Fatigue cracking is an essential problem of asphalt concrete that contributes to pavement damage. Although stone matrix asphalt (SMA) has significantly provided resistance to rutting failure, its resistance to fatigue failure is yet to be fully addressed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of crumb rubber modifier (CRM) on stiffness and fatigue properties of SMA mixtures at optimum binder content, using four different modification levels, namely, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12% CRM by weight of the bitumen. The testing undertaken on the asphalt mix comprises the dynamic stiffness (indirect tensile test), dynamic creep (repeated load creep), and fatigue test (indirect tensile fatigue test) at temperature of 25°C. The indirect tensile fatigue test was conducted at three different stress levels (200, 300, and 400 kPa). Experimental results indicate that CRM-reinforced SMA mixtures exhibit significantly higher fatigue life compared to the mixtures without CRM. Further, higher correlation coefficient was obtained between the fatigue life and resilient modulus as compared to permanent strain; thus resilient modulus might be a more reliable indicator in evaluating the fatigue life of asphalt mixture.
Uncontrolled stormwater runoff not only creates drainage problems and flash floods but also presents a considerable threat to water quality and the environment. These problems can, to a large extent, be reduced by a type of stormwater management approach employing permeable pavement systems (PPS) in urban, industrial and commercial areas, where frequent problems are caused by intense undrained stormwater. PPS could be an efficient solution for sustainable drainage systems, and control water security as well as renewable energy in certain cases. Considerable research has been conducted on the function of PPS and their improvement to ensure sustainable drainage systems and water quality. This paper presents a review of the use of permeable pavement for different purposes. The paper focuses on drainage systems and stormwater runoff quality from roads, driveways, rooftops and parking lots. PPS are very effective for stormwater management and water reuse. Moreover, geotextiles provide additional facilities to reduce the pollutants from infiltrate runoff into the ground, creating a suitable environment for the biodegradation process. Furthermore, recently, ground source heat pumps and PPS have been found to be an excellent combination for sustainable renewable energy. In addition, this study has identified several gaps in the present state of knowledge on PPS and indicates some research needs for future consideration.
Matched MeSH terms: Construction Materials/analysis
Towers are important structures for installing radio equipment to emit electromagnetic waves that allow radio, television and/or mobile communications to function. Feasibility, cost, and speed of the construction are considered in the design process as well as providing stability and functionality for the communication tower. This study proposes the new design for construction of segmental tubular section communication tower with ultra-high-performance fibre concrete (UHPFC) material and prestress tendon to gain durability, ductility, and strength. The proposed mix design for UHPFC in this study which used for construction of communication tower is consisted of densified Silica Fume, Silica fine and coarse Sand and hooked-ends Steel Fiber. The prestressed tendon is used in the tower body to provide sufficient strength against the lateral load. The proposed design allows the tower to be built with three precast segments that are connected using bolts and nuts. This paper presents a novel method of construction and installation of the communication tower. The advantages of proposed design and construction process include rapid casting of the precast segment for the tower and efficient installation of segments in the project. The use of UHPFC material with high strength and prestress tendon can reduce the size and thickness of the tower as well as the cost of construction. Notably, this material can also facilitate the construction and installation procedure.
In light of concerns relating to improper waste disposal and resources preservation, reclamation of the discarded glass in construction materials had been extensively carried out since 1963. In the past decade, although more than 100 papers associated with the use of glass powder (GP) in the micron level scale were published, comprehensive review of all practical applications in cement-based materials and construction products is not available. This paper therefore provides a summary of the body of knowledge on the interaction and effects of using GP in cement-based and extended construction materials. This review concludes that GP is an innovative and promising eco-supplementary cementitious material. Beyond that, use of GP is demonstrated to be potentially beneficial as a precursor in geopolymer and suitable for manufacturing eco-cement, artificial lightweight aggregate and composite phase change material. The multiple applications of GP are seen as an important step towards waste glass recycling as a sustainable construction material and for the overall betterment of the industry.
Cement is a vital material used in the construction of concrete buildings. World annual cement demand is increasing rapidly along with the improvement in infrastructure development. However, cement manufacturing industries are facing challenges in reducing the environmental impacts of cement production. To resolve this issue, a suitable methodology is crucial to ensure the selected processes are effective and efficient and at the same time environmentally friendly. Different technologies and equipment have potential to produce variations in operational effectiveness, environmental impacts, and manufacturing costs in cement manufacturing industries. Therefore, this work aims to present the sustainability assessment of cement plants by taking into consideration of environmental, social, and economic impacts. Three cement production plants located in Western Indonesian are used as case studies where social impact and environmental impact are evaluated via life cycle assessment (LCA) model. This model is integrated with analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a multi-criteria decision analysis tool in selecting the most sustainable cement manufacturing plant.
