Twelve single locus trinucleotide microsatellite markers were developed to characterize the Asian river catfish, Mystus nemurus, an important food fish in South East Asia. They were obtained by using a rapid method namely the 5' anchored PCR enrichment protocol. The specific primers were designed to flank the repeat sequences and these were subsequently used to characterize 90 unrelated fish from Malaysia. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 (MnVj2-281) to 12 (MnBp8-4-43b) while the levels of heterozygosity ranged from 0.0444 (MnVj2-1-19) to 0.7458 (MnVj2-291).
Basa catfish is a good source for fish oil extraction, which was believed to have good thermo-oxidative stability because of its similar fatty acid composition to that of palm olein (PO). The thermo-oxidative stability of PO, basa catfish oil (FO), and palm olein-basa fish oil blend (PO-FO; ratio 1:1) was evaluated after 75 frying cycles. No significant difference was observed in p-anisidine value, TOTOX value, conjugated trienes, monomeric oxidized triacylglycerols, and free fatty acids concentration after frying. Moreover, compared to PO, FO exhibited lighter color, lower acid value, conjugated dienes, polymerized triacylglycerol, and total polar content. The PO-FO blend also demonstrated a more favorable frying stability compared to the other two frying systems. These findings indicated that FO could be proposed as a promising alternative to common PO, and its blending with other vegetable oils at an appropriate ratio might improve the overall oil frying quality for future industrial applications.
Acute toxicity (96 h LC50) of phenol was analyzed in the cat fish Mystus vittatus in static bio-assay over a 96-h exposure period using probit method. The 24, 48, 72, and 96 h LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) of phenol for fingerling catfish were found out as 13.98, 13.17, 12.62, and 12.21 mg/l respectively. Investigations pertaining to the histopathological sections have shown high degree of pathological lesions observed in various parts like gill, liver intestine, and kidney of the fish species. Analysis of gill section revealed observable changes in the experimental species such as fusion, malformation at the tip of secondary lamellae, vacuolation, hyperplasia, and epithelial damage. Exposure of phenol showed cytoplasmic vacuolation, tissue damage, and loss of hepatic cell wall in the liver of experimental organism. Lesions of tissue damage at the epithelial site, inflammation, and clumping of adjacent villi made of columnar epithelium have been observed in the intestine of fish, and also the excretory part of the fish kidney revealed various changes like glomerular atrophy, damage of Bowman's capsule, vacuolization, and degeneration of renal epithelium. The current study on histological changes observed in the experimental organisms has thrown light on the current scenario which poses threat and danger to the whole aquatic ecosystem, and this study plays a vital role in assessing the aquatic pollution.
Pig (Sus sp.) and pig by-products are considered as najasa (impurities) in Islam and forbidden in Muslim consumer products. Animals fed on najasa are categorised as al-jallālah (contaminated animals) which are allowed to be consumed as long as they have been quarantined for a certain period of time. During this quarantine period the animals will have undergone a natural purification process or istihālah. African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) are commonly consumed in Malaysia and may be fed on najasa. This study was carried out to estimate the istihālah period for catfish after feeding with pig offal, based on the absence of pig DNA in catfish gut and to suggest the quarantine period in catfish fed with pig offal. The results indicated that the maximum istihālah period could reach 36h in the stomach, 6h in the midgut and less than 2h in the hindgut although in many cases shorter periods were observed. Based on these results it is estimated that the minimum quarantine period for catfish fed with pig offal is 1.5days.
Breeding and larval performance of novel hybrids from reciprocal crosses of Asian catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878) and African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) were investigated in this study. Spawning was by hormonal injection of brood fish, artificial fertilization, and incubation in triplicate aquarium tanks (0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 m3) with continuous aeration. Reciprocal crosses (♀C. gariepinus × ♂P. hypophthalmus and ♀P. hypophthalmus × ♂C. gariepinus) had lower hatchability (≤50%) than their pure siblings (≥75%). Fish from all crosses survived until the juvenile stage but survival at 35 days post hatching (dph) was higher for pure C. gariepinus sib. ♀C. gariepinus × ♂P. hypophthalmus was observed to be less resistant to degradation of water quality than the other crosses, however it had higher body weight compared with the other crosses that showed similar performance. Morphological comparison of surviving juvenile at 35 dph, showed that all ♀P. hypophthalmus × ♂C. gariepinus and 13% of the ♀C. gariepinus × ♂P. hypophthalmus exhibited the very same morphology as that of their maternal parent species, while the other portion of the ♀C. gariepinus × ♂P. hypophthalmus cross exhibited morphological traits that were intermediate between those of both parent species. This study been the first successful attempt to hybridize both species and therefore, laid the groundwork for further studies on the aquaculture potentials of the novel hybrids.
