Resistant starch has potential health benefits but the factors affecting its formation in bread and baked products are not well studied. Here, the formation of resistant starch in wholemeal bread products was evaluated in relation to the processing conditions including fermentation time, temperature and the inclusion of palm oil as a vitamin source. The effects of each the factor were assessed using a full factorial design. The impact on final starch content of traditional sourdough fermentation of wholemeal rye bread, as well as the bulk fermentation process of wheat and wheat/oat blends of wholemeal bread, was also assessed by enzyme assay. Palm oil content was found to have a significant effect on the formation of resistant starch in all of the breads while fermentation time and temperature had no significant impact. Sourdough fermentation of rye bread was found to have a greater impact on resistant starch formation than bulk fermentation of wheat and wheat blend breads, most likely due the increased organic acid content of the sourdough process.
The trend of incorporating faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in breadmaking has been increasing, but its application is still facing technological difficulties. The objective of this study was to understand the influence of substituting the wheat flour (WF) with 10, 20, 30 and 40 % mass of whole bean flour (FBF) or 10 and 20 % mass of faba bean protein-rich fraction (FBPI) on the quality (volume, specific volume, density, colour, and texture), nutritional composition (total starch, free glucose, and protein contents), and kinetics of in vitro starch and protein digestibility (IVSD and IVPD, respectively) of the breads. Automated image analysis algorithm was developed to quantitatively estimate the changes in the crumb (i.e., air pockets) and crust (i.e., thickness) due to the use of FBF or FBPI as part of the partial substitution of wheat flour. Higher levels of both FBF and FBPI substitution were associated with breads having significant (p bread characteristics during baking such as loss of crumb expansion, decrease in air pocket expansion and increase in crust thickness. Overall, incorporation of FBF or FBPI in wheat bread were favourable in reducing the starch content and improving the protein content and IVPD of wheat bread. Since bread remains as a staple food due to its convenience, versatility and affordability for individuals and families on a budget, wheat bread enriched with faba bean could be a perfect food matrix to increase daily protein intake.
The objective of this project was to determine the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of bread supplemented with four different levels (control, 5%, 10%, and 15%) of pumpkin flour. The physical (weight, loaf volume, specific volume and oven spring) and chemical (moisture, protein, fat, fibre and ash) attributes were determined in the raw pumpkin, pumpkin flour (PF), control and supplemented breads. Sensory attributes were conducted on the control and supplemented breads. Increasing the level of substitution from 5% to 15% pumpkin flour significantly (p
The main approach of this study is to develop high fiber bread by utilizing the cocoa-by products, namely cocoa pod husk which is incorporated into whole meal bread. The cocoa pod husk can be classified as one of the source of high fiber. The cocoa pod husk was dried and milled in order to produce the cocoa pod husk powder (CPHP). There were five different percentages of CPHP level incorporated into the high fiber bread which were formulation A (0% CPHP), formulation B (5% CPHP), formulation C (10% CPHP), formulation D (15% CPHP) and formulation E (20% CPHP). All of the samples undergone physical analysis and sensory evaluation. The incorporation of CPHP give significant effects towards bread volume and hardness attribute where the bread became denser and harder in texture as compared to the control. The color of bread crumb and crust was also changed to darker color. For the overall acceptance, formulation B has the highest mean score among the composite breads (formulation B to E) studied.
In this study, physicochemical and sensory qualities of substituting jering seed flour into wheat chapatis (unleavened Indian flat bread) were evaluated at different proportions (5, 10, 15, 20 and 100% of jering seed flour). Chapati prepared with 100% of wheat flour was served as control. Results showed wheat-jering composite chapatis had significantly higher protein (12.68-15.55%), ash (1.78-2.32%) and carbohydrate contents (50.78-54.50%) than that of wheat chapatis which served as control (11.49, 1.77% and 51.62%, respectively). As for the fat content, this ranged from 1.19% to 1.03%, corresponding to the levels of jering seed flour substitution. In terms of physical characteristics, the puffed height and extensibility of the composite chapatis decreased progressively as the level of jering seed flour substitution increased. On the other hand, the peak load required to rupture chapatis showed an inverse trend. It increased significantly from 3.26 to 15.96 N. Further, the colour values of composite chapatis showed significant changes when the level of jering seed flour substitution was increased. The L* and b* values decreased while a* value increased. Regarding sensory properties, control wheat chapatis had better acceptability than the composite chapatis. However, all the composite chapatis had significantly higher nutritional values. Based on the generated results, novel chapatis could be formulated by substituting wheat with jering seed flour.
