Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 62 in total

  1. Gou Z, Ma NL, Zhang W, Lei Z, Su Y, Sun C, et al.
    Environ Res, 2020 09;188:109829.
    PMID: 32798948 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109829
    Intensive studies have been performed on the improvement of bioethanol production by transformation of lignocellulose biomass. In this study, the digestibility of corn stover was dramatically improved by using laccase immobilized on Cu2+ modified recyclable magnetite nanoparticles, Fe3O4-NH2. After digestion, the laccase was efficiently separated from slurry. The degradation rate of lignin reached 40.76%, and the subsequent cellulose conversion rate 38.37% for 72 h at 35 °C with cellulase at 50 U g-1 of corn stover. Compared to those of free and inactivated mode, the immobilized laccase pre-treatment increased subsequent cellulose conversion rates by 23.98% and 23.34%, respectively. Moreover, the reusability of immobilized laccase activity remained 50% after 6 cycles. The storage and thermal stability of the fixed laccase enhanced by 70% and 24.1% compared to those of free laccase at 65 °C, pH 4.5, respectively. At pH 10.5, it exhibited 16.3% more activities than its free mode at 35 °C. Our study provides a new avenue for improving the production of bioethanol with immobilized laccase for delignification using corn stover as the starting material.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulase*
  2. Ezeilo UR, Lee CT, Huyop F, Zakaria II, Wahab RA
    J Environ Manage, 2019 Aug 01;243:206-217.
    PMID: 31096173 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.04.113
    Production of cellulases and xylanase by a novel Trichoderma asperellum UC1 (GenBank accession no. MF774876) under solid state fermentation (SSF) of raw oil palm frond leaves (OPFL) was optimized. Under optimum fermentation parameters (30 °C, 60-80% moisture content, 2.5 × 106 spores/g inoculum size) maximum CMCase, FPase, β-glucosidase and xylanase activity were recorded at 136.16 IU/g, 26.03 U/g, 130.09 IU/g and 255.01 U/g, respectively. Cellulases and xylanase were produced between a broad pH range of pH 6.0-12.0. The enzyme complex that comprised of four endo-β-1,4-xylanases and endoglucanases, alongside exoglucanase and β-glucosidase showed thermophilic and acidophilic characteristics at 50-60 °C and pH 3.0-4.0, respectively. Glucose (16.87 mg/g) and fructose (18.09 mg/g) were among the dominant sugar products from the in situ hydrolysis of OPFL, aside from cellobiose (105.92 mg/g) and xylose (1.08 mg/g). Thermal and pH stability tests revealed that enzymes CMCase, FPase, β-glucosidase and xylanase retained 50% residual activities for up to 15.18, 4.06, 17.47 and 15.16 h of incubation at 60 °C, as well as 64.59, 25.14, 68.59 and 19.20 h at pH 4.0, respectively. Based on the findings, it appeared that the unique polymeric structure of raw OPFL favored cellulases and xylanase productions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulase*
  3. Sulaiman AZ, Ajit A, Chisti Y
    Biotechnol Prog, 2013 Nov-Dec;29(6):1448-57.
    PMID: 23926080 DOI: 10.1002/btpr.1786
    A recombinant Trichoderma reesei cellulase was used for the ultrasound-mediated hydrolysis of soluble carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and insoluble cellulose of various particle sizes. The hydrolysis was carried out at low intensity sonication (2.4-11.8 W cm(-2) sonication power at the tip of the sonotrode) using 10, 20, and 40% duty cycles. [A duty cycle of 10%, for example, was obtained by sonicating for 1 s followed by a rest period (no sonication) of 9 s.] The reaction pH and temperature were always 4.8 and 50°C, respectively. In all cases, sonication enhanced the rate of hydrolysis relative to nonsonicated controls. The hydrolysis of CMC was characterized by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The Michaelis-Menten parameter of the maximum reaction rate Vmax was enhanced by sonication relative to controls, but the value of the saturation constant Km was reduced. The optimal sonication conditions were found to be a 10% duty cycle and a power intensity of 11.8 W cm(-2) . Under these conditions, the maximum rate of hydrolysis of soluble CMC was nearly double relative to control. In the hydrolysis of cellulose, an increasing particle size reduced the rate of hydrolysis. At any fixed particle size, sonication at a 10% duty cycle and 11.8 W cm(-2) power intensity improved the rate of hydrolysis relative to control. Under the above mentioned optimal sonication conditions, the enzyme lost about 20% of its initial activity in 20 min. Sonication was useful in accelerating the enzyme catalyzed saccharification of cellulose.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulase/chemistry*
  4. Ong LG, Abd-Aziz S, Noraini S, Karim MI, Hassan MA
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2004 8 12;118(1-3):73-9.
