Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 27 in total

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  1. Nik-Hussein NN, Razak IA, Karim MN
    Singapore Dent J, 1988 Dec;13(1):24-6.
    PMID: 3154999
    The sugar content of twenty-four liquid medicines commonly prescribed for infants and young children were measured and the type of sugars present were also identified in four randomly selected samples. All the liquid medicines tested contained sugar, in the range of 29.4% to 61.2%. Sucrose appeared to be the most commonly used sugar. Whilst it is agreed that sucrose makes the medicine more acceptable to children, its continual use by the pharmaceutical industry should be discontinued due to its harmful effect on the dental health of children, particularly those taking these syrup-based medicines on prolonged basis. Sugar-free alternatives such as sorbitol or saccharin should be used instead.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates/analysis*
  2. Bhat R, binti Yahya N
    Food Chem, 2014 Aug 1;156:42-9.
    PMID: 24629936 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.01.063
    Belinjau (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed flour was evaluated for nutritional composition, antioxidant activity and functional properties. Seed flour was found to be rich in protein (19.0g/100g), crude fibre (8.66g/100g), carbohydrates (64.1%), total dietary fibre (14.5%) and encompassed adequate amounts of essential amino acids, fatty acids and minerals. Antioxidant compounds such as total phenols (15.1 and 12.6mgGAE/100g), tannins (35.6 and 16.1mgCE/100g) and flavonoids (709 and 81.6mgCEQ/100g) were higher in ethanolic extracts over aqueous extracts, respectively. Inhibition of DPPH was high in ethanol extracts (48.9%) compared to aqueous extracts (19.7%), whereas aqueous extracts showed a higher FRAP value compared to ethanol extracts (0.98 and 0.61mmolFe(II)/100g, respectively). Results on functional properties revealed acceptable water and oil absorption capacities (5.51 and 1.98g/g, respectively), emulsion capacity and stability (15.3% and 6.90%, respectively), and foaming capacity (5.78%). FTIR spectral analysis showed seed flour to encompass major functional groups such as: amines, amides, amino acids, polysaccharides, carboxylic acids, esters and lipids. As belinjau seed flour possesses a rich nutraceutical value, it has high potential to be used as a basic raw material to develop new low cost nutritious functional foods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates/analysis
  3. Kok SY, Namasivayam P, Ee GC, Ong-Abdullah M
    J Plant Res, 2013 Jul;126(4):539-47.
    PMID: 23575803 DOI: 10.1007/s10265-013-0560-8
    Developmental biochemical information is a vital base for the elucidation of seed physiology and metabolism. However, no data regarding the biochemical profile of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed development has been reported thus far. In this study, the biochemical changes in the developing oil palm seed were investigated to study their developmental pattern. The biochemical composition found in the seed differed significantly among the developmental stages. During early seed development, the water, hexose (glucose and fructose), calcium and manganese contents were present in significantly high levels compared to the late developmental stage. Remarkable changes in the biochemical composition were observed at 10 weeks after anthesis (WAA): the dry weight and sucrose content increased significantly, whereas the water content and hexose content declined. The switch from a high to low hexose/sucrose ratio could be used to identify the onset of the maturation phase. At the late stage, dramatic water loss occurred, whereas the content of storage reserves increased progressively. Lauric acid was the most abundant fatty acid found in oil palm seed starting from 10 WAA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates/analysis
  4. Ooi DJ, Iqbal S, Ismail M
    Molecules, 2012 Sep 17;17(9):11139-45.
    PMID: 22986924 DOI: 10.3390/molecules170911139
    This study presents the proximate and mineral composition of Peperomia pellucida L., an underexploited weed plant in Malaysia. Proximate analysis was performed using standard AOAC methods and mineral contents were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated Peperomia pellucida to be rich in crude protein, carbohydrate and total ash contents. The high amount of total ash (31.22%)suggests a high-value mineral composition comprising potassium, calcium and iron as the main elements. The present study inferred that Peperomia pellucida would serve as a good source of protein and energy as well as micronutrients in the form of a leafy vegetable for human consumption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates/analysis
  5. Khalil I, Moniruzzaman M, Boukraâ L, Benhanifia M, Islam A, Islam N, et al.
    Molecules, 2012 Sep 20;17(9):11199-215.
