Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 413 in total

  1. Bahrudin NN, Nawi MA, Zainal Z, Schneider R, Sabar S
    Water Sci Technol, 2020 Aug;82(3):454-467.
    PMID: 32960791 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2020.349
    Many attempts have been made to improve the photocatalytic performance of immobilized photocatalysts for large-scale applications by modification of the photocatalyst properties. In this work, immobilized bilayer photocatalyst composed of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and chitosan-montmorillonite (CS-MT) were prepared in a layer-by-layer arrangement supported on glass substrate. This arrangement allows a simultaneous occurrence of adsorption and photocatalysis processes of pollutants, whereby each layer could be independently modified and controlled to acquire the desired degree of occurring processes. It was found that the addition of MT clay within the CS composite sub-layer improved the mechanical strength of CS, reduced its swelling and shifted its absorption threshold to higher wavelengths. In addition, the band gap energy of the photocatalyst was also reduced to 2.93 eV. The immobilized TiO2/CS-MT exhibited methyl orange (MO) decolourization rate of 0.071 min-1 under light irradiation, which is better than the single TiO2 due to the synergistic processes of adsorption by CS-MT and photocatalysis by TiO2 layer. The MO dye took 6 h to achieve complete mineralization and produced sulfate and nitrate ions as the by-products. Furthermore, the immobilized TiO2/CS-MT could be reused for at least ten cycles of application without significant loss of its activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan*
  2. Abbas KF, Tawfik H, Hashem AAR, Ahmed HMA, Abu-Seida AM, Refai HM
    Aust Endod J, 2020 Dec;46(3):405-414.
    PMID: 32783325 DOI: 10.1111/aej.12426
    This study aimed to assess regenerative treatment protocols for maturogenesis of immature teeth with apical periodontitis in dogs. Apical periodontitis was induced in immature premolars of 8 mongrel dogs teeth that were divided into 5 groups; regeneration via blood clotting (REG group); chitosan loaded with demineralised bone matrix (REG-CD group); chitosan loaded with dexamethazone corticosteroid (REG-CC group); and positive and negative control groups. All groups showed comparable apical hard tissue formation and significantly different from the control group. Results also showed decrease in inflammatory tissue reaction, bone resorption and periodontal ligament thickness. Tissue reaction and inflammatory infiltrates were significantly less in REG-CC group compared to others. Other parameters showed no significant difference. In conclusion, regenerative endodontic techniques using chitosan-based formulations have the potential to be used as an alternative for root maturation in teeth with apical periodontitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan*
  3. Khairul Zaman N, Rohani R, Izni Yusoff I, Kamsol MA, Basiron SA, Abd Rashid AI
    PMID: 34501755 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18179164
    The evaluation of complex organic and inorganic coagulant's performances and their relationships could compromise the surface water treatment process time and its efficiency. In this work, process optimization was investigated by comparing an eco-friendly chitosan with the industrially used coagulants namely aluminum sulfate (alum), polyaluminum chloride (PAC), and aluminum chlorohydrate (ACH) in compliance with national drinking water standards. To treat various water samples from different treatment plants with turbidity and pH ranges from 20-826.3 NTU and 5.21-6.80, respectively, 5-20 mg/L coagulant dosages were varied in the presence of aluminum, ferum, and manganese. Among all, 10 mg/L of the respective ACH and chitosan demonstrated 97% and 99% turbidity removal in addition to the removal of the metals that complies with the referred standard. However, chitosan owes fewer sensitive responses (turbidity and residual metal) with the change in its input factors (dosage and pH), especially in acidic conditions. This finding suggested its beneficial role to be used under the non-critical dosage monitoring. Meanwhile, ACH was found to perform better than chitosan only at pH > 7.4 with half dosage required. In summary, chitosan and ACH could perform equally at a different set of optimum conditions. This optimization study offers precise selections of coagulants for a practical water treatment operation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan*
  4. Eddin FBK, Fen YW, Liew JYC, Daniyal WMEMM
    Biosensors (Basel), 2022 Dec 03;12(12).
