Toxoplasma gondii infects all warm-blooded animals, including humans, causing serious public health problems and great economic loss for the food industry. Commonly used serological tests require costly and hazardous preparation of whole Toxoplasma lysate antigens from tachyzoites. Here, we have evaluated an alternative method for antigen production, which involved a prokaryotic expression system. Specifically, we expressed T. gondii dense granular protein-5 (GRA5) in Escherichia coli and isolated it by affinity purification. The serodiagnostic potential of the purified recombinant GRA5 (rGRA5) was tested through Western blot analysis against 212 human patient serum samples. We found that rGRA5 protein was 100% specific for analysis of toxoplasmosis-negative human sera. Also, rGRA5 was able to detect acute and chronic T. gondii infections (sensitivities of 46.8% and 61.2%, resp.).
Toxoplasmosis can cause serious disease in immunocompromised patients and to congenitally infected foetuses. Appropriate laboratory investigations in potential cases of acute Toxoplasma infection are important. Excretory secretory antigen (ESA) is immunogenic during both human and experimental infections, therefore is considered as a good candidate for investigation into new infection markers. In this study, ESA was prepared from in vitro cultures of Toxoplasma gondii to identify T. gondii ESA antigenic component(s) that is/are most reactive with serum samples from probable acute cases of toxoplasmosis. Serum samples were obtained from several categories of individuals with the following Toxoplasma serology: Group I: IgM+ IgG+ (low IgG avidity) or IgM+ IgG- from sera of patients who had clinical query of toxoplasmosis (n=35). Group II: IgM- IgG+ (high IgG avidity) from chronically infected individuals (n=30). Group III: normal/healthy individuals with anti-Toxoplasma IgMIgG- (n=20). Group IV: individuals with other infections who had anti-Toxoplasma IgM- IgG- (n=10). The ESA was subjected to SDS-PAGE, followed by Western blot analysis using the above sera and probed with peroxidase conjugated anti-human IgM and IgA antibodies. The blots were then developed using chemiluminescence substrate. The selected antigenic band was excised from the gel after two dimensional electrophoresis and sent for mass spectrometry analysis using MALDI TOF-TOF. The most promising antigenic band was a 10 kDa protein which showed sensitivity of 80% in both IgM and IgA blots, and specificity of 96.7% with sera from other infections and healthy controls. The two best identifications for the 10 kDa band were ubiquitin (ribosomal protein CEP52 fusion protein) and polyubiquitin.
Rhoptry protein 2 (ROP2) of Toxoplasma gondii is a rhoptry-secreted protein that plays a critical role in parasitophorous vacuole membrane formation during invasion. In previous studies, ROP2 has been shown to be efficient in triggering humoral and cell-mediated responses. High immunogenicity of ROP2 makes it a potential candidate for diagnosis and vaccination against toxoplasmosis. In this study, the ROP2 gene was cloned into pPICZα A expression vector and extracellularly expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris, which has numerous advantages over other expression systems for eukaryotic proteins expression. The effectiveness of the secreted recombinant ROP2 as a diagnosis agent was assessed by Western Blot with 200 human serum samples. Recombinant ROP2 reacted with toxoplasmosis-positive human serum samples and yielded an overall sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 95%. However, recombinant ROP2 is a better marker for detection of IgG (91.7%) rather than IgM (80%).
We have developed an ELISA that employs monoclonal anti-Toxoplasma SAG1 (p30) as the capture antibody to detect T. gondii circulating antigens in patients' serum samples. Using serum spiked with Toxoplasma soluble and with SAG1 recombinant proteins, the detection limits were 31.25 ng/mL and 62.50 ng/mL, respectively. We obtained positive results in 28% (21/75) and 11% (23/206) of probable active and chronic toxoplasmosis serum samples, respectively. Western blot analysis on pooled antigen-positive serum samples showed antigenic bands of molecular weights 25 and 75 kDa from sera of probable active infection and five antigenic bands ranging in size from 26 to 33 kDa from chronic infection sera. This assay would be useful as an initial serum selection step in developing a Toxoplasma antigen detection test and for characterization studies.
BACKGROUND: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of typhoid fever. The objective of this study was to apply a phage display library to identify mimotopes of two HSPs, HSP90 and DnaK in S. Typhi.
METHODOLOGY: A 12-mer random peptide library expressed on the surface of the filamentous phage, M13, was used to select the mimotopes of two S. Typhi heat shock proteins by biopanning with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), DnaK and HSP90. The immunogenicity of the selected peptides was determined through binding affinity with polyclonal antibodies from pooled typhoid-confirmed patients' sera and purified HSPs mAb using Western blotting and ELISA.