The proximate compositions, total dietary fibre (TDF) content, textural properties and sensory acceptability of yeast breads formulated with 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% of cornsilk powder (CSP) were studied. The protein, ash and TDF contents of yeast breads were increased in line with the CSP level added whereas moisture content was decreased. Yeast bread added with 6% CSP recorded the highest content of TDF (5.91%), protein (9.76%) and ash (1.03%) compared to other formulation of yeast breads containing lower percentage of CSP. Besides, texture profile analysis (TPA) reported that the firmness, gumminess and chewiness of yeast breads increased directly proportional to the level of CSP added mainly due to higher content of TDF and lower content of moisture. However, for the yeast bread added with 2%CSP, there were no significant differences compared with control yeast bread. Among all cornsilk-based yeast bread, formulation containing 2% CSP had the highest scores for all attributes including overall acceptance and there were no significant differences with control yeast bread. The present study indicated that the addition of 2% CSP could be an effective way to produce functional yeast bread without changing negatively its desirable textural and sensory acceptability.
The objective of this work was to study the effects of trehalose and maltodextrin on Chinese
steamed bread (CSB) prepared from frozen dough. Trehalose (0.1 and 0.2% w/w) and
maltodextrin (1 and 2% w/w) were added and CSB prepared from the fresh dough and the
frozen dough was characterized in terms of spread ratio, specific volume, staling index and
stress relaxation properties. Upon frozen storage, spread ratio and specific volume of CSB,
and elasticity of the bread crumb were reduced. The extend of deterioration was significantly
reduced with the addition of 0.1% trehalose and 2% maltodextrin. Excessive addition of
trehalose and maltodextrin was found to cause detrimental effects to CSB quality.
Megabiodiversity of Malaysian’s flora and fauna which include microorganism could be conserved and served as alternative source indigenous yeast, the leavening agent of commercial bread making. This study was conducted in attempt to exploit the potential of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from 30 different local fruits and plant parts as a leavening agent in bread making. The enrichment was carried out by fermenting the plant samples in medium containing Grape Must at 25°C for 10 days following by isolation of tentative yeasts at 30°C for 3 to 5 days. 20 out of 30 samples tested showed the presence of yeasts was then selected for identification of S. cerevisiae strains through biochemical and physiological tests. Of the 20 yeast strains examined, 13 strains were identified as S. cerevisiae and potentially used as leavening agent in bread making where 5 strains namely SN3, SMK9, SDB10, SRB11 and SS12 showed better fermentative performance compared to commercial strains. Thus, indicated that the local fruits and plant parts could be the potential source of indigenous S. cerevisiae strains for leavening agent in bread making.
The physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the control (BCtr), commercial wheat flour (CWF) bread substituted with 10% BPF (banana pseudo-stem flour) (B10BPF) and B10BPF with added 0.8% w/w (flour weight basis) xanthan gum (XG) or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (B10BPFXG and B10BPFCMC, respectively) were examined. The proximate analyses revealed that the composite bread had significantly higher moisture, ash, crude fibre, soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre contents but lower protein, fat and carbohydrate contents than the BCtr. Bread incorporated with BPF resulted in a lower volume, darker crumb and lighter crust colour than the BCtr. The addition of CMC improved the bread volume. All breads containing BPF had greater total phenolics, and antioxidant properties than the control bread. Sensory evaluation indicated that the B10BPFCMC bread had the highest acceptability.
The key aroma constituents in the volatile fractions isolated FROM two differently processed fry breads by solvent-assisted flavor evaporation were characterized by an aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Twenty-two compounds were identified with flavor dilution (FD) factor ranges of 2-516. Among them, 13 compounds (FD ≥ 16) were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays and analyzed by odor activity values (OAVs). Of these, 11 compounds had OAVs ≥ 1, and the highest concentrations were determined for δ-decalactone and 2,3-butanedione. Two recombination models of the fry breads showed similarity to the corresponding fry breads. Omission tests confirmed that aroma-active constituents, such as δ-decalactone (oily/peach), 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (roasty/popcorn-like), 3-methylbutanal (malty), methional (baked potato-like), 2,3-butanedione (buttery), phenyl acetaldehyde (flowery), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (deep-fried), butanoic acid, and 3-methylbutanoic acid, were the key aroma constituents of fry bread. In addition, 3-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (smoky) and 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone were also identified as important aroma constituents of fry bread.