    PMID: 36551091 DOI: 10.3390/bios12121124
    Surface plasmonic sensors have received considerable attention, found extensive applications, and outperformed conventional optical sensors. In this work, biopolymer chitosan (CS) was used to prepare the bilayer structure (CS/Au) of a plasmonic refractive index sensor for dopamine (DA) detection. The sensing characteristics of the developed plasmonic sensor were evaluated. Increasing DA concentrations significantly shifted the SPR dips. The sensor exhibited stability and a refractive index sensitivity of 8.850°/RIU in the linear range 0.1 nM to 1 µM with a detection limit of 0.007 nM and affinity constant of 1.383 × 108 M-1. The refractive index and thickness of the CS/Au structure were measured simultaneously by fitting the obtained experimental findings to theoretical data based on Fresnel equations. The fitting yielded the refractive index values n (1.5350 ± 0.0001) and k (0.0150 ± 0.0001) for the CS layer contacting 0.1 nM of DA, and the thickness, d was (15.00 ± 0.01) nm. Then, both n and d values increased by increasing DA concentrations. In addition, the changes in the FTIR spectrum and the variations in sensor surface roughness and structure obtained by AFM analysis confirmed DA adsorption on the sensing layer. Based on these observations, CS/Au bilayer has enhanced the performance of this plasmonic sensor, which showed promising importance as a simple, low-cost, and reliable platform for DA sensing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan*
  5. Lim HP, Ng SD, Dasa DB, Adnan SA, Tey BT, Chan ES, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2023 Mar 31;232:123461.
    PMID: 36720328 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2023.123461
    Formulation of water-in-oil (W/O) Pickering emulsion (PE) for food applications has been largely restricted by the limited choices of food-grade Pickering emulsifiers. In this study, composite microgels made of chitosan and carrageenan were explored as a dual (pH and thermal) stimuli-responsive Pickering emulsifier for the stabilization of W/O PE. The chitosan-carrageenan (CS-CRG) composite microgels not only exhibited pH- and thermo-responsiveness, but also displayed enhanced lipophilicity as compared to the discrete polymers. The stability of the CS-CRG-stabilized W/O PE system (CS-CRG PE) was governed by CS:CRG mass ratio and oil fractions used. The CS-CRG PE remained stable at acidic pH and at temperatures below 40 °C. The instability of CS-CRG composite microgels at alkaline pH and at temperatures above 40 °C rendered the demulsification of CS-CRG PE. This stimuli-responsive W/O PE could unlock new opportunities for the development of stimuli-responsive W/O PE using food-grade materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan*
  6. Du X, Rashid SA, Abdullah LC, Rahman NA
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2023 Nov;30(51):110417-110430.
    PMID: 37783997 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-023-30213-4
    Separation materials have received increasing attention given their broad applications in the management of environmental pollution. It is desired to balance the contradiction between high separation efficiency and selectivity of separation materials. The integration of ball-milled bone chars with electrospun membranes might achieve this balance. In this study, electrospun cellulose/chitosan/ball-milled bone char (CL/CS/MB) membranes were by well-dispersing ball-milled bone chars with nanoscale size (98.9-167.5 nm) and developed porosity (40.2-373.1 m2/g) in the electrospinning solvent. The synergistic integration of distributed MBs (5.4-31.5 wt.% of loading hydroxyapatite on the membrane matrix) allowed the efficient sorption of Pb(II) with fast kinetics (20.0 min), excellent capacity (219.9 mg/g at pH 5.0, T 298 K), and favorable selectivity coefficients (2.76-6.79). The formation of minerals was dominant for the selective sorption of Pb(II) by combining the spectral analysis and quantitative determination. The surface complexation with O-/reductive N-species, the cation exchange with inorganic Ca2+, the electrostatic attraction with deprotonated O-, and the cation-π coordination with the aromatic carbon via the π-electrons should be not ignored for the capture of Pb(II). This work demonstrated the feasibility of electrospun CL/CS/MB membranes as a promising candidate for the remediation of aquatic pollutants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan*
  7. Abdulhameed AS, Hapiz A, Musa SA, ALOthman ZA, Wilson LD, Jawad AH
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2024 Jan;255:128075.
