Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 72 in total

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  1. Islam MA, Ong HR, Ethiraj B, Cheng CK, Rahman Khan MM
    J Environ Manage, 2018 Nov 01;225:242-251.
    PMID: 30092551 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.08.002
    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are considered as promising technology to achieve simultaneous wastewater treatment and electricity generation. However, operational and technological developments are still required to make it as a sustainable technology. In the present study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effects of substrate concentration, co-culture composition, pH and time on the performance of co-culture (Klebsiella variicola and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) inoculated double chamber MFC. From the statistical analysis, it can be seen that the performance of MFC was not influenced by the interaction between the initial COD and time, pH and time, pH and initial COD, time and initial COD. However, the interaction between the inoculum composition and time, pH and the inoculum composition, initial COD and inoculum composition significantly influenced the performance of MFC. Based on the RSM results, best performance (power density and COD removal efficiency) was obtained when the inoculum composition, initial COD, pH and time were about 1:1, 26.690 mg/L, 7.21 and 15.50 days, respectively. The predictions from the model were in close agreement with the experimental results suggesting that the proposed model could adequately represent the actual relationships between the independent variables generating electricity and the COD removal efficiency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coculture Techniques*
  2. Islam MA, Karim A, Mishra P, Dubowski JJ, Yousuf A, Sarmin S, et al.
    Sci Total Environ, 2020 Oct 10;738:140138.
    PMID: 32806344 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140138
    An understanding of the inter-species relationships, especially their metabolic network in a mixed-culture system, is crucial to design an effective inoculum for enhancing the power generation of wastewater fed microbial fuel cell (MFC). In the present study, the influence of microbial mutualistic interactions on the power generation of palm oil mill effluent fed MFCs has been widely investigated by designing several co-culture and mixed culture inoculums. Among the different inoculum compositions, the highest power density of 14.8 W/m3 was achieved by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella variicola co-culture inoculum due to their synergistic relationships which were inter-linked via fermentation-based metabolites. Besides, the interaction of K. variicola and Bacillus cereus positively influenced the power generation resulting in a maximum power density of 11.8 W/m3 whereas the antagonistic relationship between B. cereus and P. aeruginosa resulted in a lower power generation of 1.9 W/m3. The microbial mutualistic interactions were investigated with polarization, cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), as well as by using metabolite and biofilm analysis. It was observed that the synergism between bacteria enhanced power generation through the production of higher electron shuttling mediators and efficient biofilm formation as evidenced by polarization, CV and EIS analysis. In contrast, the antagonistic relationship resulted in production of cell inhibiting metabolites leading to the formation of ineffective biofilm. These findings demonstrate that the synergistic interaction between or within microorganisms is emergent in designing co-culture or mixed-culture inoculum for achieving maximum power generation in MFCs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coculture Techniques
  3. Yee CS, Okomoda VT, Hashim F, Waiho K, Sheikh Abdullah SR, Alamanjo C, et al.
    PeerJ, 2021;9:e11217.
    PMID: 33981498 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.11217
    This study investigated the effect of co-culturing microalgae with a floc-forming bacterium. Of the six microalgae isolated from a biofloc sample, only Thalassiosira weissflogii, Chlamydomonas sp. and Chlorella vulgaris were propagated successfully in Conway medium. Hence, these species were selected for the experiment comparing microalgae axenic culture and co-culture with the floc-forming bacterium, Bacillus infantis. Results obtained showed that the co-culture had higher microalgae biomass compared to the axenic culture. A similar trend was also observed concerning the lipid content of the microalgae-bacterium co-cultures. The cell number of B. infantis co-cultured with T. weissflogii increased during the exponential stage until the sixth day, but the other microalgae species experienced a significant early reduction in cell density of the bacteria at the exponential stage. This study represents the first attempt at co-culturing microalgae with B. infantis, a floc-forming bacterium, and observed increased biomass growth and lipid accumulation compared to the axenic culture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coculture Techniques
  4. Goh BS, Che Omar SN, Ubaidah MA, Saim L, Sulaiman S, Chua KH
    Acta Otolaryngol, 2017 Apr;137(4):432-441.