Recently, the use of accelerated carbonation curing has attracted wide attention as a promising method to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and improve the mechanical properties of cement-based materials. However, the diffusion mechanism of CO2 in the matrix and the content of hydration products are the key factors that restrict the carbonation reaction rate. To understand the combined behavior of hydration and carbonation reactions, this paper investigates the influence of cement hydration induced by water-to-cement ratio (w/c) (ranging from 0.25 to 0.45) on microstructure and microhardness properties of cement paste. The experimental results demonstrated that carbonation only occurred at the surface layer of cement paste samples and carbonation efficiency was significantly influenced by greater hydration due to higher w/c. The carbonation depth of the sample with 0.45 w/c was about 6 times higher than that of sample with 0.25 w/c after 28 days of CO2 curing. XRD results revealed that calcite-type calcium carbonate is the main carbonation product and consumption of clinker phases (C2S and C3S) during the hydration enhanced the calcite precipitation in the pores of the surface layer. According to FTIR, with increasing w/c, the position of Si-O-Si stretching bond of the carbonated surface changed from Q2 to Q3, confirming the formation of amorphous silica-rich gel, along with the appearance of CO32- bonds related to calcite. In overall, the micro-mechanical analysis in this study showed that the carbonation significantly improved the surface microhardness of cement paste samples, while the refinement of capillary pores due to carbonation also decreased the negative impact of large pores formed in the matrix of cement paste prepared with high w/c.
This review summarizes the research on timber construction materials used in bridge construction. It focuses on the application of antiseptic treatments and the use of timber engineering materials in decks and bridges. This review also provides an overview on the future research and prospects of engineered timber materials.
The main component of most building materials in Malaysia is rocks. These rocks have been found to naturally contain U-238, Th-232 and K-40. In order to estimate the radiological impact to the dweller, the level of radionuclides present in various building materials available in Malaysia were analyzed using gamma spectrometry. The radiation hazard indexes were calculated based on the above results. The results showed that the activity concentration of natural radionuclides U-238, Th-232, K-40 were between 19.0 Bq/kg – 42.2 Bq/kg, 16.5 Bq/kg –28.8 Bq/kg and 243.3 Bq/kg – 614.2 Bq/kg respectively. On the whole the radionuclides concentrations were still below the global average of 50 Bq/kg, 50 Bq/kg and 500 Bq/kg for U-238, Th-232 and K-40 respectively. The radiation hazard indexes of the building materials were also lower than the maximum value suggested.
Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRS) borehole disposal is an innovative concept recommended by international atomic energy agency (IAEA) to improve the safety and security of the management end point for these sources. A green application of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) as a supplementary material for cementitious backfill barrier in DSRS borehole disposal facility is proposed. Samples with up to 50% POFA replacement complied with the mechanical and hydraulic performance requirements for backfill barriers in retrievable radioactive waste disposal facilities. The structures of one year old OPC and optimum OPC-POFA cement backfills were evaluated using FESEM, XRD, EDXRF, BET, and TGA and their 226 Ra confinement performances were assessed. 30% POFA replacement improved the geochemical conditions by reducing competitive Ca2+ release into the disposal environment. It enhanced 226Ra confinement performance independently on the amount of water intrusion or releases below 2% of 1 Ci source. The improved performance is attributed to the higher fraction of active sites of OPC-POFA backfill compared to that of OPC backfill. 226Ra sorption onto C-S-H is irreversible, spontaneous, endothermic, and independent on the degree of the surface filling. The provided experimental data and theoretical analysis proved the feasibility of this green use of POFA in reducing the radiological hazard of 226Ra.