    PMID: 37977465 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2023.128075
    Herein, a quadruple biomagnetic nanocomposite of cross-linked chitosan-ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether/organo-nanoclay (MCH-EGDE/ORNC) was designed for the uptake of remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR) dye from aqueous environment. The adsorption process was systematically improved via the Box-Behnken design (BBD) to determine the influence of key uptake parameters, including MCH-EGDE/ORNC dosage, pH, and time, on the RBBR removal. The highest RBBR removal of 87.5 % was achieved at the following conditions: MCH-EGDE/ORNC dosage: 0.1 g/100 mL; pH: 4.0; contact time: 25 min. The findings of the kinetics and equilibrium studies revealed an excellent fit to the pseudo-second order and the Freundlich models, respectively. The adsorption capacity of the MCH-EGDE/ORNC for RBBR was found to be 168.4 mg/g, showcasing its remarkable adsorption capability. The present work highlights the potential of MCH-EGDE/ORNC biomaterial as an advanced adsorbent and lays the foundation for future applications in water purification and environmental remediation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan*
  8. Abdulhameed AS, Jawad AH, Mohammad AT
    Bioresour Technol, 2019 Dec;293:122071.
    PMID: 31491651 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122071
    Chitosan-ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether/TiO2 nanoparticles (CS-EGDE/TNP) composite was synthesized to be biosorbent for the removal of reactive orange 16 (RO16) dye from aqueous solution. The CS-EGDE/TNP composite was characterized via BET, XRD, FTIR, and SEM-EDX techniques. Response surface methodology (RSM) with Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to optimize the adsorption key parameters such as adsorbent dose (A: 0.02-0.08 g/L), RO16 dye concentration (B: 20-80 mg/L), solution pH (C: 4-10), temperature (D: 30-50 °C), and contact time (E: 30-90 min). The adsorption isotherm followed Freundlich model and pseudo-second order (PSO) kinetic model. The adsorption capacity of CS-EGDE/TNP for RO16 dye was 1407.4 mg/g at 40 °C. The adsorption mechanism of RO16 dye on the surface of CS-EGDE/TNP can be attributed to various interactions such as electrostatic attraction, n-π interaction, Yoshida H-bonding, and H-bonding. Results supported the potential use of CS-EGDE/TNP as effective adsorbent for the treatment of acid reactive dye.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan*
  9. Kamal Eddin FB, Fen YW, Omar NAS, Liew JYC, Daniyal WMEMM
    PMID: 34333400 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2021.120202
    Due to the crucial role of dopamine (DA) in health and peripheral nervous systems, it is particularly important to develop an efficient and accurate sensor to monitor and determine DA concentrations for diagnostic purposes and diseases prevention. Up to now, using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors in DA determination is very limited and its application still at the primary stage. In this work, a simple and ultra-sensitive SPR sensor was constructed for DA detection by preparation of chitosan- graphene quantum dots (CS-GQDs) thin film as the sensing layer. Other SPR measurements were conducted using different sensing layers; GQDs, CS for comparison. The proposed thin films were prepared by spin coating technique. The developed CS-GQDs thin film-based SPR sensor was successfully tested in DA concentration range from 0 fM to 1 pM. The designed SPR sensor showed outstanding performance in detecting DA sensitively (S = 0.011°/fM, R2 = 0.8174) with low detection limit of 1.0 fM has been achieved for the first time. The increased angular shift of SPR dip, narrow full width half maximum of the SPR curves, excellent signal-to-noise ratio and figure of merit, and a binding affinity constant (KA) of 2.962 PM-1 demonstrated the potential of this sensor to detect DA with high accuracy. Overall, it was concluded that the proposed sensor would serve as a valuable tool in clinical diagnostic for the serious neurological disorders. This in turns has a significant socio-economic impact.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan*
  10. Deen I, Selopal GS, Wang ZM, Rosei F
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 2022 Feb;607(Pt 1):869-880.