    PMID: 15304740
    The oil palm sector is one of the major plantation industries in Malaysia. Palm kernel cake is a byproduct of extracted palm kernel oil. Mostly palm kernel cake is wasted or is mixed with other nutrients and used as animal feed, especially for ruminant animals. Recently, palm kernel cake has been identified as an important ingredient for the formulation of animal feed, and it is also exported especially to Europe, South Korea, and Japan. It can barely be consumed by nonruminant (monogastric) animals owing to the high percentages of hemicellulose and cellulose contents. Palm kernel cake must undergo suitable pretreatment in order to decrease the percentage of hemicellulose and cellulose. One of the methods employed in this study is fermentation with microorganisms, particularly fungi, to partially degrade the hemicellulose and cellulose content. This work focused on the production of enzymes by Aspergillus niger and profiling using palm kernel cake as carbon source.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulase/metabolism
  5. Wang M, Han L, Liu S, Zhao X, Yang J, Loh SK, et al.
    Biotechnol J, 2015 Sep;10(9):1424-33.
    PMID: 26121186 DOI: 10.1002/biot.201400723
    Renewable energy from lignocellulosic biomass has been deemed an alternative to depleting fossil fuels. In order to improve this technology, we aim to develop robust mathematical models for the enzymatic lignocellulose degradation process. By analyzing 96 groups of previously published and newly obtained lignocellulose saccharification results and fitting them to Weibull distribution, we discovered Weibull statistics can accurately predict lignocellulose saccharification data, regardless of the type of substrates, enzymes and saccharification conditions. A mathematical model for enzymatic lignocellulose degradation was subsequently constructed based on Weibull statistics. Further analysis of the mathematical structure of the model and experimental saccharification data showed the significance of the two parameters in this model. In particular, the λ value, defined the characteristic time, represents the overall performance of the saccharification system. This suggestion was further supported by statistical analysis of experimental saccharification data and analysis of the glucose production levels when λ and n values change. In conclusion, the constructed Weibull statistics-based model can accurately predict lignocellulose hydrolysis behavior and we can use the λ parameter to assess the overall performance of enzymatic lignocellulose degradation. Advantages and potential applications of the model and the λ value in saccharification performance assessment were discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulase/metabolism*
  6. Zakaria MR, Hirata S, Fujimoto S, Hassan MA
    Bioresour Technol, 2015 Oct;193:128-34.
    PMID: 26125612 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.06.074
    Combined pretreatment with hot compressed water and wet disk milling was performed with the aim to reduce the natural recalcitrance of oil palm biomass by opening its structure and provide maximal access to cellulase attack. Oil palm empty fruit bunch and oil palm frond fiber were first hydrothermally pretreated at 150-190° C and 10-240 min. Further treatment with wet disk milling resulted in nanofibrillation of fiber which caused the loosening of the tight biomass structure, thus increasing the subsequent enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose. The effectiveness of the combined pretreatments was evaluated by chemical composition changes, power consumption, morphological alterations by SEM and the enzymatic digestibility of treated samples. At optimal pretreatment process, approximately 88.5% and 100.0% of total sugar yields were obtained from oil palm empty fruit bunch and oil palm frond fiber samples, which only consumed about 15.1 and 23.5 MJ/kg of biomass, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulase/chemistry
  7. Lee KC, Tong WY, Ibrahim D, Arai T, Murata Y, Mori Y, et al.
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2017 Jan;181(1):451-463.