This study aims to reduce radon gas emanations in the indoor environment by incorporating kenaf and oil palm nanocellulose that act as nano-fillers into building materials. Fabrication of composite brick was carried out according to the MS and ASTM standards. In this research, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 ml of nanocellulose were used to replace the usage of sand, stone and cement materials, respectively. Kenaf and oil palm nanocellulose were utilised to reduce the internal and surface porosity as well as to replace the radon resources (stone), which indirectly reduced radon gas emanation. Radon gas emanated from each composite brick was measured within 10 consecutive days in an airtight prototype Perspex room using Radon Monitor Sentinel 1030. A compression test was also carried out to investigate the physical strength of the fabricated composite bricks. The results showed that 40 ml of kenaf and oil palm nanocellulose was the optimum amount in reducing the radon concentration, where the radon readings were 1.4 and 0.93 pCi per l, respectively. Meanwhile, the brick with no nanocellulose exhibited the highest radon reading of 3.77 pCi per l. Moreover, the Young modulus for the composite brick of both kenaf and oil palm nanocellulose was 28.92 and 27.8 N per mm2 compared to the control brick, which was 27 N per mm2. The results proved that radon gas emanations were reduced by 62.86% for kenaf and 75.3% for oil palm by incorporating the organic nanocellulose, which has high potential towards a healthy indoor environment.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different species of oil palm shell (OPS) coarse aggregates on the properties of high strength lightweight concrete (HSLWC). Original and crushed OPS coarse aggregates of different species and age categories were investigated in this study. The research focused on two OPS species (dura and tenera), in which the coarse aggregates were taken from oil palm trees of the following age categories (3-5, 6-9, and 10-15 years old). The results showed that the workability and dry density of the oil palm shell concrete (OPSC) increase with an increase in age category of OPS species. The compressive strength of specimen CD3 increases significantly compared to specimen CT3 by 21.8%. The maximum achievable 28-day and 90-day compressive strength is 54 and 56 MPa, respectively, which is within the range for 10-15-year-old crushed dura OPS. The water absorption was determined to be within the range for good concrete for the different species of OPSC. In addition, the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) results showed that the OPS HSLWC attain good condition at the age of 3 days.
This paper presents a review of the properties of fresh concrete including workability, heat of hydration, setting time, bleeding, and reactivity by using mineral admixtures fly ash (FA), silica fume (SF), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), metakaolin (MK), and rice husk ash (RHA). Comparison of normal and high-strength concrete in which cement has been partially supplemented by mineral admixture has been considered. It has been concluded that mineral admixtures may be categorized into two groups: chemically active mineral admixtures and microfiller mineral admixtures. Chemically active mineral admixtures decrease workability and setting time of concrete but increase the heat of hydration and reactivity. On the other hand, microfiller mineral admixtures increase workability and setting time of concrete but decrease the heat of hydration and reactivity. In general, small particle size and higher specific surface area of mineral admixture are favourable to produce highly dense and impermeable concrete; however, they cause low workability and demand more water which may be offset by adding effective superplasticizer.
Matched MeSH terms: Construction Materials/analysis*
In this paper, we report the results of our investigation on the possibility of producing foam concrete by using a geopolymer system. Class C fly ash was mixed with an alkaline activator solution (a mixture of sodium silicate and NaOH), and foam was added to the geopolymeric mixture to produce lightweight concrete. The NaOH solution was prepared by dilute NaOH pellets with distilled water. The reactives were mixed to produce a homogeneous mixture, which was placed into a 50 mm mold and cured at two different curing temperatures (60 °C and room temperature), for 24 hours. After the curing process, the strengths of the samples were tested on days 1, 7, and 28. The water absorption, porosity, chemical composition, microstructure, XRD and FTIR analyses were studied. The results showed that the sample which was cured at 60 °C (LW2) produced the maximum compressive strength for all tests, (11.03 MPa, 17.59 MPa, and 18.19 MPa) for days 1, 7, and 28, respectively. Also, the water absorption and porosity of LW2 were reduced by 6.78% and 1.22% after 28 days, respectively. The SEM showed that the LW2 sample had a denser matrix than LW1. This was because LW2 was heat cured, which caused the geopolymerization rate to increase, producing a denser matrix. However for LW1, microcracks were present on the surface, which reduced the compressive strength and increased water absorption and porosity.
This study reports the use of sewage sludge generated from sewage treatment plant (STP) as raw material in a clay brick-making process. The physico-chemical and mineralogical characterization of the sewage sludge and clay were carried out in order to identify the major technological constraints and to define the sludge pretreatment requirements if necessary. Moreover, the effects on processing conditions and/or on changes of typical final characteristics are also evaluated. Bricks were produced with sewage sludge additions ranging from 10 to 40% by dry weight. The texture and finishing of the surface of sludge-amended clay bricks were rather poor. As for the physical and chemical properties, bricks with a sludge content of up to 40 wt.% were capable of meeting the relevant technical standards. However, bricks with more than 30 wt.% sludge addition are not recommended for use since they are brittle and easily broken even when handled gently. A tendency for a general degradation of brick properties with sludge additions was observed due to its refractory nature. Therefore, sludge bricks of this nature are only suitable for use as common bricks, which are normally not exposed to view, because of poor surface finishing.