    PMID: 34536940 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2021.08.199
    Coatings with bioactive properties play a key role in the success of orthopaedic implants. Recent studies focused on composite coatings incorporating biocompatible elements that can increase the nucleation of hydroxyapatite (HA), the mineral component of bone, and have promising bioactive and biodegradable properties. Here we report a method of fabricating composite collagen, chitosan and copper-doped phosphate glass (PG) coatings for biomedical applications using electrophoretic deposition (EPD). The use of collagen and chitosan (CTS) allows for the co-deposition of PG particles at standard ambient temperature and pressure (1 kPa, 25 °C), and the addition of collagen led to the steric stabilization of PG in solution. The coating composition was varied by altering the collagen/CTS concentrations in the solutions, as well as depositing PG with 0, 5 and 10 mol% CuO dopant. A monolayer of collagen/CTS containing PG was obtained on stainless steel cathodes, showing that deposition of PG in conjunction with a polymer is feasible. The mass of the monolayer varied depending on the polymer (collagen, CTS and collagen/CTS) and combination of polymer + PG (collagen-PG, CTS-PG and collagen/CTS-PG), while the presence of copper led to agglomerates during deposition at higher concentrations. The deposition yield was studied at different time points and showed a profile typical of constant voltage deposition. Increasing the concentration of collagen in the PG solution allows for a higher deposition yield, while pure collagen solutions resulted in hydrogen gas evolution at the cathode. The ability to deposit polymer-PG coatings that can mimic native bone tissue allows for the potential to fabricate orthopaedic implants with tailored biological properties with lower risk of rejection from the host and exhibit increased bioactivity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan*
  11. Razali S, Bose A, Benetti C, Chong PW, Miller M, Colombo P, et al.
    Int J Pharm, 2022 Nov 25;628:122226.
    PMID: 36191818 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2022.122226
    Dome matrix was designed with gastric and intestinal targeting capacities using melatonin and caffeine as model drugs, and alginate, chitosan and cellulose as composite materials. The melatonin, caffeine and intermediate hydroxypropylmethylcelluose-based dispersible modules were prepared through compaction. Caffeine piled module was capped at both ends with melatonin void modules via intermediate dispersible modules into Dome matrix. Dispersion of intermediate module detached melatonin module from Dome matrix and had it floated in stomach providing a more complete melatonin release due to favorable pH-pKa relationship of dissolution medium and drug. With reference to the caffeine module, the detachment of melatonin module facilitated its gastrointestinal transit as a reduced size matrix, with majority of caffeine delivered in colon. The dual site-targeted and -release Dome matrix is applicable as reference oral carrier for pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, functional food and veterinary medicine where a complex formulation and performancein vivoare required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan*
  12. Chellappan DK, Panneerselvam J, Madheswaran T, Chellian J, Ambar Jeet Singh BJ, Jia Yee N, et al.
    Minerva Med, 2018 06;109(3):254-255.
    PMID: 29849021 DOI: 10.23736/S0026-4806.18.05462-9
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan*
  13. Shen S, Deng L, Du Y, Gao J, Zhang C, Wang Y, et al.
    Int J Pharm, 2022 Dec 15;629:122385.
    PMID: 36375685 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2022.122385
    Wound dressings can be applied over the wound sites to provide long-lasting wound management and improve wound healing. Biological wound dressings are superior to synthetic materials due to biodegradability and biocompatibility. These biomaterials have demonstrated huge potential in the field of wound dressings. Applying bibliometric analysis combined with results-based descriptions to characterize the research status, hotspots, and cutting-edge topics, this study is the first in-depth qualitative, quantitative, data-driven overview of biological wound dressings research in recent decades. Filtered data were used to construct co-citation, heatmaps, bi-clustering, strategy maps, and other analyses and visualization. The results show that research on biological wound dressings has progressed considerably in the last 5 years with extensive global collaboration. A clear knowledge base has been developed. Chitosan hydrogels, bacterial cellulose, active agents (silver nanoparticles, growth factors, curcumin, etc.), and electrospinning fibers stand out as research hotspots. The research frontiers include novel starting materials, precise and controlled release systems, and clinical and regenerative medicine applications. We interpreted an overview of the excavated topics and expected the findings here to provide a guide and inspire innovations for developing the next generation wound dressings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan*
  14. Yu H, Zheng Y, Zhou C, Liu L, Wang L, Cao J, et al.
    Carbohydr Polym, 2024 Feb 01;325:121583.