    PMID: 27900891 DOI: 10.1080/00016489.2016.1257151
    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, these result showed HADSCs could differentiate into chondrocytes-like cells, dependent on signaling induced by TGF-β3 and chondrocytes. This is a promising result and showed that HADSCs is a potential source for future microtia repair. The technique of co-culture is a positive way forward to assist the microtia tissue.

    OBJECTIVE: Reconstructive surgery for the repair of microtia still remains the greatest challenge among the surgeons. Its repair is associated with donor-site morbidity and the degree of infection is inevitable when using alloplastic prosthesis with uncertain long-term durability. Thus, human adipose derived stem cells (HADSCs) can be an alternative cell source for cartilage regeneration. This study aims to evaluate the chondrogenic potential of HADSCs cultured with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and interaction of auricular chondrocytes with HADSCs for new cartilage generation.

    METHODS: Multi-lineages differentiation features of HADSCs were monitored by Alcian Blue, Alizarin Red, and Oil Red O staining for chondrogenic, adipogenic, and osteogenic differentiation capacity, respectively. Further, HADSCs alone were culture in medium added with TGF-β3; and human auricular chondrocytes were interacted indirectly in the culture with and without TGF-βs for up to 21 days, respectively. Cell morphology and chondrogenesis were monitored by inverted microscope. For cell viability, Alamar Blue assay was used to measure the cell viability and the changes in gene expression of auricular chondrocyte markers were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. For the induction of chondrogenic differentiation, HADSCs showed a feature of aggregation and formed a dense matrix of proteoglycans. Staining results from Alizirin Red and Oil Red O indicated the HADSCs also successfully differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages after 21 days.

    RESULTS: According to a previous study, HADSCs were strongly positive for the mesenchymal markers CD90, CD73, CD44, CD9, and histocompatibility antigen. The results showed HADSCs test groups (cultured with TGF-β3) displayed chondrocytes-like cells morphology with typical lacunae structure compared to the control group without TGF-β3 after 2 weeks. Additionally, the HADSCs test groups increased in cell viability; an increase in expression of chondrocytes-specific genes (collagen type II, aggrecan core protein, SOX 9 and elastin) compared to the control. This study found that human auricular chondrocytes cells and growth factor had a positive influence in inducing HADSCs chondrogenic effects, in terms of chondrogenic differentiate of feature, increase of cell viability, and up-regulated expression of chondrogenic genes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Coculture Techniques*
  5. Zaidi NE, Shazali NAH, Chor ALT, Osman MA, Ibrahim K, Jaoi-Edward M, et al.
    J Vis Exp, 2019 12 14.
    PMID: 31885381 DOI: 10.3791/60281
    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been identified as an important component for tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and resistance to cancer therapies. However, tumor-associated macrophages can be harmful to the tumor depending on the tumor microenvironment and can reversibly alter their phenotypic characteristics by either antagonizing the cytotoxic activity of immune cells or enhancing anti-tumor response. The molecular actions of macrophages and their interactions with tumor cells (e.g., phagocytosis) have not been extensively studied. Therefore, the interaction between immune cells (M1/M2-subtype TAM) and cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment is now a focus of cancer immunotherapy research. In the present study, a live cell coculture model of induced M1 macrophages and mouse mammary 4T1 carcinoma cells was developed to assess the phagocytic activity of macrophages using a time-lapse video feature using phase-contrast, fluorescent, and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy. The present method can observe and document multipoint live-cell imaging of phagocytosis. Phagocytosis of 4T1 cells by M1 macrophages can be observed using fluorescent microscopy before staining 4T1 cells with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE). The current publication describes how to coculture macrophages and tumor cells in a single imaging dish, polarize M1 macrophages, and record multipoint events of macrophages engulfing 4T1 cells during 13 h of coculture.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coculture Techniques/methods*
  6. Azad MA, Rabbani MG, Amin L, Sidik NM
    Int J Genomics, 2013;2013:235487.