    PMID: 27596245 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-016-2223-4
    Application of microbial enzymes for paper deinking is getting tremendous attention due to the rapidly increasing of waste paper every year. This study reports the deinking efficiency of laser-printed paper by the lignocellulolytic enzyme from Penicillium rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL strain compared to other enzyme sources as well as commercial available enzymes. High enzymatic deinking efficiency of approximately 82 % on laser-printed paper was obtained by pulp treatment with crude enzyme from P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL. However, this crude enzyme was found to reduce the paper strength properties of the pulp based on the results of tensile, tear and burst indices, most probably due to the cellulose degradation. This was further proven by the low viscosity of paper pulp obtained after enzymatic treatment and increasing of sugar production during the treatment. Balancing to this detrimental effect on paper pulp, high deinking efficiency was achieved within a short period of time, in which the enzymatic treatment was conducted for 30 min that enabled contribution to higher brightness index obtained, thus promoting savings of time and energy consumption, therefore environmental sustainability. Extensive research should be conducted to understand the nature and mechanism of enzymatic deinking process by the crude enzyme from P. rolfsii c3-2(1) IBRL in order to improve paper strength properties.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulase/chemistry
  8. Chan YW, Acquah C, Obeng EM, Dullah EC, Jeevanandam J, Ongkudon CM
    Biochimie, 2019 Feb;157:204-212.
    PMID: 30513369 DOI: 10.1016/j.biochi.2018.11.019
    Biocarriers are pivotal in enhancing the reusability of biocatalyst that would otherwise be less economical for industrial application. Ever since the induction of enzymatic technology, varied materials have been assessed for their biocompatibility with enzymes of distinct functionalities. Herein, cellulase was immobilized onto polymethacrylate particles (ICP) as the biocarrier grafted with ethylenediamine (EDA) and glutaraldehyde (GA). Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was used as a model substrate for activity assay. Enzyme immobilization loading was determined by quantifying the dry weight differential of ICP (pre-& post-immobilization). Cellulase was successfully demonstrated to be anchored upon ICP and validated by FTIR spectra analysis. The optimal condition for cellulase immobilization was determined to be pH 6 at 20 °C. The maximum CMCase activity was achieved at pH 5 and 50 °C. Residual activity of ∼50% was retained after three iterations and dipped to ∼18% on following cycle. Also, ICP displayed superior pH adaptability as compared to free cellulase. The specific activity of ICP was 65.14 ± 1.11% relative to similar amount of free cellulase.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulase/chemistry*
  9. Zakaria MR, Hirata S, Fujimoto S, Ibrahim I, Hassan MA
    Bioresour Technol, 2016 Jan;200:541-7.
    PMID: 26524253 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.10.075
    Oil palm mesocarp fiber was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The pretreated slurries were separated by filtration, pretreated liquids and solids were characterized. An enzymatic digestibility study was performed for both pretreated slurries and solids to understand the effect of soluble inhibitors generated during the pretreatment process. The highest glucose yield obtained from pretreated slurries was 70.1%, and gradually decreased with higher pretreatment severities. The highest glucose yield obtained in pretreated solids was 100%, after pretreatment at 210°C for 20min. In order to study the inhibitory effects of compounds generated during pretreatment with cellulase, technical grade solutions that mimic the pretreated liquid were prepared and their effect on Acremonium cellulase activity was monitored using Avicel. Xylo-oligomers and tannic acid were identified as powerful inhibitors of Acremonium cellulase, and the lowest hydrolysis rate of Avicel of 0.18g/g-glucose released/L/h was obtained from tannic acid.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulase
  10. Lee CK, Darah I, Ibrahim C
    Sains Malaysiana, 2017;46:1249-1257.
    FERMSOSTAT is a developed laboratory scale solid state fermenter. It is a horizontal stirrer drum bioreactor with about 70 L capacities. The fermenter is made of stainless steel which is anti-corrosive and non-toxic to the process organism. The fermenter is equipped with sets of control systems for temperature, agitation, aeration and also outlets for substrate sampling as well as inlets for inoculation and substrate additions. The uniqueness of this FERMSOSTAT system is its ability to carry out in situ substrate sterilization and extraction of enzymes at the end of SSF process. Moreover, the mixing system provided by FERMSOSTAT can be performed either full or half mixing as well as forward or reverse mixing. Furthermore, the mixing can be programmed to run at certain agitation rate and time interval during the fermentation process to prevent or reduce damage to the fungus mycelia. FERMSOSTAT is a developed SSF bioreactor and not an improvement of any existing one. The performances of FERMSOSTAT have been evaluated. Under optimum solid state fermentation conditions, about 63.4, 397 and 3.21 U/g of CMCase, xylanase and FPase activities were detected, which were higher compared to the tray system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulase
  11. Hammed, A. M., Jaswir, I., Simsek, S., Alam, Z., Amid, A.
    This study involves extraction of sulfated polysaccahride (SP) from brown seaweed (Turbinaria turbinata). Eight processing conditions affecting enzyme aided extraction (EAE) were screened using Plackett-Burman design. Three significant factors (hydrolysis time, enzyme concentration and extraction stage) were optimized using Faced Centred Central Composite Design in Random Surface Methods. Micrograph obtained using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed that cellulase degradation ruptured the seaweed cell matrix thus caused increase in the release of SP. The optimum conditions for extraction of SP from T. turbinata are: extraction stage of 2, hydrolysis time of 19.5 h and enzyme concentration of 1.5 μl/ml to produce 25.13% yield. The SP obtained from cellulase treated T. turbinata is a suitable anti-inflammatory agent for pharmaceutical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulase
  12. Bahrin EK, Ibrahim MF, Abd Razak MN, Abd-Aziz S, Shah UK, Alitheen N, et al.
    Prep Biochem Biotechnol, 2012;42(2):155-70.
    PMID: 22394064 DOI: 10.1080/10826068.2011.585413
    The response surface method was applied in this study to improve cellulase production from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) by Botryosphaeria rhodina. An experimental design based on a two-level factorial was employed to screen the significant environmental factors for cellulase production. The locally isolated fungus Botryosphaeria rhodina was cultivated on OPEFB under solid-state fermentation (SSF). From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the initial moisture content, amount of substrate, and initial pH of nutrient supplied in the SSF system significantly influenced cellulase production. Then the optimization of the variables was done using the response surface method according to central composite design (CCD). Botryosphaeria rhodina exhibited its best performance with a high predicted value of FPase enzyme production (17.95 U/g) when the initial moisture content was at 24.32%, initial pH of nutrient was 5.96, and 3.98 g of substrate was present. The statistical optimization from actual experiment resulted in a significant increment of FPase production from 3.26 to 17.91 U/g (5.49-fold). High cellulase production at low moisture content is a very rare condition for fungi cultured in solid-state fermentation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulase/isolation & purification; Cellulase/metabolism*
  13. Zainudin MHM, Mustapha NA, Hassan MA, Bahrin EK, Tokura M, Yasueda H, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 09 19;9(1):13526.
    PMID: 31537863 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-50126-y
    A thermophilic Thermobifida fusca strain UPMC 901, harboring highly thermostable cellulolytic activity, was successfully isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch compost. Its endoglucanase had the highest activity at 24 hours of incubation in carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC) and filter paper. A maximum endoglucanase activity of 0.9 U/mL was achieved at pH 5 and 60 °C using CMC as a carbon source. The endoglucanase properties were further characterized using crude enzyme preparations from the culture supernatant. Thermal stability indicated that the endoglucanase activity was highly stable at 70 °C for 24 hours. Furthermore, the activity was found to be completely maintained without any loss at 50 °C and 60 °C for 144 hours, making it the most stable than other endoglucanases reported in the literature. The high stability of the endoglucanase at an elevated temperature for a prolonged period of time makes it a suitable candidate for the biorefinery application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulase/isolation & purification*; Cellulase/metabolism*
  14. Abdul Karim MH, Lam MQ, Chen SJ, Yahya A, Shahir S, Shamsir MS, et al.
    Arch Microbiol, 2020 Nov;202(9):2591-2597.