    PMID: 38008470 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2023.121583
    The potential of ultrasonication-driven molecular self-assembly of whey protein isolate (WPI) with chitosan (CS)/chitooligosaccharide (COS) to stabilize Pickering emulsions was examined, based on CS/COS ligands-induced partial unfolding in remodeling the Pickering particles features. Multi-spectral analysis suggested obvious changes in conformational structures of WPI due to interaction with CS/COS, with significantly higher unfolding degrees of WPI induced by COS. Non-covalent interactions were identified as the major forces for WPI-CS/COS conjugates. Ultrasonication enhanced electrostatic interaction between CS's -NH3 groups and WPI's -COO- groups which improved emulsification activity and storability of WPI-COS stabilized Pickering emulsion. This was attributed to increased surface hydrophobicity and decreased particle size compared to WPI-CS associated with differential unfolding degrees induced by different saccharide ligands. CLSM and SEM consistently observed smaller emulsion droplets in WPI-COS complexes than WPI-CS/COS particles tightly adsorbed at the oil-water interface. The electrostatic self-assembly of WPI with CS/COS greatly enhanced the encapsulation efficiency of quercetin than those stabilized by WPI alone and ultrasound further improved encapsulation efficiency. This corresponded well with the quantitative affinity parameters between quercetin and WPI-CS/COS complexes. This investigation revealed the great potential of glycan ligands-induced conformational transitions of extrinsic physical disruption in tuning Pickering particle features.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan*
  15. Li G, Li J, Lee YY, Qiu C, Zeng X, Wang Y
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2024 Jan;255:128086.
    PMID: 37981278 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2023.128086
    Chitosan (CS) based nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated via an ionic gelation reaction modified by flaxseed gum (FG) or sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP). The average particle size, morphology, interfacial tension, and wettability of NPs were characterized. The particle size of CS-STPP-HA (hyaluronic acid)-FA (ferulic acid) NPs and CS-FG-HA-FA NPs was 400.8 nm and 262.4 nm, respectively under the optimized conditions of CS/STPP = 5:1 (w/w) or CS/FG = 1:1 (v/v) with HA concentration of 0.25 mg/mL and FA dosage of 25 μM. FG acted as a good alternative for STPP to form particles with CS in stabilizing Pickering emulsion with an internal diacylglycerol (DAG) phase of 50-80 % (v/v). The complex nanoparticles had high surface activity and contact angle close to 90 °C, being able to tightly packed at the droplet surface. The emulsions had high thermal, ionic and oxidative stability. With the aid of moisturizing polysaccharides and DAG oil, the emulsions had a good sustained-release ability for FA with deeper penetration and retention into the dermis of the skin. Thus, FG and HA-based NPs serve as green vehicles for the fabrication of novel Pickering emulsions and possess great potential to be applied as a delivery system for lipophilic active agents in functional food and cosmetic products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan*
  16. Nawaz A, Wong TW
    J Microsc, 2016 07;263(1):34-42.
    PMID: 26695532 DOI: 10.1111/jmi.12371
    The chitosan has been used as the primary excipient in transdermal particulate dosage form design. Its distribution pattern across the epidermis and dermis is not easily accessible through chemical assay and limited to radiolabelled molecules via quantitative autoradiography. This study explored Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy imaging technique with built-in microscope as the means to examine chitosan molecular distribution over epidermis and dermis with the aid of histology operation. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy skin imaging was conducted using chitosan of varying molecular weights, deacetylation degrees, particle sizes and zeta potentials, obtained via microwave ligation of polymer chains at solution state. Both skin permeation and retention characteristics of chitosan increased with the use of smaller chitosan molecules with reduced acetyl content and size, and increased positive charge density. The ratio of epidermal to dermal chitosan content decreased with the use of these chitosan molecules as their accumulation in dermis (3.90% to 18.22%) was raised to a greater extent than epidermis (0.62% to 1.92%). A larger dermal chitosan accumulation nonetheless did not promote the transdermal polymer passage more than the epidermal chitosan. A small increase in epidermal chitosan content apparently could fluidize the stratum corneum and was more essential to dictate molecular permeation into dermis and systemic circulation. The histology technique aided Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy imaging approach introduces a new dimension to the mechanistic aspect of chitosan in transdermal delivery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/administration & dosage*; Chitosan/analysis*; Chitosan/pharmacokinetics; Chitosan/chemistry
  17. Vakili M, Rafatullah M, Salamatinia B, Abdullah AZ, Ibrahim MH, Tan KB, et al.
    Carbohydr Polym, 2014 Nov 26;113:115-30.