    PMID: 22996344
    The aim of the present study was to characterize the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey samples (n = 4). Physical parameters, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content were measured. Several biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. The mean pH was 3.84 ± 0.01, and moisture the content was 13.21 ± 0.16%. The mean EC was 0.636 ± 0.001, and the mean TDS was 316.92 ± 0.92. The mean color was 120.58 ± 0.64 mm Pfund, and the mean 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was 21.49 mg/kg. The mean total sugar and reducing sugar contents were 67.03 ± 0.68 g/mL and 64.72 ± 0.52 g/g, respectively. The mean sucrose content was 2.29 ± 0.65%. High mean values of phenolic (459.83 ± 1.92 mg gallic acid/kg), flavonoid (54.23 ± 0.62 mg catechin/kg), ascorbic acid (159.70 ± 0.78 mg/kg), AEAC (278.15 ± 4.34 mg/kg), protein (3381.83 ± 6.19 mg/kg) and proline (2131.47 ± 0.90) contents, as well as DPPH (39.57% ± 4.18) and FRAP activities [337.77 ± 1.01 µM Fe (II)/100 g], were also detected, indicating that Algerian honey has a high antioxidant potential. Strong positive correlations were found between flavonoid, proline and ascorbic acid contents and color intensity with DPPH and FRAP values. Thus, the present study revealed that Algerian honey is a good source of antioxidants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates/analysis
  6. Ho CW, Aida WM, Maskat MY, Osman H
    Pak J Biol Sci, 2008 Apr 01;11(7):989-95.
    PMID: 18810967
    During the production of palm sugar, the palm sap (Arenga pinnata) is heated up to 150 degrees C. Besides the hydrolysis of carbohydrate to generate reducing sugars and degradation of amino acid, many physicochemical changes produced at all these temperatures, having a significant impact on the overall quality of palm sugar. In this study, changes in physico-chemical properties of the palm sap due to heat processing were investigated. Analysis of colour, soluble solid, pH, temperature, sugar and amino acid concentration was determinant. The results showed clearly that the heating process at these high temperatures was necessary to create an environment which was rich in essential precursors for subsequent reactions such as Maillard reaction. Chemical compounds that showed drastic changes in concentration were polar side chain amino acids especially glutamine, asparagine and arginine as well as sucrose and pH value. Other quality characteristics of palm sugar based on colour and soluble solids (Brix) shared an increase in concentration as a function of time.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates/analysis*
  7. Alam MZ, Fakhru'l-Razi A, Molla AH
    PMID: 15332668
    A laboratory-scale study was undertaken to evaluate the liquid state bioconversion (LSB) in terms of biodegradation of microbially treated domestic wastewater sludge (biosolids) as well as its kinetics. The potential fungal strains and process factors developed from previous studies were used throughout the study. The results presented in this study showed that an effective biodegradation occurred with the biosolids (sludge cake) accumulated. The maximum biosolids (sludge cake) accumulated (93.8 g/kg of liquid sludge) enriched with the biomass protein (30.2 g/kg of dry biosolids), was achieved which improved the effluent quality by enhancing the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), reducing sugar (RS), soluble protein (SP), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total suspended solids (TSS). The higher reduction of specific resistance to filtration (SRF) was observed during bioconversion process. The kinetics results showed that the experimental data were better fitted for the biodegradation efficiency, and biosolids accumulation and biodegradation rate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates/analysis
  8. Kavousi P, Mirhosseini H, Ghazali H, Ariffin AA
    Food Chem, 2015 Sep 1;182:164-70.
    PMID: 25842323 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.02.135
    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is formed during heat treatment of carbohydrate-containing foods, especially in a deep-fat frying process. This study aimed to investigate the effect of amino acids on the formation and reduction of HMF from glucose, fructose and sucrose at frying temperature in model systems containing binary mixtures of an amino acid and a sugar in equal concentrations (0.3M). The results revealed that the formation of HMF from sugars accelerated in the presence of acidic amino acids (i.e. glutamic and aspartic acids). Conversely, the presence of basic amino acids (i.e. lysine, arginine and histidine) led to reduced concentrations of HMF to non-detectable levels in model systems. The results showed that both pH and heating time significantly affected the formation of HMF from fructose in the presence of glutamic acid. In this regard, a higher amount of HMF was formed at lower pH.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates/analysis*
  9. Jaafar N, Abdul Razak I
    J Pedod, 1990;14(3):147-9.
