers started using bio-mimetic strategy-based optimization techniques in the field of wireless sensor networks. These techniques are diverse and involve many different optimization algorithms. As far as we know, most existing works tend to focus only on optimization of one specific issue of the three mentioned above. It is high time that these individual efforts are put into perspective and a more holistic view is taken. In this paper we take a step in that direction by presenting a survey of the literature in the area of wireless sensor network optimization concentrating especially on the three most widely used bio-mimetic algorithms, namely, particle swarm optimization, ant colony optimization and genetic algorithm. In addition, to stimulate new research and development interests in this field, open research issues, challenges and future research directions are highlighted.
A sensitive and selective optical DNA biosensor was developed for dengue virus detection based on novel square-planar piperidine side chain-functionalized N,N'-bis-4-(hydroxysalicylidene)-phenylenediamine-nickel(II), which was able to intercalate via nucleobase stacking within DNA and be functionalized as an optical DNA hybridization marker. 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS)-modified porous silica nanospheres (PSiNs), was synthesized with a facile mini-emulsion method to act as a high capacity DNA carrier matrix. The Schiff base salphen complexes-labelled probe to target nucleic acid on the PSiNs renders a colour change of the DNA biosensor to a yellow background colour, which could be quantified via a reflectance transduction method. The reflectometric DNA biosensor demonstrated a wide linear response range to target DNA over the concentration range of 1.0 × 10-16-1.0 × 10-10 M (R² = 0.9879) with an ultralow limit of detection (LOD) at 0.2 aM. The optical DNA biosensor response was stable and maintainable at 92.8% of its initial response for up to seven days of storage duration with a response time of 90 min. The reflectance DNA biosensor obtained promising recovery values of close to 100% for the detection of spiked synthetic dengue virus serotypes 2 (DENV-2) DNA concentration in non-invasive human samples, indicating the high accuracy of the proposed DNA analytical method for early diagnosis of all potential infectious diseases or pathological genotypes.
Laccase enzyme, a commonly used enzyme for the construction of biosensors for phenolic compounds was used for the first time to develop a new biosensor for the determination of the azo-dye tartrazine. The electrochemical biosensor was based on the immobilization of laccase on functionalized methacrylate-acrylate microspheres. The biosensor membrane is a composite of the laccase conjugated microspheres and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated on a carbon-paste screen-printed electrode. The reaction involving tartrazine can be catalyzed by laccase enzyme, where the current change was measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at 1.1 V. The anodic peak current was linear within the tartrazine concentration range of 0.2 to 14 μM (R² = 0.979) and the detection limit was 0.04 μM. Common food ingredients or additives such as glucose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, phenol and sunset yellow did not interfere with the biosensor response. Furthermore, the biosensor response was stable up to 30 days of storage period at 4 °C. Foods and beverage were used as real samples for the biosensor validation. The biosensor response to tartrazine showed no significant difference with a standard HPLC method for tartrazine analysis.
A new biosensor for the analysis of nitrite in food was developed based on hemoglobin (Hb) covalently immobilized on the succinimide functionalized poly(n-butyl acrylate)-graphene [poly(nBA)-rGO] composite film deposited on a carbon-paste screen-printed electrode (SPE). The immobilized Hb on the poly(nBA)-rGO conducting matrix exhibited electrocatalytic ability for the reduction of nitrite with significant enhancement in the reduction peak at −0.6 V versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Thus, direct determination of nitrite can be achieved by monitoring the cathodic peak current signal of the proposed polyacrylic-graphene hybrid film-based voltammetric nitrite biosensor. The nitrite biosensor exhibited a reproducible dynamic linear response range from 0.05⁻5 mg L−1 nitrite and a detection limit of 0.03 mg L−1. No significant interference was observed by potential interfering ions such as Ca2+, Na⁺, K⁺, NH₄⁺, Mg2+, and NO₃− ions. Analysis of nitrite in both raw and processed edible bird’s nest (EBN) samples demonstrated recovery of close to 100%. The covalent immobilization of Hb on poly(nBA)-rGO composite film has improved the performance of the electrochemical nitrite biosensor in terms of broader detection range, lower detection limit, and prolonged biosensor stability.