Introduction: The aims of this study were to determine the proximate composition, functional properties and antioxidant activity of pumpkin seeds and rind. Besides, the effects of dietary fibre in pumpkin seeds and rinds on bread qualities and properties were evaluated. Methods: Formulations for bread substituted with 0%, 5% and 10% pumpkin seed and rind, respectively were produced. Sensory evaluation of the prepared bread samples for such attributes as appearance, aroma, flavour, texture and overall acceptability was undertaken. The physical properties of the bread samples, including dough expansion, loaf volume, crumb colour and bread texture, were determined. Proximate analysis and determination of antioxidant activity of the bread samples were also conducted. Results: Crude fibre of the pumpkin seeds and pumpkin rinds was high at 31.48% and 14.83%, respectively. The total phenolic compound (TPC) and DPPH radical scavenging activity for the pumpkin rinds were 38.60 mg GAE/ 100 g dry weight and 69.38%, respectively, which were higher than those of pumpkin seeds. A 5% level of pumpkin rind bread gave the best overall acceptability and sensory attributes, followed by 5% pumpkin seed bread. Total dietary fibre, total phenolic compound and DPPH radical scavenging activity in breads substituted with 5% pumpkin seed and 5% pumpkin rind flour were higher than the values in control bread. Conclusion: Pumpkin seeds and rinds can be used as dietary fibre sources in bakery.
A simple analytical method for the determination of propionic acid and propionates in bakery products using a simple sample preparation procedure is described. The method involves the conversion of propionates to the non-ionized molecular form by adding glacial acetic acid, which is at the same time efficiently extracted into dichloromethane. After vortexing for 1 min, the extract was directly injected into a capillary gas chromatographic column with flame ionization detector. The method was applied for the determination of propionates in 112 commercial bakery samples. The levels of propionic acid plus propionates in bread, cake/ rolls, burger/hot dog buns and pita breads ranged from 197-1273, 98-1846, 546-1932 and 479-1680 µg mL -1 , respectively. No propionate was detected in any of the 36 biscuit samples analyzed.
The effect of partial substitution of pumpkin flour for rice flour on the physical properties and sensory attributes of gluten-free muffin were investigated. Pumpkin flour was used to replace 10, 15 and 20% rice flour in a control gluten-free muffin formulation (without pumpkin flour). The partial substitution of pumpkin flour for rice flour did not affect moisture content of gluten-free muffins. However, the pumpkin flour substitution caused significant reduction in water activity of gluten-free muffins. Results on the volume, specific volume and height of all gluten-free muffins showed no significant effect with the increasing percentage of pumpkin flour substitution. However, pumpkin flour substitution significantly reduced the firmness of composite muffins, and improved its springiness. The colour of crumb progressively became darker as the level of pumpkin flour substitution increased. Moreover, the results also showed that the substitution of pumpkin flour caused an increase in yellowness (b*) value of crust and crumb of gluten-free muffin. Sensory evaluation indicated that all gluten-free muffins incorporated with pumpkin flour received similar score when compared to that of control.
Nowadays, there is a rising interest towards consuming health beneficial food products. Bread-as one of the most popular food products-could be improved to 'healthy bread' by addition of ingredients high in protein, dietary fiber and low in calorie. Incorporating Jackfruit rind powder (JRP) as a by-product rich in dietary fiber in bread, could not only provide health beneficial bread products, but also lead to develop an environmental friendly technology by solving the problem of waste disposal of residues. In this study, addition of jackfruit rind powder (JRP) as a high dietary fiber and functional ingredient in bread was examined. The results showed that incorporation of JRP in bread improved functional properties of flour such as Oil Holding Capacity (OHC), Water Holding Capacity (WHC) and pasting properties. Addition of 5%, 10% and 15% of JRP in wheat flour caused significantly (p < 0.05) higher insoluble, soluble and total dietary fiber in flour and bread products. Results from proximate composition indicated that all breads substituted with JRP, contained significantly (p < 0.05) higher fiber, moisture and fat. Obtained results confirmed that the JRP has great potential in development of functional foods especially functional bread products.
Mushroom cultivation has been more popular recently in Malaysia. They are favoured due to their delicious flavour and low calorific value. Apart from that, they also contain high amount of protein and other essential nutrients. As recommended by food pyramid, people should take in more of their calories from whole grains-based foods than any other sources. Three selected carbohydrate based products namely rice-porridge (RP), paratha flat bread (PB) and conventional cake (CC) were formulated with dried Pleurotus sajor-caju (PSC) powder. All three products were analyzed for proximate analysis and sensory evaluation. Result shows the percentage of moisture, ash, fat and protein of RP increased in line with the levels of PSC powder used except for carbohydrate. Whereas for PB and CCs added with 2%, 4% and 6% PSC, the percentage of all nutrients were higher than control (0%) except for fat. Mushroombased RP had significantly higher value of odour attribute as compared to control, with RP added with 6% PSC powder received the highest score. Meanwhile, mushroom-based PB received better score on textural attribute compared the control. In CC, panels prefer the cake added with 4% PSC powder as they gave higher scores for softness and flavour attributes. In conclusion, addition of PSC powder to partially replace rice and wheat flour in RP, CC and PB enhance essential nutritional components and well accepted by consumers. Thus, PSC powder can be considered to be utilized in carbohydrate–based food products with the purpose of enhancing nutrient compositions without affecting its sensory acceptance.