    PMID: 2081132
    Diet and sugar eating habits, in particular sweet preference levels, are gradually nurtured over time by culturally accepted dietary norms. The dietary habits of Malaysia's three main ethnic groups are distinctively different from each other and expectedly, many studies have discovered significant ethnic variations in caries experience. In order to guide further research work into the causes of these variations, this pilot study was designed to establish whether ethnic variations exist in sweet preference levels. This study found that although the difference in sweet preference between boys and girls in this sample was not statistically significant, the ethnic variation was statistically significant. The implications of this study and suggestions for further research in this field are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates/analysis
  10. Fung SY, Cheong PCH, Tan NH, Ng ST, Tan CS
    IUBMB Life, 2019 07;71(7):821-826.
    PMID: 30629799 DOI: 10.1002/iub.2006
    Sclerotial powder of a cultivated species of the Tiger Milk Mushroom, Lignosus cameronensis was analysed for its nutritional components and compared against species of the same genus, Lignosus rhinocerus and Lignosus tigris. All three species have been used by indigenous tribes in Peninsular Malaysia as medicinal mushrooms. Content of carbohydrate, fibre, mineral, amino acid, palatable index, fat, ash and moisture were determined. L. cameronensis sclerotial material consists of carbohydrate (79.7%), protein (12.4%) and dietary fibre (5.4%) with low fat (1.7%) and no free sugar. It has the highest content of total carbohydrate (791 g kg-1 ), energy value (3,700 kcal kg-1 ) and calcium (0.85 g kg-1 ). The crude protein content (123 g kg-1 ) is comparable to that of L. rhinocerus with its main amino acids consisting of glutamic acid, aspartic acid and leucine. The umami index is determined to be 0.27. The total essential amino acid (45 g kg-1 ) is comparable to that of L. tigris. The main mineral is potassium (1.51 g kg-1 ) and the Na/K ratio was <0.6. Heavy metals such as mercury, cadmium, lead and arsenic were absent. L. cameronensis has the highest amount of food energy, total carbohydrate and calcium compared to those of both L. rhinocerus and L. tigris. The essential amino acids comprised almost 40% of the total amino acid content, slightly more than that reported from sclerotial powder of the L. tigris. © 2019 IUBMB Life, 9999(9999):1-6, 2019.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates/analysis*
  11. Lai YH, Puspanadan S, Lee CK
    Biotechnol Prog, 2019 05;35(3):e2798.
    PMID: 30828976 DOI: 10.1002/btpr.2798
    Present study aims to optimize the production of starch and total carbohydrates from Arthrospira platensis. Growing concerns toward unprecedented environmental issues associated with plastic pollution has created a tremendous impetus to develop new biomaterials for the production of bioplastic. Starch-based biopolymers from algae serve as sustainable feedstock for thermoplastic starch production due to their abundant availability and low cost. A. platensis was cultivated in Zarrouk's medium at 32 ± 1°C and exposed to red light with a photoperiod of 12:12 hr light/dark. Growth kinetics studies showed that the maximum specific growth rate (μmax ) obtained was 0.059 day-1 with the doubling time (td ) of 11.748 days. Subsequently, Zarrouk's medium with different concentrations of sulfur, phosphorus and nitrogen was prepared to establish the nutrient-limiting conditions to enhance the accumulation of starch and total carbohydrates. In this study, the highest starch accumulated was 6.406 ± 0.622 mg L-1 under optimized phosphorus limitation (0.025 g L-1 ) conditions. Nitrogen limitation (0.250 g L-1 ) results demonstrated significant influenced (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates/analysis
  12. Pandiyan K, Tiwari R, Rana S, Arora A, Singh S, Saxena AK, et al.
    World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2014 Jan;30(1):55-64.