The emergence of highly pathogenic and deadly human coronaviruses, namely SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV within the past two decades and currently SARS-CoV-2, have resulted in millions of human death across the world. In addition, other human viral diseases, such as mosquito borne-viral diseases and blood-borne viruses, also contribute to a higher risk of death in severe cases. To date, there is no specific drug or medicine available to cure these human viral diseases. Therefore, the early and rapid detection without compromising the test accuracy is required in order to provide a suitable treatment for the containment of the diseases. Recently, nanomaterials-based biosensors have attracted enormous interest due to their biological activities and unique sensing properties, which enable the detection of analytes such as nucleic acid (DNA or RNA), aptamers, and proteins in clinical samples. In addition, the advances of nanotechnologies also enable the development of miniaturized detection systems for point-of-care (POC) biosensors, which could be a new strategy for detecting human viral diseases. The detection of virus-specific genes by using single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probes has become a particular interest due to their higher sensitivity and specificity compared to immunological methods based on antibody or antigen for early diagnosis of viral infection. Hence, this review has been developed to provide an overview of the current development of nanoparticles-based biosensors that target pathogenic RNA viruses, toward a robust and effective detection strategy of the existing or newly emerging human viral diseases such as SARS-CoV-2. This review emphasizes the nanoparticles-based biosensors developed using noble metals such as gold (Au) and silver (Ag) by virtue of their powerful characteristics as a signal amplifier or enhancer in the detection of nucleic acid. In addition, this review provides a broad knowledge with respect to several analytical methods involved in the development of nanoparticles-based biosensors for the detection of viral nucleic acid using both optical and electrochemical techniques.
Food contamination is a serious concern because of a high level of chemicals in food causes severe health issues. Safeguarding the public from the risk of adulterated foods has become a challenging mission. Chloropropanols are of importance to food safety and food security because they are common chemical food contaminants and believed to be carcinogenic to humans. In chemical sensing, chloropropanols are challenging analytes owing to the lacking diversity of functional groups and difficulty in targeting the hydroxyl group in aqueous environments. Moreover, because of their small molecular size, the compositions of chloropropanols remain challenging for achieving chromatographic determination. Herein, to simulate human smell and taste sensations, serum albumins, which are protein-based receptors, were introduced as low-selective receptors for differential sensing. Utilizing serum albumins, a fluorophore (PRODAN), and an additive (ascorbic acid), a differential-based optical biosensor array was developed to detect and differentiate chloropropanols. By integrating the sensor array with linear discriminant analysis (LDA), four chloropropanols were effectively differentiated based on their isomerism properties and the number of the hydroxyl groups, even at ultra-low concentration (5 nM). This concentration is far below the maximum tolerable level of 0.18 μM for chloropropanols. The sensing array was then employed for chloropropanols differentiation and quantification in the complex mixtures (e.g., synthetic soy and dark soy sauces). Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) analysis demonstrated 100% accurate classification for all tests. These results signify our differential sensing array as a practical and powerful tool to speedily identify, differentiate, and even quantify chloropropanols in food matrices.
Infectious diseases are the ever-present threats to public health and the global economy. Accurate and timely diagnosis is crucial to impede the progression of a disease and break the chain of transmission. Conventional diagnostic techniques are typically time-consuming and costly, making them inefficient for early diagnosis of infections and inconvenient for use at the point of care. Developments of sensitive, rapid, and affordable diagnostic methods are necessary to improve the clinical management of infectious diseases. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) systems have emerged as a robust biosensing platform due to their label-free mechanism, which allows the detection and quantification of a wide range of biomolecules. The high sensitivity and short detection time offered by QCM-based biosensors are attractive for the early detection of infections and the routine monitoring of disease progression. Herein, the strategies employed in QCM-based biosensors for the detection of infectious diseases are extensively reviewed, with a focus on prevalent diseases for which improved diagnostic techniques are in high demand. The challenges to the clinical application of QCM-based biosensors are highlighted, along with an outline of the future scope of research in QCM-based diagnostics.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters the cells through the binding of its spike protein (S-protein) to the cell surface-expressing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Thus, inhibition of S-protein-ACE2 binding may impede SARS-CoV-2 cell entry and attenuate the progression of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy-based biosensing platform consisting of a recombinant ACE2-coated palladium nano-thin-film electrode as the core sensing element was fabricated for the screening of potential inhibitors against S-protein-ACE2 binding. The platform could detect interference of small analytes against S-protein-ACE2 binding at low analyte concentration and small volume (0.1 μg/mL and ~1 μL, estimated total analyte consumption