    PMID: 32607725 DOI: 10.1007/s00203-020-01967-z
    To date, the genus Parvularcula consists of 6 species and no potential application of this genus was reported. Current study presents the genome sequence of Parvularcula flava strain NH6-79 T and its cellulolytic enzyme analysis. The assembled draft genome of strain NH6-79 T consists of 9 contigs and 7 scaffolds with 3.68 Mbp in size and GC content of 59.87%. From a total of 3,465 genes predicted, 96 of them are annotated as glycoside hydrolases (GHs). Within these GHs, 20 encoded genes are related to cellulosic biomass degradation, including 12 endoglucanases (5 GH10, 4 GH5, and 3 GH51), 2 exoglucanases (GH9) and 6 β-glucosidases (GH3). In addition, highest relative enzyme activities (endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase) were observed at 27th hour when the strain was cultured in the carboxymethyl cellulose/Avicel®-containing medium for 45 h. The combination of genome analysis with experimental studies indicated the ability of strain NH6-79 T to produce extracellular endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase. These findings suggest the potential of Parvularcula flava strain NH6-79 T in cellulose-containing biomass degradation and that the strain could be used in cellulosic biorefining process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulase/genetics; Cellulase/metabolism
  15. Asis A, Shahriar SA, Naher L, Saallah S, Fatihah HNN, Kumar V, et al.
    Mol Biol Rep, 2021 Apr;48(4):3285-3301.
    PMID: 33880673 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-021-06321-0
    Trichoderma is a genus of soil-borne fungus with an abundance of reports of its economic importance in the agriculture industry. Thus, the correct identification of Trichoderma species is necessary for its commercial purposes. Globally, Trichoderma species are routinely identified from micro-morphological descriptions which can be tedious and prone to errors. Thus, we emphasize that the accurate identification of Trichoderma strains requires a three-pronged approach i.e. based on its morphological characteristics, multilocus gene sequences of the rDNA [internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and 2 regions], translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF-1α), Calmodulin (CAL) and its lignocellulolytic activities. We used this approach to identify a total of 53 Trichoderma strains which were isolated from a wet paddy field located at Tuaran, Sabah, Malaysia. The 53 strains were positively identified as belonging to three Trichoderma species, namely T. asperellum (43 strains), T. harzianum (9 strains), and T. reesei (one strain) on the basis of its morphological characteristics and multilocus gene sequences. Phylogenetic trees constructed based on the UPGMA method of the ITS 1 and 2 regions of the rDNA, TEF-1α and CAL revealed three distinct groups with the T. asperellum, T. harzianum and T. reesei strains placed under the section of Trichoderma, Pachybasium and Longibrachiatum, respectively. In addition, the lignocellulolytic activities of the isolates were measured based on the diameters of the halo zones produced when degrading cellulose, lignin, and starch, respectively. This diagnostic assay can be used to identify Trichoderma as it produces polyphenol oxidase when Tannic Acid Media is used for the lignin test, endoglucanases when Jensen media is used for cellulose, and it hydrolyzes starch to glucose when the modified Melin-Nokrans media is used for the starch test. Accurate identification of Trichoderma species is needed as these strains can potentially be used as a biocontrol agent to prevent diseases and to increase yield in agriculture crops.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulase/genetics; Cellulase/metabolism*
  16. Shukor H, Abdeshahian P, Al-Shorgani NK, Hamid AA, Rahman NA, Kalil MS
    Bioresour Technol, 2016 Feb;202:206-13.
    PMID: 26710346 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.11.078
    In this work, hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose content of palm kernel cake (PKC) by different types of hydrolytic enzymes was studied to evaluate monomeric sugars released for production of biobutanol by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564) in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Experimental results revealed that when PKC was hydrolyzed by mixed β-glucosidase, cellulase and mannanase, a total simple sugars of 87.81±4.78 g/L were produced, which resulted in 3.75±0.18 g/L butanol and 6.44±0.43 g/L ABE at 168 h fermentation. In order to increase saccharolytic efficiency of enzymatic treatment, PKC was pretreated by liquid hot water before performing enzymatic hydrolysis. Test results showed that total reducing sugars were enhanced to 97.81±1.29 g/L with elevated production of butanol and ABE up to 4.15±1.18 and 7.12±2.06 g/L, respectively which represented an A:B:E ratio of 7:11:1.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulase
  17. Liew CY, Husaini A, Hussain H, Muid S, Liew KC, Roslan HA
    World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2011 Jun;27(6):1457-68.