    PMID: 23824667 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-013-1422-1
    The potential of Parthenium sp. as a feedstock for enzymatic saccharification was investigated by using chemical and biological pretreatment methods. Mainly chemical pretreatments (acid and alkali) were compared with biological pretreatment with lignolytic fungi Marasmiellus palmivorus PK-27. Structural and chemical changes as well as crystallinity of cellulose were examined through scanning electron microscopy, fourier transform infra red and X-ray diffraction analysis, respectively after pretreatment. Total reducing sugar released during enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrates was also evaluated. Among the pretreatment methods, alkali (1% NaOH) treated substrate showed high recovery of acid perceptible polymerised lignin (7.53 ± 0.5 mg/g) and significantly higher amount of reducing sugar (513.1 ± 41.0 mg/gds) compared to uninoculated Parthenium (163.4 ± 21.2) after 48 h of hydrolysis. This is the first report of lignolytic enzyme production from M. palmivorus, prevalent in oil palm plantations in Malaysia and its application in biological delignification of Parthenium sp. Alkali (1% NaOH) treatment proves to be the suitable method of pretreatment for lignin recovery and enhanced yield of reducing sugar which may be used for bioethanol production from Parthenium sp.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates/analysis
  13. Lau BF, Abdullah N, Aminudin N, Lee HB
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2013 Oct 28;150(1):252-62.
    PMID: 23993912 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.08.034
    The sclerotium of the "tiger's milk mushroom" (Lignosus rhinocerotis) is used as tonic and folk medicine for the treatment of cancer, fever, cough and asthma by the local and indigenous communities. It is traditionally prepared by either boiling or maceration-like methods; however, there is no attempt to understand how different processing methods might affect their efficacies as anticancer agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates/analysis
  14. Lau BF, Abdullah N, Aminudin N
    J Agric Food Chem, 2013 May 22;61(20):4890-7.
    PMID: 23597270 DOI: 10.1021/jf4002507
    The chemical composition of the tiger's milk mushroom (Lignosus rhinocerotis) from different developmental stages, i.e., the fruit body, sclerotium, and mycelium, was investigated for the first time. The fruit body and sclerotium of L. rhinocerotis were rich in carbohydrates and dietary fibers but low in fat. Protein levels in L. rhinocerotis were moderate, and all essential amino acids, except tryptophan, were present. The mycelium contained high levels of potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, riboflavin, and niacin and appreciable amounts of essential fatty acids. The results indicated that the sclerotium of L. rhinocerotis that was used in ethnomedicine was not superior to the fruit body and mycelium with regard to the nutritional content and bioactive constituents. Our findings provide some insights into the selection of appropriate mushroom part(s) of L. rhinocerotis and proper cultivation techniques for the development of new nutraceuticals or dietary supplements.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates/analysis
  15. Shyam S, Wai TN, Arshad F
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2012;21(2):201-8.
    PMID: 22507605
    This paper outlines the methodology to add glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) functionality to food DietPLUS, a Microsoft Excel-based Malaysian food composition database and diet intake calculator. Locally determined GI values and published international GI databases were used as the source of GI values. Previously published methodology for GI value assignment was modified to add GI and GL calculators to the database. Two popular local low GI foods were added to the DietPLUS database, bringing up the total number of foods in the database to 838 foods. Overall, in relation to the 539 major carbohydrate foods in the Malaysian Food Composition Database, 243 (45%) food items had local Malaysian values or were directly matched to International GI database and another 180 (33%) of the foods were linked to closely-related foods in the GI databases used. The mean ± SD dietary GI and GL of the dietary intake of 63 women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, calculated using DietPLUS version3 were, 62 ± 6 and 142 ± 45, respectively. These values were comparable to those reported from other local studies. DietPLUS version3, a simple Microsoft Excel-based programme aids calculation of diet GI and GL for Malaysian diets based on food records.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates/analysis*
  16. Lasekan O, Salva JT, Abbas K
    J Sci Food Agric, 2010 Apr 15;90(5):850-60.
    PMID: 20355122 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.3895
    Considering the importance of malting and roasting on the quality of 'acha' beverages, a study was conducted to find optimum conditions for malting and the production of a high-quality roasted extract that could be used for an 'acha' beverage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates/analysis
  17. Adnyane IK, Zuki AB, Noordin MM, Agungpriyono S
    Anat Histol Embryol, 2010 Dec;39(6):516-20.