    PMID: 24066284 DOI: 10.1155/2013/235487
    Transgenic papaya plants were regenerated from hypocotyls and immature zygotic embryo after cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA-4404 carrying a binary plasmid vector system containing neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as the selectable marker and β-glucuronidase (GUS) as the reporter gene. The explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens on regeneration medium containing 500 mg/L carbenicillin + 200 mg/L cefotaxime for one week. The cocultivated explants were transferred into the final selection medium containing 500 mg/L carbenicillin + 200 mg/L cefotaxime + 50 mg/L kanamycin for callus induction as well as plant regeneration. The callus derived from the hypocotyls of Carica papaya cv. Shahi showed the highest positive GUS activities compared to Carica papaya cv. Ranchi. The transformed callus grew vigorously and formed embryos followed by transgenic plantlets successfully. The result of this study showed that the hypocotyls of C. papaya cv. Shahi and C. papaya cv. Ranchi are better explants for genetic transformation compared to immature embryos. The transformed C. papaya cv. Shahi also showed the maximum number of plant regeneration compared to that of C. papaya cv. Ranchi.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coculture Techniques
  7. Sukmana I
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:201352.
    PMID: 22623881 DOI: 10.1100/2012/201352
    The guidance of endothelial cell organization into a capillary network has been a long-standing challenge in tissue engineering. Some research efforts have been made to develop methods to promote capillary networks inside engineered tissue constructs. Capillary and vascular networks that would mimic blood microvessel function can be used to subsequently facilitate oxygen and nutrient transfer as well as waste removal. Vascularization of engineering tissue construct is one of the most favorable strategies to overpass nutrient and oxygen supply limitation, which is often the major hurdle in developing thick and complex tissue and artificial organ. This paper addresses recent advances and future challenges in developing three-dimensional culture systems to promote tissue construct vascularization allowing mimicking blood microvessel development and function encountered in vivo. Bioreactors systems that have been used to create fully vascularized functional tissue constructs will also be outlined.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coculture Techniques
  8. Khosravi Y, Loke MF, Goh KL, Vadivelu J
    Front Microbiol, 2016;7:1462.
    PMID: 27695448
    Helicobacter pylori is the dominant species of the human gastric microbiota and is present in the stomach of more than half of the human population worldwide. Colonization by H. pylori causes persistent inflammatory response and H. pylori-induced gastritis is the strongest singular risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. However, only a small proportion of infected individuals develop malignancy. Besides H. pylori, other microbial species have also been shown to be related to gastritis. We previously reported that interspecies microbial interaction between H. pylori and S. mitis resulted in alteration of their metabolite profiles. In this study, we followed up by analyzing the changing protein profiles of H. pylori and S. mitis by LC/Q-TOF mass spectrometry to understand the different response of the two bacterial species in a multi-species micro-environment. Differentially-expressed proteins in mono- and co-cultures could be mapped into 18 biological pathways. The number of proteins involve in RNA degradation, nucleotide excision repair, mismatch repair, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis were increased in co-cultured H. pylori. On the other hand, fewer proteins involve in citrate cycle, glycolysis/ gluconeogenesis, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, translation, metabolism, and cell signaling were detected in co-cultured H. pylori. This is consistent with our previous observation that in the presence of S. mitis, H. pylori was transformed to coccoid. Interestingly, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), a major enzyme used in glycolysis, was found in abundance in co-cultured S. mitis and this may have enhanced the survival of S. mitis in the multi-species microenvironment. On the other hand, thioredoxin (TrxA) and other redox-regulating enzymes of H. pylori were less abundant in co-culture possibly suggesting reduced oxidative stress. Oxidative stress plays an important role in tissue damage and carcinogenesis. Using the in vitro co-culture model, this study emphasized the possibility that pathogen-microbiota interaction may have a protective effect against H. pylori-associated carcinogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coculture Techniques
  9. Jolly JJ, Chin KY, Farhana MFN, Alias E, Chua KH, Hasan WNW, et al.
    Iran J Med Sci, 2018 Mar;43(2):208-213.