    PMID: 25256466 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.07.007
    Chitosan based adsorbents have received a lot of attention for adsorption of dyes. Various modifications of this polysaccharide have been investigated to improve the adsorption properties as well as mechanical and physical characteristics of chitosan. This review paper discusses major research topics related to chitosan and its derivatives for application in the removal of dyes from water. Modification of chitosan changes the original properties of this material so that it can be more suitable for adsorption of different types of dye. Many chitosan derivatives have been obtained through chemical and physical modifications of raw chitosan that include cross-linking, grafting and impregnation of the chitosan backbone. Better understanding of these varieties and their affinity toward different types of dye can help future research to be properly oriented to address knowledge gaps in this area. This review provides better opportunity for researchers to better explore the potential of chitosan-derived adsorbents for removal of a great variety of dyes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/analogs & derivatives; Chitosan/chemistry*
  18. Azmana M, Mahmood S, Hilles AR, Rahman A, Arifin MAB, Ahmed S
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2021 Aug 31;185:832-848.
    PMID: 34237361 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.07.023
    Over the last few years, several attempts have been made to replace petrochemical products with renewable and biodegradable components. The most challenging part of this approach is to obtain bio-based materials with properties and functions equivalent to those of synthetic products. Various naturally occurring polymers such as starch, collagen, alginate, cellulose, and chitin represent attractive candidates as they could reduce dependence on synthetic products and consequently positively impact the environment. Chitosan is also a unique bio-based polymer with excellent intrinsic properties. It is known for its anti-bacterial and film-forming properties, has high mechanical strength and good thermal stability. Nanotechnology has also applied chitosan-based materials in its most recent achievements. Therefore, numerous chitosan-based bionanocomposites with improved physical and chemical characteristics have been developed in an eco-friendly and cost-effective approach. This review discusses various sources of chitosan, its properties and methods of modification. Also, this work focuses on diverse preparation techniques of chitosan-based bionanocomposites and their emerging application in various sectors. Additionally, this review sheds light on future research scope with some drawbacks and challenges to motivate the researchers for future outstanding research works.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/pharmacology; Chitosan/chemistry*
  19. Shavandi A, Hu Z, Teh S, Zhao J, Carne A, Bekhit A, et al.
    Food Chem, 2017 Jul 15;227:194-201.
    PMID: 28274422 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.01.099
    Squid pens were subjected to alkali hydrolysis to extract chitin and chitosan. Proteins present in the alkaline extraction wastewater were recovered at pH 3, 4, 5 and 6, and were subjected to hydrolysis by trypsin, pepsin and a bacterial protease called HT for 1, 2, 4 and 24h. Hydrolysis of the extracted proteins with either trypsin or HT generated more antioxidant activity than hydrolysis with pepsin. Higher ACE-inhibitory activity was generated in the trypsin and pepsin hydrolysates than in the HT hydrolysate. Squid pen protein recovered from chitosan processing waste alkaline solution can be a potential source of bioactive peptides for addition to foods. The antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of the extracted proteins were initially low and increased upon incubation with the proteases. Pepsin generated significantly lower (P<0.05) antioxidant activities compared to trypsin and HT, while trypsin and pepsin hydrolysates exhibited higher ACE-inhibitory activity than HT (P<0.05).
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/metabolism; Chitosan/chemistry*
  20. Kamari A, Pulford ID, Hargreaves JS
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2015 Feb;22(3):1919-30.
    PMID: 25263414 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-3600-6
    The microbial breakdown of chitosan, a fishery waste-based material, and its derivative cross-linked chitosans, in both non-contaminated and contaminated conditions was investigated in a laboratory incubation study. Biodegradation of chitosan and cross-linked chitosans was affected by the presence of heavy metals. Zn was more pronounced in inhibiting microbial activity than Cu and Pb. It was estimated that a longer period is required to complete the breakdown of the cross-linked chitosans (up to approximately 100 years) than unmodified chitosan (up to approximately 10 years). The influence of biodegradation on the bioavailable fraction of heavy metals was studied concurrently with the biodegradation trial. It was found that the binding behaviour of chitosan for heavy metals was not affected by the biodegradation process.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chitosan/metabolism*; Chitosan/chemistry*
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