The production of cement releases an enormous amount of CO2 into the environment. Besides, industrial wastes like silica fume and fly ash need effective utilization to reduce their impacts on the environment. This research aims to explore the influence of silica fume (SF) and fly ash (FA) individually and combine them as binary cementitious material (BCM) on the hardened properties and embodied carbon of roller compacted concrete (RCC). A total of ten mixes were prepared with 1:2:4 mix ratio at the different water-cement ratios to keep the zero slump of roller compacted concrete. However, the replacement proportions for SF were 5%-15%, and FA were 5%-15% by the weight of cement individually and combine in roller compacted concrete for determining the hardened properties and embodied carbon. In this regard, several numbers of concrete specimens (cubes and cylinders) were cast and cured for 7 and 28 days correspondingly. It was observed that the compressive strength of RCC is boosted by 33.6 MPa and 30.6 MPa while using 10% of cement replaced with SF and FA individually at 28 days, respectively. Similarly, the splitting tensile strength of RCC is enhanced by 3.5 MPa at 10% cement replaced with SF and FA on 28 days, respectively. The compressive and splitting tensile strength of RCC is increased by 34.2 MPa and 3.8 MPa at SF7.5FA7.5 as BCM after 28 days consistently. In addition, the water absorption of RCC decreased while using SF and FA as cementitious material individually and together at 28 days. Besides, the embodied carbon of RCC decreased with increasing the replacement level of SF and FA by the mass of cement individually and combined.
The popularity of low cost, lightweight, and environmentally affable masonry unit in building industry carries the need to investigate more flexible and adaptable brick component as well as to retain the requirements confirmed in building standards. In this study, potential use of local materials used as lightweight building materials in solving the economic problems of housing has been investigated. Experimental studies on peat added bricks have been carried out. It demonstrates the physicomechanical properties of bricks and investigates the influence of peat, sand, and cement solid bricks to the role of various types of constructional applications. The achieved compressive strength, spitting strength, flexural strength, unit weight, and ultrasonic pulse velocity are significantly reduced and the water absorption is increased with percentage wise replacement of peat as aggregate in the samples. The maximum 20% of (% mass) peat content meets the requirements of relevant well-known international standards. The experimental values illustrate that, the 44% volumetric replacement with peat did not exhibit any sudden brittle fracture even beyond the ultimate loads and a comparatively smooth surface is found. The application of peat as efficient brick substance shows a potential to be used for wall and a viable solution in the economic buildings design.
The main objective of this paper is to investigate the relations of rubber size, rubber content, and binder content in determination of optimum binder content for open graded friction course (OGFC). Mix gradation type B as specified in Specification for Porous Asphalt produced by the Road Engineering Association of Malaysia (REAM) was used in this study. Marshall specimens were prepared with four different sizes of rubber, namely, 20 mesh size [0.841 mm], 40 mesh [0.42 mm], 80 mesh [0.177 mm], and 100 mesh [0.149 mm] with different concentrations of rubberised bitumen (4%, 8%, and 12%) and different percentages of binder content (4%-7%). The appropriate optimum binder content is then selected according to the results of the air voids, binder draindown, and abrasion loss test. Test results found that crumb rubber particle size can affect the optimum binder content for OGFC.
The disposal and littering of cigarette butts (CBs) is a serious environmental problem. Trillions of cigarettes are produced every year worldwide, resulting in millions of tonnes of toxic waste being dumped into the environment in the form of cigarette butts. As CBs have poor biodegradability, it can take many years for them to break down. This paper reviews and presents some of the results of a study on the recycling of CBs into fired clay bricks. Bricks with 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% CB content by weight were manufactured and tested, and then compared against control clay bricks with 0% CB content. The results showed that the dry density decreased by up to 30% and the compressive strength decreased by 88% in bricks with 10% CBs. The calculated compressive strength of bricks with 1% CBs was determined to be 19.53Mpa. To investigate the effect of mixing time, bricks with 7.5% CB content were manufactured with different mixing times of 5, 10, and 15min. To test the effect of heating time on the properties of CB bricks, the heating rate used during manufacturing was changed to 0.7, 2, 5, and 10°Cmin(-1). Bricks with 0% and 5% CB content were fired with these heating rates. Leachate tests were carried out for bricks with 0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% CB content. The emissions released during firing were tested for bricks with 0% and 5% CB content using heating rates of 0.7, 2, 5, and 10°Cmin(-1). The gases tested were carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), chlorine (Cl2), nitrogen oxide (NO), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Finally, estimations were made for the energy that could be saved by firing bricks incorporating CBs. Calculations showed that up to 58% of the firing energy could potentially be saved. Bricks were shown to be a viable solution for the disposal of CBs. They can reduce contamination caused by cigarette butts and provide a masonry construction material that can be either loadbearing or non-loadbearing, depending on the quantity of CBs incorporated. This paper proposes the use of bricks with 1% CB content throughout the brick-manufacturing industry. If bricks contained as little as 1% CB content, they would still provide a solution for the issue of CB recycling while maintaining properties very similar to those of a non-CB brick. Our calculations show that, theoretically, only 2.5% of the world's annual brick production is necessary to completely offset the worldwide, annual cigarette production.