    PMID: 29749990
    Osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs) are 2 major groups of bone cells. Their cell-to-cell interactions are important to ensure the continuity of the bone-remodeling process. Therefore, the present study was carried out to optimize an OB/OC co-culture system utilizing the human OB cell line hFOB 1.19 and OCs extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs). It was a 2-step procedure, involving the optimization of the OB culture and the co-culture of the OBs with PBMNCs at an optimum ratio. Firstly, pre-OBs were cultured to 90% confluency and the time required for differentiation was determined. OB differentiation was determined using the van Gieson staining to detect the presence of collagen and Alizarin Red for calcium. Secondly, OBs and OCs were co-cultured at the ratios of 1 OC: 1 OB, 1 OC: 4 OBs, 2 OCs: 1 OB, and 1 OC: 2 OBs. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was used to detect the differentiation of the OCs. The results showed that collagen was present on day 1, whereas calcium was detected as early as day 3. Based on the result of TRAP staining, 1 OC: 2 OBs was taken as the most appropriate ratio. No macrophage colony-stimulating factor and receptor activator of the nuclear factor-κB ligand were added because they were provided by the OBs. In conclusion, these optimization processes are vital as they ensure the exact time point and ratio of the OB/OC co-culture in order to produce a reliable and reproducible co-culture system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coculture Techniques
  10. Mitchell RE, Hassan M, Burton BR, Britton G, Hill EV, Verhagen J, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 Sep 12;7(1):11315.
    PMID: 28900244 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-11803-y
    IL-10 is an immunomodulatory cytokine with a critical role in limiting inflammation in immune-mediated pathologies. The mechanisms leading to IL-10 expression by CD4(+) T cells are being elucidated, with several cytokines implicated. We explored the effect of IL-4 on the natural phenomenon of IL-10 production by a chronically stimulated antigen-specific population of differentiated Th1 cells. In vitro, IL-4 blockade inhibited while addition of exogenous IL-4 to Th1 cultures enhanced IL-10 production. In the in vivo setting of peptide immunotherapy leading to a chronically stimulated Th1 phenotype, lack of IL-4Rα inhibited the induction of IL-10. Exploring the interplay of Th1 and Th2 cells through co-culture, Th2-derived IL-4 promoted IL-10 expression by Th1 cultures, reducing their pathogenicity in vivo. Co-culture led to upregulated c-Maf expression with no decrease in the proportion of T-bet(+) cells in these cultures. Addition of IL-4 also reduced the encephalitogenic capacity of Th1 cultures. These data demonstrate that IL-4 contributes to IL-10 production and that Th2 cells modulate Th1 cultures towards a self-regulatory phenotype, contributing to the cross-regulation of Th1 and Th2 cells. These findings are important in the context of Th1 driven diseases since they reveal how the Th1 phenotype and function can be modulated by IL-4.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coculture Techniques
  11. Liau LL, Makpol S, Azurah AGN, Chua KH
    Cytotechnology, 2018 Aug;70(4):1221-1233.
    PMID: 29549558 DOI: 10.1007/s10616-018-0214-8
    Currently, orthotopic liver transplantation is the gold standard therapy for liver failure. However, it is limited by the insufficient organ donor and risk of immune rejection. Stem cell therapy is a promising alternative treatment for liver failure. One of the most ideal sources of stem cells for regenerative medicine is adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). In this study, primary ADSCs seeded on cell culture insert were indirectly co-cultured with injured HepG2 to elucidate the role of ADSCs in promoting the recovery of injured HepG2 in non-contact manner. HepG2 recovery was determined by the surface area covered by cells and growth factor concentration was measured to identify the factors involved in regeneration. Besides, HepG2 were collected for q-PCR analysis of injury, hepatocyte functional and regenerative markers expression. For the ADSCs, expression of hepatogenic differentiation genes was analyzed. Results showed that non-contact co-culture with ADSCs helped the recovery of injured HepG2. ELISA quantification revealed that ADSCs secreted higher amount of HGF and VEGF to help the recovery of injured HepG2. Furthermore, HepG2 co-cultured with ADSCs expressed significantly lower injury markers as well as significantly higher regenerative and functional markers compared to the control HepG2. ADSCs co-cultured with injured HepG2 expressed significantly higher hepatic related genes compared to the control ADSCs. In conclusion, ADSCs promote recovery of injured HepG2 via secretion of HGF and VEGF. In addition, co-cultured ADSCs showed early sign of hepatogenic differentiation in response to the factors released or secreted by the injured HepG2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coculture Techniques
  12. Pande GS, Natrah FM, Flandez AV, Kumar U, Niu Y, Bossier P, et al.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2015 Dec;99(24):10805-13.