RESULTS: Five rounds of biopanning resulted in enrichment of phage clones expressing the binding motifs TDxSTRP and FPSHYWLYPPPT, respectively. The selected peptides showed strong immunoreactivity with patients' sera. Thus, monoclonal antibodies against HSP and patient sera can select common mimotopes from the random peptide library.
CONCLUSION: These findings may provide fundamental information for further studies on diagnostic application or vaccine design against this aetiologic agent of typhoid fever.
This study describes expression of HBs Ag in methylotrophic yeast, Pichia Pastoris under alcohol oxidase promoter. A single copy number of HBs Ag gene was transformed into pichia strain of KM 71, a Muts type, by using pA0815 pichia expression vector. The recombinant was cultivated in a shake flask either using methanol or a mixed feed of glycerol -methanol for induction. The HBs Ag gene integrity was justified using direct PCR method. The expressed products in the soluble cell extracts were analyzed by Western blot, SDS page, Bradford assay and ELISA tests. The recombinant HBs Ag was expressed successfully in Pichia pastoris strain KM71 at a high level of HBs Ag protein expression. Thus, an addition of glycerol in the ratio of glycerol per methanol 1/1 (g g-1) consistently produced 2-fold increment in both biomass accumulation and HBs Ag productivity.
The cholera enterotoxin (CT) has been considered a major virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae. The accessory cholera enterotoxin (ace) gene is the third gene of V. cholerae virulence cassette. The gene coding for the Ace toxin was amplified from V. cholerae isolates producing a single band of 314 bp. The presence of ace gene was confirmed by hybridization as well as by sequencing. The gene was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli (LMG194) using expression, pBAD/Thio-TOPO vector. Optimal conditions for expression included choice of host strain, temperature used for culturing, and concentration of antibiotic and arabinose inducer. The Ace protein was obtained from the cell supernatant as a fusion protein with a molecular mass 34 kDa which was detected using an anti V5-HRP epitope tagged antibody.
The microheterogeneity property of hCG with regards to its sialic acid contents resulted in variable mobility of the glycoprotein in SDS-PAGE. The intact hCG molecule is composed of two dissimilar subunits, namely alpha- and beta-subunits. The identification of hCG bands in SDS-PAGE was accomplished by the immunoblotting experiment, whereby the antibody directed toward the specific region of beta-subunit of hCG was used. The data shows that the different mobility of intact hCG was attributed to the different degree of desialylation of the glycoprotein. Nevertheless, unlike the intact hCG, the mobility of its beta-subunit was not affected by its variety sialic acid content. This characteristic of beta-hCG is beneficial when semi-quantification of total hCG is required. Quantification of hCG using the HPLC-reversed phase C18 analytical column is not possible as the glycoprotein was eluted in multiple fractions at different retention times. The identification of denatured hCG (HPLC eluted fractions) was carried out by immunoblotting experiment whilst immunoassay technique failed to detect its presence in any fraction.
Strongyloides stercoralis is a human parasite that can cause a long-term infection. In immunosuppressed patients, strongyloidiasis may be fatal when there is overwhelming autoinfection resulting in the migration of large numbers of larvae through many organs. Definitive diagnosis is still a challenge, and a combination of symptoms, microscopic identification, and serology test results are often used to arrive at a clinical decision. However, intermittent larval excretion, low parasite burden, and occult infections are challenges with parasitological diagnosis of infection with S. stercoralis. Meanwhile, serologic tests using immunoglobulin G and parasite antigen extract have problems of cross-reactivity with other helminthic infections. Recombinant antigen-based serodiagnosis is a good alternative to overcome the laboratory diagnostic issues. Herein, we report on the isolation of cDNA clone encoding an antigen of potential diagnostic value identified from immunoscreening of a S. stercoralis cDNA library. The translated protein had highest similarity to Strongyloides ratti immunoglobulin-binding protein 1. The recombinant antigen produced, rSs1a, was assessed using western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The latter showed 96% diagnostic sensitivity and 93% specificity; thus, rSs1a has good potential for use in serodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis.
Chikungunya is an acute febrile illness caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV). In this study, the envelope E1 gene of CHIKV was cloned and expressed in a baculovirus system. The recombinant E1 protein with N-term 6-His residues protein was successfully expressed and purified as confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. The seroreactivity of the recombinant protein was evaluated in immunoassay for anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG antibodies. The recombinant antigen showed 69% sensitivity and 100% specificity for anti-CHIKV IgG by dot blot assay. Detection of anti-CHIKV IgM by dot assay showed 79% sensitivity and 100% specificity. No cross reactivity of the antigen was observed with anti-dengue virus serum samples. The results strongly support that the recombinant E1 protein has potential to be used as diagnostic antigen. The used of the antigen in a dot blot assay gives an advantage for laboratory detection without the need of any specialised equipment.