This study investigated the use of electric-shock in inducing triploidy in African catfish Clarias gariepinus. To achieve this, three voltages (9, 12, 21 V) were applied for different durations (3, 5, 10 min). The shock was initiated approximately three minutes after fertilization followed by incubation in ambient temperature. After incubation, hatchability and survival rates were determined while ploidy status of the treatment fishes was confirmed in one-month-old fingerlings using the exclusive triploid range of the erythrocyte major axis previously reported for the same species (11.9-14.9 μm) and by cytogenetic analysis of the chromosome. The results showed triploidy were achieved in 10 to 85% of the treatment groups. A consistent trend of decrease in hatchability and an increase in triploidy rate was observed with increased electroporation voltages and shock durations. The mean erythrocyte major axis length of triploid progenies (3n = 84) was observed to be between 11.3-14.6 μm and was higher than the range of 7.0-10.5 μm recorded for diploid progenies (2n = 56). It was concluded that electric shock can be used to induce triploidy in African catfish C. gariepinus.
The present study documents the isolation of eight polymorphic microsatellite markers from the bighead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus and cross-amplification in two other catfish species. The number of alleles per locus in C. macrocephalus ranged from 2 to 21. The most polymorphic locus was NCm-G12 with 21 alleles while the least polymorphic locus was NCm-H2 with only two alleles. Locus NCm-F8 significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P value <0.05) after Bonferroni correction. Linkage disequilibrium was non-significant in all loci comparisons. The observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.033 to 0.967 and from 0.033 to 0.942, respectively. Mean polymorphic information content for the eight loci was 0.765. Cross-amplification was successfully performed with two other catfish species, C. batrachus and C. meladerma for all eight loci. Locus NCm-D8 was monomorphic in both species while NCm-F8 was monomorphic only in C. batrachus. These newly developed markers would be useful for better management and conservation of the economically important C. macrocephalus species.
The river catfish Mystus nemurus is an important fresh water species for aquaculture in Malaysia. We report the first genetic linkage map of M. nemurus based on segregation analysis and a linkage map using newly developed microsatellite markers of M. nemurus. A total of 70 of the newly developed polymorphic DNA microsatellite markers were analyzed on pedigrees generated using a pseudo-testcross strategy from 2 mapping families. In the first mapping family, 100 offspring were produced from randomly selected dams of the same populations; dams of the second family were selected from 2 different populations, and this family had 50 offspring. Thirty-one of the 70 markers segregated according to the Mendelian segregation ratio. Linkage analysis revealed that 17 microsatellite markers belonging to 7 linkage groups were obtained at a logarithm of the odds score of 1.2 spanning 584 cM by the Kosambi mapping function, whereas the other 14 remained unlinked. The results from this study will act as primer to a more extensive genetic mapping study aimed towards identifying genetic loci involved in determining economically important traits.
Influence of waterborne butachlor (BUC), a commonly used pesticide, on morphometric, biochemical, and molecular biomarkers was evaluated in juvenile, full sibling, diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed for 21 days to one of three concentrations of BUC [mean measured µg/L: 22, 44 or 60]. Unexposed (control) triploids were heavier and longer and had higher visceral-somatic index (VSI) than diploids. Also, they had lighter liver weight (HSI) and showed lower transcript levels of brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), aromatase (cyp191b) and fushi tarazu-factor (ftz-f1), and plasma testosterone levels than diploids. Butachlor treatments had no effects, in either diploid or triploid fish, on VSI, HSI, weight or length changes, condition factor (CF), levels of plasma testosterone, 17-β estradiol (E2), cortisol, cholesterol, or mRNA levels of brain tryptophan hydroxylase (tph2), forkhead box L2 (foxl2), and 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-hsd2). Expressions of cyp191b and ftz-f1 in triploids were upregulated by the two highest concentrations of BUC. In diploid fish, however, exposures to all BUC concentrations decreased GnRH transcription and the medium BUC concentration decreased ftz-f1 transcription. Substantial differences between ploidies in basal biomarker responses are consistent with the reported impaired reproductive axis in triploid C. gariepinus. Furthermore, the present study showed the low impact of short term exposure to BUC on reproductive axis in C. gariepinus.