    PMID: 20682009 DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0264.2010.01023.x
    We investigated the histology and carbohydrate content of the parotid and mandibular glands of the barking deer (Muntiacus muntjak). Three adult males were used. Paraffin wax sections of the glands were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (HE), alcian blue (AB), pH 2.5 and periodic acid Schiff (PAS). The acinar cells of the parotid gland were serous, whereas those of the mandibular gland were of the mixed type. The acini of the mandibular gland comprised serous and mucous cells with the mucous type predominating. AB and PAS staining showed high concentrations of acidic and neutral carbohydrates in the mucous cells, but not in the serous cells of the mandibular gland. These carbohydrates were also found in moderate-to-high concentrations in the secreted material in the mandibular duct lumen. However, these carbohydrates were not found in acinar cells of the parotid gland or in the serous cells of the mandibular gland. Thus, carbohydrates in the saliva of the barking deer appear to be produced mainly by the mucous cells of the mandibular glands.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates/analysis*
  18. Noor Aziah AA, Komathi CA
    J Food Sci, 2009 Sep;74(7):S328-33.
    PMID: 19895499 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01298.x
    This study was intended to investigate the potential of peeled and unpeeled pumpkin pulp as a raw material for the production of flour that could be used in composite blend with wheat flour or as a functional ingredient in food products. The peeled and unpeeled pumpkin pulp were soaked in sodium metabisulphite solution, sliced and dried overnight in a hot air oven, followed by milling into peeled pumpkin pulp flour (PPPF) and unpeeled pumpkin pulp flour (UPPF), respectively. The flours were then evaluated for physicochemical attributes (color, proximate compositions, and water activity) and functional properties (water holding capacity and oil holding capacity), in comparison to the commercial wheat flour. PPPF and UPPF were observed to be more attractive in terms of color than wheat flour, as indicated by the significantly higher results (P or= 0.05) was shown in water holding capacity of PPPF and wheat flour. However, the oil holding capacity of PPPF and UPPF was shown to be significantly higher (P
    Matched MeSH terms: Dietary Carbohydrates/analysis
  19. Lay MM, Karsani SA, Banisalam B, Mohajer S, Abd Malek SN
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:410184.
    PMID: 24818141 DOI: 10.1155/2014/410184
    In recent years, the utilization of certain medicinal plants as therapeutic agents has drastically increased. Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl is frequently used in traditional medicine. The present investigation was undertaken with the purpose of developing pharmacopoeial standards for this species. Nutritional values such as ash, fiber, protein, fat, and carbohydrate contents were investigated, and phytochemical screenings with different reagents showed the presence of flavonoids, glycosides, saponin glycosides, phenolic compounds, steroids, tannins, and terpenoids. Our results also revealed that the water fraction had the highest antioxidant activity compared to the methanol extract and other fractions. The methanol and the fractionated extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water) of P. macrocarpa seeds were also investigated for their cytotoxic effects on selected human cancer cells lines (MCF-7, HT-29, MDA-MB231, Ca Ski, and SKOV-3) and a normal human fibroblast lung cell line (MRC-5). Information from this study can be applied for future pharmacological and therapeutic evaluations of the species, and may assist in the standardization for quality, purity, and sample identification. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the phytochemical screening and cytotoxic effect of the crude and fractionated extracts of P. macrocarpa seeds on selected cells lines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates/analysis
  20. Hakim MA, Juraimi AS, Hanafi MM, Ismail MR, Selamat A, Rafii MY, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:208584.
    PMID: 24579076 DOI: 10.1155/2014/208584
    Five Malaysian rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties, MR33, MR52, MR211, MR219, and MR232, were tested in pot culture under different salinity regimes for biochemical response, physiological activity, and grain yield. Three different levels of salt stresses, namely, 4, 8, and 12 dS m(-1), were used in a randomized complete block design with four replications under glass house conditions. The results revealed that the chlorophyll content, proline, sugar content, soluble protein, free amino acid, and yield per plant of all the genotypes were influenced by different salinity levels. The chlorophyll content was observed to decrease with salinity level but the proline increased with salinity levels in all varieties. Reducing sugar and total sugar increased up to 8 dS m(-1) and decreased up to 12 dS m(-1). Nonreducing sugar decreased with increasing the salinity levels in all varieties. Soluble protein and free amino acid also decreased with increasing salinity levels. Cortical cells of MR211 and MR232 did not show cell collapse up to 8 dS m(-1) salinity levels compared to susceptible checks (IR20 and BRRI dhan29). Therefore, considering all parameters, MR211 and MR232 showed better salinity tolerance among the tested varieties. Both cluster and principal component analyses depict the similar results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carbohydrates/analysis
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