Malaria remains one of the world's most important infectious diseases and is responsible for enormous mortality and morbidity. Human infection with Plasmodium knowlesi is widely distributed in Southeast Asia. Merozoite surface protein-1₁₉ (MSP-1₁₉), which plays an important role in protective immunity against asexual blood stage malaria parasites, appears as a leading immunogenic antigen of Plasmodium sp. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of recombinant P. knowlesi MSP-1₁₉ (rMSP-1₁₉) for detection of malarial infection. rMSP-1₁₉ was expressed in Escherichia coli expression system and the purified rMSP-1₁₉ was evaluated with malaria, non-malaria and healthy human serum samples (n = 215) in immunoblots. The sensitivity of rMSP-1₁₉ for detection of P. knowlesi, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale infection was 95.5%, 75.0%, 85.7% and 100%, respectively. rMSP-1₁₉ did not react with all the non-malaria and healthy donor sera, which represents 100% specificity. The rMSP-1₁₉ could be used as a potential antigen in serodiagnosis of malarial infection in humans.
Toxoplasma gondii infects all warm-blooded animals, including humans. Early diagnosis and determining the infective stage are critical for effectively treating immunosuppressed individuals and pregnant women with toxoplasmosis. Among the rhoptry proteins of the parasite, Rhoptry protein 8 (ROP8), is known to be expressed during the early stages of T. gondii infection and is involved in parasitophorous vacuole formation. In this study, we have investigated the diagnostic efficacy of recombinant ROP8 (rROP8).
Toxoplasma gondii infects all warm-blooded animals including humans, causing serious public health problems and great economic loss in the food industry. Commonly used serological tests involve preparation of whole Toxoplasma lysate antigens from tachyzoites which are costly and hazardous. An alternative method for better antigen production involving the prokaryotic expression system was therefore used in this study. Recombinant dense granular protein, GRA2, was successfully cloned, expressed, and purified in Escherichia coli, BL21 (DE3) pLysS. The potential of this purified antigen for diagnosis of human infections was evaluated through western blot analysis against 100 human serum samples. Results showed that the rGRA2 protein has 100 and 61.5 % sensitivity towards acute and chronic infection, respectively, in T. gondii-infected humans, indicating that this protein is useful in differentiating present and past infections. Therefore, it is suitable to be used as a sensitive and specific molecular marker for the serodiagnosis of Toxoplasma infection in both humans and animals.
The vp28 gene encoding an envelope protein (28 kDa) of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was amplified from WSSV-infected tiger shrimp that originated from Malaysia. Recombinant VP28 protein (r-28) was expressed in Escherichia coli and used as an antigen for preparation of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Three murine MAbs (6F6, 6H4 and 9C10) that were screened by r-28 antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were also able to recognize viral VP28 protein as well as r-28 on Western blot. Three non-overlapping epitopes of VP28 protein were determined using the MAbs in competitive ELISA; thus, an antigen-capture ELISA (Ac-ELISA) was developed by virtue of these MAbs. Ac-ELISA can differentiate WSSV-infected shrimp from uninfected shrimp and was further confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot. Approximately 400 pg of purified WSSV sample and 20 pg of r-28 could be detected by Ac-ELISA, which is comparable in sensitivity to PCR assay but more sensitive than Western blot in the detection of purified virus. Hemolymph and tissue homogenate samples collected from a shrimp farm in Malaysia during December 2000 and July 2001 were also detected by Ac-ELISA and PCR with corroborating results.
Oestrogen-induced uterine fluid sodium (Na(+)) and bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) secretion may involve SLC4A4. We hypothesized that uterine SLC4A4 expression changes under different sex-steroid influence, therefore may account for the fluctuation in uterine fluid Na(+) and HCO3(-) content throughout the oestrous cycle. The aim of this study is to investigate the differential effects of sex-steroids and oestrous cycle phases on uterine SLC4A4 expression.