Samples of grey eel catfish Plotosus canius were collected from the coastal waters of Port Dickson, Malaysia from January to December, 2012. A total of 341 specimens (172 males and 169 females) were used to estimate the length-weight relationship parameters. Mean population size of females were 0.72 cm taller than the males, however difference was not significant (t-test, P > 0.05). The overall relationship equations between total length (TL) and body weight (BW) were established for males as Log TW = 2.71 Log TL - 1.85 (R2 = 0.95) and for females as Log TW = 2.88 Log TL-2.10 (R2 = 0.95). The estimated relative growth co-efficient (b) values were 2.71 for males and 2.88 for females. It is revealed that growth pattern of the species showed negative allometry. In both males and females, relationship between TL and SL gave highest regression coefficient (0.99). While relationship between TL and EL gave lowest regression coefficient in both males and females (0.87 and 0.81 respectively). The findings from this study contributed first information on morphometric relations of the fish from Malaysian coastal waters and could be useful for sustainable management options of P. canius in Malaysia.
The nutritional value of Jatropha curcas kernel (JCK) can be improved through different processing methods; however, when using a thermal treatment, optimization of the process is needed to prevent denaturation of nutrients. In this study, JCK was toasted for varying durations (0, 10, 20, and 30 min) and nutritionally evaluated. The implication of feeding Clarias gariepinus with dietary inclusions (35% CP; 315 kcal g-1) of the toasted JCK was also reported. The results obtained suggest that prolonged duration of toasting improved the nutritional characteristics of the JCK until the 20th min. Beyond this time, the protein content and essential amino acids are reduced. However, the antinutrients continuously decreased with prolonged processing. The growth, carcass analysis, and haematology of the fish groups fed toasted JCK at varying duration also did better than those fed raw JCK. Importantly, the performance tends to reduce for those fed JCK toasted beyond 20 min. The estimated cost of producing 1 kg of the fish also substantially reduced with feeding the processed JCK than feeding raw JCK. Histological examination of the intestine and liver tissues further revealed fewer signs of histopathological degeneration for fish-fed processed JCK compared to the control. It was concluded that the processing of JCK by toasting should not exceed 20 min to improve the nutritional composition of the feed ingredients and their dietary utilization by fish.
The genus Lichnofugia is reported for the first time from India with a description of Lichnofugia umshingensis sp. nov. from Shillong, Meghalaya. The distribution of Lichnofugia thus extends eastward from Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand to north- eastern India.
Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are considered among the most controversial biomarkers of water pollutants in fish with little known about factors influencing their activities. The objective of this study was to investigate how gender, dose, ploidy, and sampling time alter hepatic GST activities in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) following β-naphthoflavone (β-NF) injection. Newly matured male and female diploid and triploid fish were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with 0, 15, or 75 mg/kg of β-NF, and livers were excised 24, 48, and 72 h post-injection. Results showed that hepatic GST activities were significantly inhibited by both doses of β-NF. Inhibition was greater in females than males, but no significant differences were observed between diploid and triploid fish. Enzymatic activities differed over time with lowest levels 72 h post-injection. These results extend our understanding of GST activity in fish and highlight the necessity of considering confounding factors when comparing different studies.
Twenty-five traditional and thirty-four geometric morphometric comparisons were carried out on pure and reciprocal crosses of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878) and Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Thirty fish samples each of the C. gariepinus (CH), P. hypophthalmus (PH), Pangapinus (♀PH × ♂CG) and the two distinct morphotypes of the Clariothalmus (♀CG × ♂PH) (Clarias-like and Panga-like) between the ages of four and six months were used for this study. Phenotypically, the Clarias-like Clariothalmus and the Pangapinus progenies were indistinguishable from their maternal parents while the Panga-like Clariothalmus was a phenotypic intermediary of the putative parents but looks more closely to the paternal parent. Hence, both univariate proportion and multivariate analysis of the collected data successfully separated the different fishes into three multivariate spaces. The analysis of the dendrogram with complete linkage and Euclidean distance further showed the close relationship of the isolated Panga-like Clariothalmus progenies to the paternal parent, however, Clarias-like Clariothalmus and the Pangapinus were completely intermingled with their maternal parents. The most important index of discrimination of these fishes into different multivariate spaces was the fin characteristic which showed 100% exclusive ranges for the individual groups in many cases.