    PMID: 26344339 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-015-6918-1
    Inactivation of quorum sensing (QS) signal molecules, such as acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) of pathogenic bacteria, has been proposed as a novel method to combat bacterial diseases in aquaculture. Despite the importance of micro-algae for aquaculture, AHL degradation by bacteria associated with micro-algal cultures has thus far not been investigated. In this study, we isolated Pseudomonas sp. NFMI-T and Bacillus sp. NFMI-C from open cultures of the micro-algae Tetraselmis suecica and Chaetoceros muelleri, respectively. An AHL degradation assay showed that either monocultures or co-cultures of the isolates were able to degrade the AHL N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone. In contrast, only Bacillus sp. NFMI-C was able to inactivate N-hydroxybutanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, the AHL produced by Vibrio campbellii. The isolated bacteria were able to persist for up to 3 weeks in conventionalized micro-algal cultures, indicating that they were able to establish and maintain themselves within open algal cultures. Using gnotobiotic algal cultures, we found that the isolates did not affect growth of the micro-algae from which they were isolated, whereas a mixture of both isolates increased the growth of Tetraselmis and decreased the growth of Chaetoceros. Finally, addition of Bacillus sp. NFMI-C to the rearing water of giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) larvae significantly improved survival of the larvae when challenged with pathogenic V. campbellii, whereas it had no effect on larval growth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coculture Techniques
  13. Um Min Allah N, Berahim Z, Ahmad A, Kannan TP
    Tissue Eng Regen Med, 2017 Oct;14(5):495-505.
    PMID: 30603504 DOI: 10.1007/s13770-017-0065-y
    Advancement in cell culture protocols, multidisciplinary research approach, and the need of clinical implication to reconstruct damaged or diseased tissues has led to the establishment of three-dimensional (3D) test systems for regeneration and repair. Regenerative therapies, including dental tissue engineering, have been pursued as a new prospect to repair and rebuild the diseased/lost oral tissues. Interactions between the different cell types, growth factors, and extracellular matrix components involved in angiogenesis are vital in the mechanisms of new vessel formation for tissue regeneration. In vitro pre-vascularization is one of the leading scopes in the tissue-engineering field. Vascularization strategies that are associated with co-culture systems have proved that there is communication between different cell types with mutual beneficial effects in vascularization and tissue regeneration in two-dimensional or 3D cultures. Endothelial cells with different cell populations, including osteoblasts, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts in a co-culture have shown their ability to advocate pre-vascularization. In this review, a co-culture perspective of human gingival fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells is discussed with the main focus on vascularization and future perspective of this model in regeneration and repair.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coculture Techniques
  14. Rozila I, Azari P, Munirah S, Safwani WKZW, Pingguan-Murphy B, Chua KH
    Polymers (Basel), 2021 Feb 17;13(4).
    PMID: 33671175 DOI: 10.3390/polym13040597
    (1) Background: Stem cells in combination with scaffolds and bioactive molecules have made significant contributions to the regeneration of damaged bone tissues. A co-culture system can be effective in enhancing the proliferation rate and osteogenic differentiation of the stem cells. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose derived stem cells when co-cultured with human osteoblasts and seeded on polycaprolactone (PCL):hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold; (2) Methods: Human adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) and human osteoblasts (HOB) were seeded in three different ratios of 1:2, 1:2 and 2:1 in the PCL-HA scaffolds. The osteogenic differentiation ability was evaluated based on cell morphology, proliferation rate, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition and osteogenic genes expression levels using quantitative RT-PCR; (3) Results: The co-cultured of ASC/HOB in ratio 2:1 seeded on the PCL-HA scaffolds showed the most positive osteogenic differentiation as compared to other groups, which resulted in higher ALP activity, calcium deposition and osteogenic genes expression, particularly Runx, ALP and BSP. These genes indicate that the co-cultured ASC/HOB seeded on PCL-HA was at the early stage of osteogenic development; (4) Conclusions: The combination of co-culture system (ASC/HOB) and PCL-HA scaffolds promote osteogenic differentiation and early bone formation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coculture Techniques
  15. Adila A Hamid, Satish Vaarman Jeyabalan, Aleza Omar, Nik Zattil Hanan Mohd Yasin, Wong TL, Liau LL, et al.
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:2369-2379.