A study was conducted to isolate, partial characterize Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer) vitellogenin (vtg). Two-year-old juvenile L. calcarifer (n = 10) were given three intraperitoneal injections of 17-β estradiol (E2) at a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight to induce vitellogenesis. Blood was collected 3 days after the last injection, and plasma was purified through gel filtration chromatography. A broad single symmetrical peak consisting of vtg molecule was produced. Protein concentration was 0.059 mg/ml as determined by Bradfrod assay using bovine serum albumin as a standard. The protein appeared as one circulating form in Native PAGE considering the dimeric form of putative vtg with molecular weight of 545 kDa. In SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions, two major bands appeared at 232.86 and 118.80 kDa and minor bands at 100.60, 85.80 and 39.92 kDa, respectively. The purified vtg was used to generate a polyclonal antibody, and the specificity of antibody was assessed by Western blot analysis. Two major bands were immunoreacted, but no cross-reactivity was observed with plasma from non-induced males. The protein was characterized as phosphoglycolipoprotein as it positively stained for the presence of lipid, phosphorus and carbohydrate using Sudan Black B, methyl green and periodic acid/Schiff reagent solution, respectively. The amino acid composition was analyzed by high sensitivity amino acid analysis that showed high percentage of non-polar amino acids (~48 %). The results suggest the potential utilization of vtg as a basis tool to further study about reproductive physiology of this important economical species.
GRA4 of Toxoplasma gondii has been shown to prompt IgG, IgM and IgA responses in previous studies and is thus considered one of the major immunogenic proteins from T. gondii that can be used for both diagnostics purposes and vaccine development. This study seeks to clone and express the GRA4 in Pichia pastoris, which has numerous advantages over other systems for expression of eukaryotic proteins. In order to achieve this, the gene was cloned into the pPICZα A expression vector, which was then incorporated into the P. pastoris genome via insertional integration for expression of the recombinant protein, under the AOX1 promoter. The antigen was expressed along with the prepro sequence of the α-factor of yeast so that it could be excreted out of the P. pastoris cells and obtained from the medium. Upon SDS-PAGE analysis it was found that the recombinant protein was expressed optimally as a 40 kDa protein after 96 hours of induction with 0.75% of methanol. The expressed GRA4 protein showed discrepancy in size with the calculated molecular mass. This may be attributed to the various posttranslational modifications including glycosylation and phosphorylation. Despite the difference in molecular weight, the recombinant protein was able to detect toxoplasmosis in Western blot format. The recombinant GRA4 was expressed with an intact polyhistidine-tag, which could be used for future purification of the antigen.
The aim of this study was to determine the role of nitric oxide (NO) in hydroxyapatite (HA)-induced phagocytosis by a murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7). The cells were incubated with HA particles at various incubation time and phagocytosis was assessed using phagocytic index (PI). NO production from the culture supernatants was determined by the Griess reagent. The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression was determined by Western blot. The particles were also incubated with cells pretreated with various concentrations of L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl) lysine hydrochloride (L-NIL) or L-arginine. Latex beads were used as a control. Our results showed that macrophage phagocytosis induced by HA was higher than that induced by the beads. However, NO production by HA-stimulated cells was lower than that by bead-stimulated cells. iNOS expression in both bead- and HA-stimulated cells was observed expressed at 7, 15, 30, and 60 min. l-Arginine enhanced but l-NIL inhibited both phagocytosis and NO production by HA-stimulated cells. The results of the present study suggest that nitric oxide may play a crucial role in HA-induced phagocytosis by RAW264.7 cells.
Hev b 4 is an allergenic natural rubber latex (NRL) protein complex that is reactive in skin prick tests and in vitro immunoassays. On SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Hev b 4 is discerned predominantly at 53-55 kDa together with a 57 kDa minor component previously identified as a cyanogenic glucosidase. Of the 13 NRL allergens recognized by the International Union of Immunological Societies, the 53-55 kDa Hev b 4 major protein is the only candidate that lacks complete cDNA and protein sequence information.
Malaria remains a major health threat in many parts of the globe and causes high mortality and morbidity with 214 million cases of malaria occurring globally in 2015. Recent studies have outlined potential diagnostic markers and vaccine candidates one of which is the merozoite surface protein (MSP)-3. In this study, novel recombinant Plasmodium knowlesi MSP-3 was cloned, expressed and purified in an Escherichia coli system. Subsequently, the recombinant protein was evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity. The recombinant pkMSP-3 protein reacted with sera from patients with P. knowlesi infection in both Western blot (61%) and ELISA (100%). Specificity-wise, pkMSP-3 did not react with healthy donor sera in either assay and only reacted with a few non-malarial parasitic patient sera in the ELISA assay (3 of 49). In conclusion, sensitivity and specificity of pkMSP-3 was found to be high in the ELISA and Western Blot assay and thus utilising both assays in tandem would provide the best sero-diagnostic result for P. knowlesi infection.