    PMID: 25187145 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-010-0598-x
    White rot fungi are good lignin degraders and have the potential to be used in industry. In the present work, Phellinus sp., Daedalea sp., Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus coccineus were selected due to their relatively high ligninolytic enzyme activity, and grown on Acacia mangium wood chips under solid state fermentation. Results obtained showed that manganese peroxidase produced is far more compared to lignin peroxidase, suggesting that MnP might be the predominating enzymes causing lignin degradation in Acacia mangium wood chips. Cellulase enzyme assays showed that no significant cellulase activity was detected in the enzyme preparation of T. versicolor and Phellinus sp. This low cellulolytic activity further suggests that these two white rot strains are of more interest in lignin degradation. The results on lignin losses showed 20-30% of lignin breakdown at 60 days of biodegradation. The highest lignin loss was found in Acacia mangium biotreated with T. versicolor after 60 days and recorded 26.9%, corresponding to the percentage of their wood weight loss recorded followed by P. coccineus. In general, lignin degradation was only significant from 20 days onwards. The overall percentage of lignin weight loss was within the range of 1.02-26.90% over the biodegradation periods. Microscopic observations conducted using scanning electron microscope showed that T. versicolor, P. coccineus, Daedalea sp. and Phellinus sp. had caused lignin degradation in Acacia mangium wood chips.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulase
  18. Gunny AA, Arbain D, Jamal P, Gumba RE
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2015 Jul;22(4):476-83.
    PMID: 26150755 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2014.11.021
    Halophilic cellulases from the newly isolated fungus, Aspergillus terreus UniMAP AA-6 were found to be useful for in situ saccharification of ionic liquids treated lignocelluloses. Efforts have been taken to improve the enzyme production through statistical optimization approach namely Plackett-Burman design and the Face Centered Central Composite Design (FCCCD). Plackett-Burman experimental design was used to screen the medium components and process conditions. It was found that carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), FeSO4·7H2O, NaCl, MgSO4·7H2O, peptone, agitation speed and inoculum size significantly influence the production of halophilic cellulase. On the other hand, KH2PO4, KOH, yeast extract and temperature had a negative effect on enzyme production. Further optimization through FCCCD revealed that the optimization approach improved halophilic cellulase production from 0.029 U/ml to 0.0625 U/ml, which was approximately 2.2-times greater than before optimization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulase; Cellulases
  19. Eugene M. Obeng, Chan, Yi Wei, Siti Nurul Nadzirah Adam, Clarence M. Ongkudon
    Cellulases have been vital for the saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass into reduced sugars to produce biofuels and other essential biochemicals. However, the sugar yields achievable for canonical cellulases (i.e. endoglucanases, exoglucanases and β-glucosidases) have not been convincing in support of the highly acclaimed prospects and end-uses heralded. The persistent pursuit of the biochemical industry to obtain high quantities of useful chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass has resulted in the supplementation of cellulose-degrading enzymes with other biological complementation. Also, chemical additives (e.g. salts, surfactants and chelating agents) have been employed to enhance the stability and improve the binding and overall functionality of cellulases to increase product titre. Herein, we report the roadmap of cellulase-additive supplementations and the associated yield performances.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulase; Cellulases
  20. Yusof Nurhayati, Abdul Manaf Ali
    Many researchers have focused chitosan as a source of potential bioactive material during the past few decades. However, chitosan has several drawbacks to be utilised in biological applications, including poor solubility under physiological conditions. Therefore, a new interest has recently emerged on partially hydrolysed chitosan, chitosan oligosaccharides (COS). In this study, degradation of chitosan was performed by Cellulase from Trichoderma reesei® 1.5L and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) were employed to optimize the hydrolysis temperature, pH, enzyme concentration and substrate concentration. Optimization of cellulase T. reesei® using central composite design (CCD) was to obtain optimum parameters and all the factors showed significant effects (p˂0.05). The maximum response, Celluclast® activity (1.268 U) was obtained by assaying the process at 49.79oC, pH 4.5, 3% (v/w) of enzyme concentration and 25% (w/v) concentration of chitosan for 24 hours.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cellulase
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