    Currently, fetal bovine serum (FBS) have been widely use in culture media to promote human cell proliferation. However,
    the usage of FBS for cell therapy in clinical application was associated with the risk of viral and prion transmission as
    well as immune rejection. To provide an option for this risk, this study was conducted to determine the effect of adipose
    derived stem cells (ADSCs) co-culture with chondrocyte in promoting cell proliferation and chondrogenesis toward
    FBS free condition. ADSCs co-cultured with chondrocyte at the ratio of 1:1, 2:1 and 1:2 were tested. Cell morphology
    changes, cell proliferation and gene expression level of stemness (Oct4, FGF-4, Nanog) and chondrogenic (Collagen
    Type II, ACP) were assessed. The results showed ADSCs in all co-culture groups changed morphology from fibroblastic
    spindle to polygonal shape which resembled chondrocytes. The morphological changes were accompanied with increased
    expression of chondrogenic genes; denoted chondrogenesis process. While maintaining expression of stemness genes
    indicated continuation of cell proliferation. From the three co-culture groups tested; ADSCs and chondrocytes (1:1 ratio)
    have been shown to exert better effects in promoting cell proliferation and chondrogenesis. In conclusion, ADSCs could
    replace FBS to grow sufficient number of chondrogenic cells to repair cartilage injury in the near future. Further in vivo
    study should be performed to test the effectiveness of this co-culture technique in cartilage injury repair.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coculture Techniques
  16. Lo SG, Wong SF, Mak JW, Choo KK, Ng KP
    Med Mycol, 2020 Apr 01;58(3):333-340.
    PMID: 31309220 DOI: 10.1093/mmy/myz061
    Cladosporium is one of the most abundant spore. Fungi of this genus can cause respiratory allergy and intrabronchial lesion. We studied the differential expression of host genes after the interaction of Cladosporium sphaerospermum conidia with Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells (BEAS-2B) and Human Pulmonary Alveolar Epithelial Cells (HPAEpiC). C. sphaerospermum conidia were harvested and co-cultured with BEAS-2B cells or HPAEpiC cells for 48 hours respectively. This culture duration was chosen as it was associated with high germination rate. RNA was extracted from two biological replicates per treatment. RNA of BEAS-2B cells was used to assess changes in gene expression using AffymetrixGeneChip® Human Transcriptome Array 2.0. After co-culture with Cladosporium spores, 68 individual genes were found differentially expressed (P ≤ 0.05) and up-regulated ≥ 1.5 folds while 75 genes were found differentially expressed at ≤ -1.5 folds compared with controls. Reverse transcription and qPCR were performed on the RNA collected from both BEAS-2B cells and HPAEpiC cells to validate the microarray results with 7 genes. Based on the findings, infected pulmonary epithelial cells exhibited an increase in cell death-related genes and genes associated with innate immunity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coculture Techniques
  17. Roslan MAM, Jefri NQUA, Ramlee N, Rahman NAA, Chong NHH, Bunawan H, et al.
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2021 May;28(5):3001-3012.
    PMID: 34012331 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.02.041
    Food waste (FW) minimization at the source by using food waste biodigester (FWBs) has a vast potential to lower down the impact of increasing organic fraction in municipal solid waste generation. To this end, this research sought to check the performance of locally isolated hydrolase-producing bacteria (HPB) to improve food waste biodegradation rate. Two under-explored HPB identified as Bacillus paralicheniformis GRA2 and Bacillus velezensis TAP5 were able to produce maximum amylase, cellulase, protease and lipase activities, and demonstrated a significant hydrolase synergy in co-culture fermentation. In vitro biodegradation analysis of both autoclaved and non-autoclaved FW revealed that the HPB inoculation was effective to degrade total solids (>62%), protein (>19%), total fat (>51), total sugar (>86%), reducing sugar (>38%) and starch (>50%) after 8-day incubation. All co-culture treatments were recorded superior to the respective monocultures and the uninoculated control. The results of FW biodegradation using batch-biodigester trial indicated that the 1500 mL and 1000 mL inoculum size of HPB inoculant reached a plateau on the 4th day, with gross biodegradation percentage (GBP) of >85% as compared to control (66.4%). The 1000 mL inoculum was sufficient to achieve the maximum GBP (>90%) of FW after an 8-day biodigestion in a FWB.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coculture Techniques