The development of food products using composite flour has increased and is attracting much attention from researchers, especially in the production of bakery products and pastries. This article focuses on the use of composite flour to produce food products, namely bread, biscuits, and pasta, with looks at on its impact, following some improvements made, on the sensory quality, rheology characteristics, and nutritional values as well as its overall acceptance. The blending of wheat flour with various sources of tubers, legumes, cereals and fruit flour in different percentages to produce variety of food products are also reported in this review. It was found that composite flour used to produce food products is still able to maintain similar characteristics to products made from full-wheat flour. The positive effects of the use of composite flour can be seen in the final product related to the functional and physicochemical properties and health benefits of raw blended flour along with percentage blending. Overall, composite flour is a good new approach to utilizing uncommon food products as the application of composite flour produced products with different characteristics and quality, depending on the types and percentage of wheat flour used in the formulation.
High intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) may cause adverse changes in blood lipids as shown in many epidemiological studies. The major sources of TFA in human diet come from bakery products such as cookies, cakes, muffins, breads and pastries. In this study, total fat of baked products was determined using Soxhlet method while TFA content was determined on gas chromatograph using a highly polar capillary column and flame ionization detector. Exposure to TFA from the baked product was estimated based on Food Consumption Statistics of Malaysia 2003. High level of TFA was observed in muffins (3.21-7.34 g per 100 g food) followed by pastries (2.90-6.03 g per 100 g food) and cakes (2.26-8.36 g per 100 g food) regardless of products having brand name or not. Among the TFA isomers, trans 18:1 6t was the most abundant followed by trans 18:1 9t, trans 16:1 9t, trans 18:2 and small quantities of trans 18:1 11t. Exposure to TFA based on the Malaysian Food Consumption Statistics 2003 of the baked products was ranging from 0.14-0.18 g/day. Even with the low estimated exposure, actual intake of baked products must be monitored closely as other high fat food as these products is one of main contributor to TFA in the diet following their high frequency of daily intake.
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of pH levels on functional properties of various molecular weights of eel (Monopterus sp.) protein hydrolysate (EPH). The eel was enzymatically hydrolyzed and fractionated through membranes filter (10 kDa, 5 kDa and 3 kDa). The foaming capacity and stability, emulsifying capacity and stability index, water holding capacity and fat binding capacity between pH 2 and 10 were determined. The 5 kDa EPH was found to have the highest foaming capacity at pH 2, pH 4 and pH 6, and foaming stability and emulsifying activity index at all pH levels, except pH 8 and fat binding capacity at pH 2, as compared to 10 kDa and 3 kDa EPH fractions. The 10 kDa EPH had the highest emulsifying stability index and water holding capacity at all pH levels. This study shows that the EPH fractions at low pH level had high foaming and oil binding capacity, while at neutral pH, the fractions had high foaming stability and water holding capacity. These properties are important in making whipped cream, mousse and meringue. In contrast, EPH fractions demonstrated strong emulsifying properties at high pH levels and show potential as an emulsifier for breads, biscuits and frozen desserts.
Incorporation of Green Banana Flour (BF) into Chinese steamed bread (CSB) may be a
strategy to fortify the traditional CSB due to its health benefits. However, BF-incorporated
foods in general, have poorer sensory properties affecting consumer acceptability. The aim
of this study was to examine the adjustment of water content from the original formulation
and addition of coffee flavour on physical properties and consumer acceptability of BFincorporated
CSB. Wheat flour as control was substituted with 15% BF varied by addition
of 30% water and coffee flavour. Physical analysis (colour, volume, spread ratio and
texture) of CSB and hedonic test for appearance, aroma, flavour, overall acceptability and
preference ranking of CSB were conducted. Results showed no significant differences
(p>0.05) in specific volume, springiness, and adhesiveness among samples. A significant
Food defined as material that can be brought into the body of a human, animal or plant sources for
upholding the balance of life and it includes rice, vegetables, bread and others. However, in Islam, its
emphasized more on clean, harmless food and also with a code known as Halal diet. Halal is a term from
the Quran which means permissible or lawful. In Islam, known special regulations in the slaughter of
animals to be Halal diet include with saying the name of Allah the Almighty and make an incision to cut
the lifeblood of the animal's neck, letting the action veins and organs intact. In contrast, Haram means 'not
allowed' or 'forbidden' in Islam. Among the Haram foods as mentioned in the Qur'an and the Sunnah, it
includes carrion, blood, dogs, pigs, and alcohol.