Ariid catfishes, belong to family Ariidae is considered as one of the taxonomically problematic groups, which is still under review by fish taxonomist globally. Species level identification of some ariids often resulted in species misidentification because of their complex characters and very similar morphological characters within genera. A vigilant and detail observation is very important during the species level identification of ariid species. In these contexts, this study was carried out in order to determine the morphological variations of one of the ariid genera, Plicofollis, which have been giving misleading taxonomic information in the south-east Asian countries. A Truss network technique was used throughout the study period. The study was conducted based on 20 truss measurements using 22 to 23 specimens per species, namely P. argyropleuron, P. nella and P. tenuispinis found in Peninsular Malaysian waters. Morphological variations were determined using a multivariate technique of discriminant function analysis (DFA). The results obtained in this study showed that discriminant analysis using truss network measurements has produced very clear separations of all the species in Plicofollis group. Several important morphological characters have been identified, which represent body depth and caudal regions of the fish. The documentary evidences of these variables could be considered as the constructive functional features, which could enable us to assess more accurately to distinguish the species within this complex Ariidae family.
Scanty information exists pertaining to the length-weight relationship (LWR) and length-length relationship (LLR) parameters of longsnouted catfish, Plicofollis argyropleuron in lotic systems throughout the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia. It is vital to reveal these biological properties of P. argyropleuron in Kuala Muda and Merbok estuary for future management and to increase knowledge about this fish stocks. The fish samples were randomly collected in the estuary area of Kuala Muda and Merbok, Kedah for 10 months from March 2009 to December 2009. The values of the exponent b in the LWR equations (W = aL(b) ) were approximately 3, indicating an isometric growth with high correlation coefficient (r(2)). The value of LLR (r(2)>0.9) indicated that they are highly significant and highly correlated. These parameters are essential for evaluating the relative condition of fish and species managements as well as their fisheries and stock assessment.
The body characteristics and yield indices of Clarias gariepinus, Bagrus bajad, Synodontis nigrita, Labeo senegalensis and Mormyrus rume from lower Benue River in Nigeria were determined in this study using 60 samples each for the fish species. Length, weight and fillet correlations were also determined during the study. Results obtained showed that M. rume, L. senegalensis and C. gariepinus had the highest percentage of edible parts (≥ 55%) compared to the other species (≤ 39%). Concerning correlations of the fillet with the morphological variables, results obtained suggest that fillet yield is independent of fish size (except for C. gariepinus which was positively correlated). Also, only samples of L. senegalensis showed isometric growth pattern; the other fish species had either positive (C. gariepinus and B. bajad) or negative (S. nigrita and M. rume) allometric growth. While the difference in fillet yield and body characteristics was attributed to the structural anatomy and other biological dynamics of the fishes, this study could not establish a connection between fillet yield and the length-weight relationship. It was concluded that M. rume, L. senegalensis and C. gariepinus would be better export products because of their higher fillet yields.
Peripheral vascular injuries result from penetrating or blunt trauma to the extremities. We describe here an unusual cause of a radial artery injury by the spine from the pectoral fin of Pangasius sutchi in a 51 year-old man and we review the literature.
In general, African catfish shows higher survival rates in the dark conditions than in the light conditions. In this study, larval behavior of African catfish was observed under 0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 lx using a CCD camera to investigate the reason why African catfish larvae show higher survival rates in dark conditions. The larvae showed significantly higher swimming activity under 0, 0.01, and 0.1 lx than that under 10 and 100 lx. The larvae also showed significantly increased aggressive behavior under 10 and 100 lx; the swimming larvae attacked resting individuals more frequently under 10 and 100 lx than under 0, 0.01, and 0.1 lx. The aggressive behavior and sharp teeth of the attacking larvae appeared to induce skin surface lesions on injured larvae. Chemical substances were then generated from the injured skin surface, and these chemical stimuli triggered cannibalistic behavior in other fish near the injured fish. The results of this study demonstrate that the higher survival rates of African catfish larvae under dark conditions are a result of inactivity and subsequent increase in chemical releasing stimuli concentrations around inactive individuals that triggers feeding behavior in nearby active catfish. Therefore, we recommend larval rearing of African catfish in dark or dim conditions, as it improves catfish survival rates.
The Pangasius sutchi is an important ornamental and economic fish in Southeast Asia e.g. Thailand, Malaysia and China. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. sutchi has been sequenced, which contains 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and a non-coding control region with the total length of 16,522 bp. The gene order and composition are similar to most of other vertebrates. Just like most other vertebrates, the bias of G and C was found in different region/genes statistics results. Most of the genes are encoded on heavy strand, except for eight tRNA and ND6 genes. The mitogenome sequence of P. sutchi would contribute to better understand population genetics, evolution of this lineage.