  18. Mamidi MK, Pal R, Mori NA, Arumugam G, Thrichelvam ST, Noor PJ, et al.
    J. Cell. Biochem., 2011 May;112(5):1353-63.
    PMID: 21337383 DOI: 10.1002/jcb.23052
    Among the different parameters governing the successful derivation and expansion of human embryonic stem cells (hESC), feeder layers play the most important role. Human feeders in form of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) and human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) lay the foundation for eradication of animal-derived hESC culture system. In this study we explored the potential of human foreskin derived mesenchymal like stromal cells (HF-MSCs) to support self renewal and pluripotency of hESC. The MSCs isolated from human foreskin were found to be resistant to standard concentrations and duration of mitomycin-C treatment. Growth pattern, gene profiling (Oct-4, Nanog, Sox-2, Rex-1), cytoskeletal protein expression (vimentin, nestin) and tri-lineage differentiation potential into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteocytes confirmed their mesenchymal stromal cell status. Further, the HF-MSCs were positive for CD105, CD166, CD73, CD44, CD90, SSEA-4, and negative for CD34, CD45, HLA-DR cell-surface markers and were found to exhibit BM-MSC-like characteristics. hESC lines co-cultured with HF-MSC feeders showed expression of expected pluripotent transcription factors Oct-4, Nanog, Sox-2, GDF-3, Rex-1, STELLAR, ABCG2, Dppa5, hTERT; surface markers SSEA-4, TRA-1-81 and maintained their cytogenetic stability during long term passaging. These novel feeders also improved the formation of embryoid bodies (EBs) from hESC which produced cell types representing three germ layers. This culture system has the potential to aid the development of clinical-grade hESCs for regenerative medicine and drug screening. Further, we envisage foreskin can serve as a valuable source of alternative MSCs for specific therapeutic applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coculture Techniques*
  19. Tan JJ, Guyette JP, Miki K, Xiao L, Kaur G, Wu T, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2021 08 17;12(1):4997.
    PMID: 34404774 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-24921-z
    Epicardial formation is necessary for normal myocardial morphogenesis. Here, we show that differentiating hiPSC-derived lateral plate mesoderm with BMP4, RA and VEGF (BVR) can generate a premature form of epicardial cells (termed pre-epicardial cells, PECs) expressing WT1, TBX18, SEMA3D, and SCX within 7 days. BVR stimulation after Wnt inhibition of LPM demonstrates co-differentiation and spatial organization of PECs and cardiomyocytes (CMs) in a single 2D culture. Co-culture consolidates CMs into dense aggregates, which then form a connected beating syncytium with enhanced contractility and calcium handling; while PECs become more mature with significant upregulation of UPK1B, ITGA4, and ALDH1A2 expressions. Our study also demonstrates that PECs secrete IGF2 and stimulate CM proliferation in co-culture. Three-dimensional PEC-CM spheroid co-cultures form outer smooth muscle cell layers on cardiac micro-tissues with organized internal luminal structures. These characteristics suggest PECs could play a key role in enhancing tissue organization within engineered cardiac constructs in vitro.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coculture Techniques*
  20. Teoh HK, Chong PP, Abdullah M, Sekawi Z, Tan GC, Leong CF, et al.
    Leuk. Res., 2016 Jan;40:44-53.
    PMID: 26626206 DOI: 10.1016/j.leukres.2015.10.004
    Studies demonstrated that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from bone marrow stroma produced high concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) that promoted multiple myeloma cell growth. In view of the failure of IL-6 monoclonal antibody therapy to demonstrate substantial clinical responses in early clinical trials, more effective methods are needed in order to disrupt the favourable microenvironment provided by the bone marrow stroma. In this study, we evaluated the short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of IL-6 in MSC and the efficacy of these genetically modified MSC, with IL-6 suppression, on inhibition of U266 multiple myeloma cell growth. IL-6 mRNA and protein were significantly suppressed by 72h post IL-6 siRNA transfection without affecting the biological properties of MSC. Here we show significant inhibition of cell growth and IL-6 production in U266 cells co-cultured with MSC transfected with IL-6 siRNA when compared to U266 cells co-cultured with control MSC. We also show that the tumour volume and mitotic index of tumours in nude mice co-injected with U266 and MSC transfected with IL-6 siRNA were significantly reduced compared to tumours of mice co-injected with control MSC. Our results suggest potential use of RNA interference mediated therapy for multiple myeloma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Coculture Techniques
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