MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight avascular scaphoid non-unions in 37 patients who were treated with a free osteoperiosteal or osteochondral MFC graft were retrospectively evaluated (mean follow-up 16 months). Bone union, the scapholunate and the radiolunate angles were evaluated on X-ray images. The range of motion, grip strength, VAS, DASH and PRWE scores were evaluated clinically.
RESULTS: The overall union rate was 95%. Bone union was achieved in 27 out of 29 (93%) scaphoids treated with a free osteoperiosteal MFC grafts and in 9 out of 9 (100%) scaphoids treated with a free osteochondral MFC graft. The range of motion remained almost unchanged, while grip strength increased significantly (34 kg vs. 44 kg) and the VAS (22-5), DASH (59-19) and PRWE (62-30) score decreased significantly. The scapholunate (71°-65°) and radiolunate (28°-18°) angle decreased. No major donor site morbidity was observed. Postoperative complications were observed in eight cases (21%).
CONCLUSIONS: The vascularized medial femoral bone graft leads to a good functional outcome in the treatment of scaphoid non-unions. The graft provides adequate blood supply and structural stability to the scaphoid. A proximal pole destruction can be replaced using an osteochondral graft with promising short-term results preventing carpal osteoarthritis and collapse.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present review is to critically discuss various surgical implications and level of evidence of most commonly employed bone graft substitutes for spinal fusion.
METHOD: Data was collected via electronic search using "PubMed", "SciFinder", "ScienceDirect", "Google Scholar", "Web of Science" and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals, conferences, and e-books.
RESULTS: Despite having exceptional inherent osteogenic, osteoinductive, and osteoconductive features, clinical acceptability of autografts (patient's own bone) is limited due to several perioperative and postoperative complications i.e., donor-site morbidities and limited graft supply. Alternatively, allografts (bone harvested from cadaver) have shown great promise in achieving acceptable bone fusion rate while alleviating the donor-site morbidities associated with implantation of autografts. As an adjuvant to allograft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM) has shown remarkable efficacy of bone fusion, when employed as graft extender or graft enhancer. Recent advances in recombinant technologies have made it possible to implant growth and differentiation factors (bone morphogenetic proteins) for spinal fusion.
CONCLUSION: Selection of a particular bone grafting biotherapy can be rationalized based on the level of spine fusion, clinical experience and preference of orthopaedic surgeon, and prevalence of donor-site morbidities.
CASE REPORT: We present a case report on management of an electrosurgery induced osteonecrosis involving maxillary alveolus of left premolars.
DISCUSSION: Inadvertent contact of the electrosurgery tip on bone can result in necrosis making it necessary to remove the sequestrum and graft the defect. Platelet rich fibrin in combination with bone grafts have been well documented to provide successful periodontal regeneration.
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Our aim of presenting this report is to create awareness among the health care providers regarding electrosurgical injuries. To our knowledge, this is the first time platelet rich fibrin has been used in the management of intraoral electrosurgical injury. Combining bone grafts with platelet rich fibrin is a good alternative as it can be done with relative ease and predictable outcome.